Watershed

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Watershed

  • agricultural watershed
  • creek watershed
  • experimental watershed
  • forested watershed
  • lake watershed
  • other watershed
  • river watershed
  • small agricultural watershed
  • small watershed
  • study watershed
  • urban watershed

  • Terms modified by Watershed

  • watershed area
  • watershed attribute
  • watershed characteristic
  • watershed development
  • watershed hydrology
  • watershed level
  • watershed management
  • watershed model
  • watershed models
  • watershed scale

  • Selected Abstracts


    SNOWSHED CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NOOKSACK RIVER WATERSHED, NORTH CASCADES RANGE, WASHINGTON,

    GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 2 2002
    ANDREW BACH
    ABSTRACT. Meltwater contributes to watershed hydrology by increasing summer discharge, delaying the peak spring runoff, and decreasing variability in runoff. High-elevation snowshed meltwater, including glacier-derived input, provides an estimated 26.9 percent of summer streamflow (ranging annually from 16 to 40 percent) in the Nooksack River Basin above the town of Deming, Washington, in the North Cascades Range. The Nooksack is a major spawning river for salmon and once was important for commercial, recreational, and tribal fishing, and in the past its flow met the demands of both human and aquatic ecosystems. But the river is already legally overallocated, and demand is rising in response to the rapidly growing human population. Variability in snowshed contributions to the watershed is considerable but has increased from an average of 25.2 percent in the 1940s to an average of 30.8 percent in the 1990s. Overall stream discharge shows no significant increase, suggesting that the glaciers are melting, and/or precipitation levels (or other hydrologic factors) are decreasing at about the same rate. If glaciers continue to recede, they may disappear permanently from the Cascades. If that occurs, their summer contribution to surface-water supplies will cease, and water-management policies will need drastic revision. [source]


    COMPARISON OF PROCESS-BASED AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK APPROACHES FOR STREAMFLOW MODELING IN AN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHED,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 3 2006
    Puneet Srivastava
    ABSTRACT: The performance of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and artificial neural network (ANN) models in simulating hydrologic response was assessed in an agricultural watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania. All of the performance evaluation measures including Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E) and coefficient of determination (R2) suggest that the ANN monthly predictions were closer to the observed flows than the monthly predictions from the SWAT model. More specifically, monthly streamflow E and R2 were 0.54 and 0.57, respectively, for the SWAT model calibration period, and 0.71 and 0.75, respectively, for the ANN model training period. For the validation period, these values were ,0.17 and 0.34 for the SWAT and 0.43 and 0.45 for the ANN model. SWAT model performance was affected by snowmelt events during winter months and by the model's inability to adequately simulate base flows. Even though this and other studies using ANN models suggest that these models provide a viable alternative approach for hydrologic and water quality modeling, ANN models in their current form are not spatially distributed watershed modeling systems. However, considering the promising performance of the simple ANN model, this study suggests that the ANN approach warrants further development to explicitly address the spatial distribution of hydrologic/water quality processes within watersheds. [source]


    APPLICATION OF THE RHESSys MODEL TO A CALIFORNIA SEMIARID SHRUBLAND WATERSHED,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 3 2004
    Christina Tague
    ABSTRACT: Distributed hydrologic models which link seasonal streamflow and soil moisture patterns with spatial patterns of vegetation are important tools for understanding the sensitivity of Mediterranean type ecosystems to future climate and land use change. RHESSys (Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System) is a coupled spatially distributed hydroecological model that is designed to be able to represent these feedbacks between hydrologic and vegetation carbon and nutrient cycling processes. However, RHESSys has not previously been applied to semiarid shrubland watersheds. In this study, the hydrologic submodel of RHESSys is evaluated by comparing model predictions of monthly and annual streamflow to stream gage data and by comparing RHESSys behavior to that of another hydrologic model of similar complexity, MIKESHE, for a 34 km2 watershed near Santa Barbara, California. In model intercomparison, the differences in predictions of temporal patterns in streamflow, sensitivity of model predictions to calibration parameters and landscape representation, and differences in model estimates of soil moisture patterns are explored. Results from this study show that both models adequately predict seasonal patterns of streamflow response relative to observed data, but differ significantly in terms of estimates of soil moisture patterns and sensitivity of those patterns to the scale of landscape tessellation used to derive spatially distributed elements. This sensitivity has implications for implementing RHESSys as a tool to investigate interactions between hydrology and ecosystem processes. [source]


    MASS LOAD ESTIMATION ERRORS UTILIZING GRAB SAMPLING STRATEGIES IN A KARST WATERSHED,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 6 2003
    Alex W. Fogle
    ABSTRACT: Developing a mass load estimation method appropriate for a given stream and constituent is difficult due to inconsistencies in hydrologic and constituent characteristics. The difficulty may be increased in flashy flow conditions such as karst. Many projects undertaken are constrained by budget and manpower and do not have the luxury of sophisticated sampling strategies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine two grab sampling strategies with varying sampling intervals and determine the error in mass load estimates, and (2) determine the error that can be expected when a grab sample is collected at a time of day when the diurnal variation is most divergent from the daily mean. Results show grab sampling with continuous flow to be a viable data collection method for estimating mass load in the study watershed. Comparing weekly, biweekly, and monthly grab sampling, monthly sampling produces the best results with this method. However, the time of day the sample is collected is important. Failure to account for diurnal variability when collecting a grab sample may produce unacceptable error in mass load estimates. The best time to collect a sample is when the diurnal cycle is nearest the daily mean. [source]


    HYDROLOGIC SIMULATION OF THE LITTLE WASHITA RIVER EXPERIMENTAL WATERSHED USING SWAT,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 2 2003
    Michael W. Van Liew
    ABSTRACT: Precipitation and streamflow data from three nested subwatersheds within the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) in southwestern Oklahoma were used to evaluate the capabilities of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict streamflow under varying climatic conditions. Eight years of precipitation and streamflow data were used to calibrate parameters in the model, and 15 years of data were used for model validation. SWAT was calibrated on the smallest and largest sub-watersheds for a wetter than average period of record. The model was then validated on a third subwatershed for a range in climatic conditions that included dry, average, and wet periods. Calibration of the model involved a multistep approach. A preliminary calibration was conducted to estimate model parameters so that measured versus simulated yearly and monthly runoff were in agreement for the respective calibration periods. Model parameters were then fine tuned based on a visual inspection of daily hydrographs and flow frequency curves. Calibration on a daily basis resulted in higher baseflows and lower peak runoff rates than were obtained in the preliminary calibration. Test results show that once the model was calibrated for wet climatic conditions, it did a good job in predicting streamflow responses over wet, average, and dry climatic conditions selected for model validation. Monthly coefficients of efficiencies were 0.65, 0.86, and 0.45 for the dry, average, and wet validation periods, respectively. Results of this investigation indicate that once calibrated, SWAT is capable of providing adequate simulations for hydrologic investigations related to the impact of climate variations on water resources of the LWREW. [source]


    CHANGES IN LAND USE/MANAGEMENT AND WATER QUALITY IN THE LONG CREEK WATERSHED,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 6 2002
    Daniel E. Line
    ABSTRACT: Surface water in the Long Creek watershed, located in western Piedmont region of North Carolina, was monitored from 1993 to 2001. The 8,190 ha watershed has undergone considerable land use and management changes during this period. Land use surveys have documented a 60 percent decrease in cropland area and a more than 200 percent increase in areas being developed into new homes. In addition, more than 200 conservation practices have been applied to the cropland and other agricultural land that remains in production. The water quality of Long Creek was monitored by collecting grab samples at four sites along Long Creek and continuously monitoring discharge at one site. The monitoring has documented a 70 percent reduction in median total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, with little reductions in nitrate and total Kjel-dahl nitrogen, or suspended sediment levels. Fecal coliform (FC) and streptococci (FS) levels declined significantly downstream as compared to upstream during the last four years of monitoring. This decrease was attributed to the implementation of waste management practices and livestock exclusion fencing on three dairy operations in the watershed. Annual rainfall and discharge increased steadily until peaking in the third year of the monitoring period and varied while generally decreasing during the last four years of the project. An array of observation, pollutant concentration, and hydrologic data provide considerable evidence to suggest that the implementation of BMPs in the watershed have significantly reduced phosphorus and bacteria levels in Long Creek. [source]


    PRECIPITATION CHANGES FROM 1956 TO 1996 ON THE WALNUT GULCH EXPERIMENTAL WATERSHED,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 1 2002
    Mary H. Nichols
    ABSTRACT: The climate of Southern Arizona is dominated by summer precipitation, which accounts for over 60 percent of the annual total. Summer and non-summer precipitation data from the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed are analyzed to identify trends in precipitation characteristics from 1956 to 1996. During this period, annual precipitation increased. The annual precipitation increase can be attributed to an increase in precipitation during non-summer months, and is paralleled by an increase in the proportion of annual precipitation contributed during non-summer months. This finding is consistent with previously reported increases in non-summer precipitation in the southwestern United States. Detailed event data were analyzed to provide insight into the characteristics of precipitation events during this time period. Precipitation event data were characterized based on the number of events, event precipitation amount, 30-minute event intensity, and event duration. The trend in non-summer precipitation appears to be a result of increased event frequency since the number of events increased during nonsummer months, although the average amount per event, average event intensity, and average event duration did not. During the summer "monsoon" season, the frequency of recorded precipitation events increased but the average precipitation amount per event decreased. Knowledge of precipitation trends and the characteristics of events that make up a precipitation time series is a critical first step in understanding and managing water resources in semiarid ecosystems. [source]


    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON WATER RESOURCES OF THE TSENGWEN CREEK WATERSHED IN TAIWAN,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 1 2001
    Ching-pin Tung
    ABSTRACT: This study presents a methodology to evaluate the vulnerability of water resources in the Tsengwen creek watershed, Taiwan. Tsengwen reservoir, located in the Tsengwen creek watershed, is a multipurpose reservoir with a primary function to supply water for the ChiaNan Irrigation District. A simulation procedure was developed to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the water resources system. The simulation procedure includes a streamflow model, a weather generation model, a sequent peak algorithm, and a risk assessment process. Three climate change scenarios were constructed based on the predictions of three General Circulation Models (CCCM, GFDL, and GISS). The impacts of climate change on streamflows were simulated, and, for each climate change scenario, the agricultural water demand was adjusted based on the change of potential evapotranspiration. Simulation results indicated that the climate change may increase the annual and seasonal streamflows in the Tsengwen creek watershed. The increase in streamflows during wet periods may result in serious flooding. In addition, despite the increase in streamflows, the risk of water deficit may still increase from between 4 and 7 percent to between 7 and 13 percent due to higher agricultural water demand. The simulation results suggest that the reservoir capacity may need to be expanded. In response to the climate change, four strategies are suggested: (1) strengthen flood mitigation measures, (2) enhance drought protection strategies, (3) develop new water resources technology, and (4) educate the public. [source]


    FLOW ANALYSIS OF LANDSLIDE DAMMED LAKE WATERSHEDS: A CASE STUDY1

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 6 2006
    Kwan Tun Lee
    Abstract: The Chi-Chi earthquake, which occurred on September 21, 1999, and had a magnitude of 7.3 on the Richter scale, resulted in an extensive landslide that blocked the Ching-Shui Creek in Taiwan, forming a large lake with a storage volume of 40 million m3. This paper describes an analytical procedure used to perform flow analysis of the Tsao-Ling watershed, which includes the new landslide dammed lake. In this study, a digital elevation model was applied to obtain the watershed geomorphic factors and stage-area storage function of the landslide dammed lake. Satellite images were used to identify the landslide area and the land cover change that occurred as a result of the earthquake. Two topography-based runoff models were applied for long term and short term streamflow analyses of the watershed because the watershed upstream of the landslide dam was ungauged. The simulated daily flow and storm runoff were verified using limited available measured data in the watershed, and good agreement was obtained. The proposed analytical procedure for flow analysis is considered promising for application to other landslide dammed lake watersheds. [source]


    GROUPWISE MODELING STUDY OF BACTERIALLY IMPAIRED WATERSHEDS IN TEXAS: CLUSTERING ANALYSIS,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 4 2006
    Sabu Paul
    ABSTRACT: Under the Clean Water Act (CWA) program, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) listed 110 stream segments in the year 2000 with pathogenic bacteria impairment. A study was conducted to evaluate the probable sources of pollution and characterize the watersheds associated with these impaired water bodies. The primary aim of the study was to group the water bodies into clusters having similar watershed characteristics and to examine the possibility of studying them as a group by choosing models for total maximum daily load (TMDL) development based on their characteristics. This approach will help to identify possible sources and determine appropriate models and hence reduce the number of required TMDL studies. This in turn will help in reducing the effort required to restore the health of the impaired water bodies in Texas. The main characteristics considered for the classification of water bodies were land use distribution within the watershed, density of stream network, average distance of land of a particular use to the closest stream, household population, density of on-site sewage facilities (OSSFs), bacterial loading from different types of farm animals and wildlife, and average climatic conditions. The climatic data and observed instream fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were analyzed to evaluate seasonal variability of instream water quality. The grouping of water bodies was carried out using the multivariate statistical techniques of factor analysis/principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis. The multivariate statistical analysis resulted in six clusters of water bodies. The main factors that differentiated the clusters were found to be bacterial contribution from farm animals and wildlife, density of OSSFs, density of households connected to public sewers, and land use distribution. [source]


    WATER QUALITY IN AGRICULTURAL, URBAN, AND MIXED LAND USE WATERSHEDS,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 6 2004
    Chris B. Coulter
    ABSTRACT: Water quality and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution are important issues in many areas of the world, including the Inner Bluegrass Region of Kentucky where urban development is changing formerly rural watersheds into urban and mixed use watersheds. In watersheds where land use is mixed, the relative contributions of NPS pollution from rural and urban land uses can be difficult to separate. To better understand NPS pollution sources in mixed use watersheds, surface water samples were taken at three sites that varied in land use to examine the effect of land use on water quality. Within the group of three watersheds, one was predominately agriculture (Agricultural), one was predominately urban (Urban), and a third had relatively equal representation of both types of land uses (Mixed). Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, pH, temperature, and streamflow were measured for one year. Comparisons are made among watersheds for concentration and fluxes of water quality parameters. Nitrate and orthophosphate concentrations were found to be significantly higher in the Agricultural watershed. Total suspended solids, turbidity, temperature, and pH, were found to be generally higher in the Urban and Mixed watersheds. No differences were found for streamflow (per unit area), total phosphorus, and ammonium concentrations among watersheds. Fluxes of orthophosphate were greater in the Agricultural watershed that in the Urban watershed while fluxes of TSS were greater in the Mixed watershed when compared to the Agricultural watershed. Fluxes of nitrate, ammonium, and total phosphorus did not vary among watersheds. It is apparent from the data that Agricultural land uses are generally a greater source of nutrients than the Urban land uses while Urban land uses are generally a greater source of suspended sediment. [source]


    PREDICTION OF STREAM TEMPERATURE IN FORESTED WATERSHEDS,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 1 2004
    V. Sridhar
    ABSTRACT: Removal of streamside vegetation changes the energy balance of a stream, and hence its temperature. A common approach to mitigating the effects of logging on stream temperature is to require establishment of buffer zones along stream corridors. A simple energy balance model is described for prediction of stream temperature in forested headwater watersheds that allows evaluation of the performance of such measures. The model is designed for application to "worst case" or maximum annual stream temperature, under low flow conditions with maximum annual solar radiation and air temperature. Low flows are estimated via a regional regression equation with independent variables readily accessible from GIS databases. Testing of the energy balance model was performed using field data for mostly forested basins on both the west and east slopes of the Cascade Mountains, and was then evaluated using the regional equations for low flow and observed maximum reach temperatures in three different east slope Cascades catchments. A series of sensitivity analyses showed that increasing the buffer width beyond 30 meters did not significantly decrease stream temperatures, and that other vegetation parameters such as leaf area index, average tree height, and to a lesser extent streamside vegetation buffer width, more strongly affected maximum stream temperatures. [source]


    REEXAMINING BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR IMPROVING WATER QUALITY IN URBAN WATERSHEDS,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 5 2003
    Stephen R. Pennington
    ABSTRACT: Municipalities will be implementing structural best management practices at increasing rates in their effort to comply with Phase II of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). However, there is evidence that structural best management practices (BMPs) by themselves may be insufficient to attain desired water quality standards. This paper reports on an analysis of the median removal efficiencies of structural BMPs and compares them to removal efficiencies estimated as being necessary to attain water quality standards in the Rouge River in Detroit, Michigan. Eight water quality parameters are reviewed using data collected from 1994 to 1999 in the Rouge River. Currently, five of the eight parameters in the Rouge River including bacteria, biochemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids (TSS) exceed the required water quality standards. The reported analysis of structural BMP efficiencies reveals that structural BMPs appear capable of reducing only some of the pollutants of concern to acceptable levels. [source]


    NATURAL RESTABILIZATION OF STREAM CHANNELS IN URBAN WATERSHEDS,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 6 2000
    Patricia C. Henshaw
    ABSTRACT: Stream channels are known to change their form as a result of watershed urbanization, but do they restabilize under subsequent conditions of constant urban land use? Streams in seven developed and developing watersheds (drainage areas 5,35 km2) in the Puget Sound lowlands were evaluated for their channel stability and degree of urbanization, using field and historical data. Protocols for determining channel stability by visual assessment, calculated bed mobility at bankfull flows, and resurveyed cross-sections were compared and yielded nearly identical results. We found that channel restabilization generally does occur within one or two decades of constant watershed land use, but it is not universal. When (or if) an individual stream will restabilize depends on specific hydrologic and geomorphic characteristics of the channel and its watershed; observed stability is not well predicted by simply the magnitude of urban development or the rate of ongoing land-use change. The tendency for channel restabilization suggests that management efforts focused primarily on maintaining stability, particularly in a still-urbanizing watershed, may not always be necessary. Yet physical stability alone is not a sufficient condition for a biologically healthy stream, and additional rehabilitation measures will almost certainly be required to restore biological conditions in urban systems. [source]


    IMPACT OF COAL SURFACE MINING AND RECLAMATION ON SUSPENDED SEDIMENT IN THREE OHIO WATERSHEDS,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 4 2000
    James V. Bonta
    ABSTRACT: Prior to PL95,87 little research had been conducted to determine the impacts of mining and reclamation practices on sediment concentrations and yields on a watershed scale. Furthermore, it was unknown whether sediment yield and other variables would return to undisturbed levels after reclamation. Therefore, three small watersheds, with differing lithologies and soils, were monitored for runoff and suspended sediment concentrations during three phases of watershed disturbances: undisturbed watershed condition, mining and reclamation disturbances, and post-reclaimed condition. Profound increases in suspended-sediment concentrations, load rates, and yields due to mining and reclamation activities, and subsequent drastic decreases after reclamation were documented. Even with increases in runoff potential, reductions in suspended-sediment concentrations and load rates to below or near undisturbed-watershed levels is possible by using the mulch-crimping technique and by removing diversions. Maximum concentrations and load rates occurred during times of active disturbances that exposed loose soil and spoil to high-intensity rains. Sediment concentrations remained elevated compared with the undisturbed watershed when diversions were not well maintained and overtopped, and when they were not removed for final reclamation. Diversions are useful for vegetation establishment, but should be maintained until they are removed for final reclamation after good vegetative cover is established. [source]


    NUTRIENTS DISCHARGED TO THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER FROM EASTERN IOWA WATERSHEDS, 1996.1997,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 1 2000
    Kent D. Becher
    ABSTRACT: The introduction of nutrients from chemical fertilizer, animal manure, wastewater, and atmospheric deposition to the eastern Iowa environment creates a large potential for nutrient transport in watersheds. Agriculture constitutes 93 percent of all land use in eastern Iowa. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, water samples were collected (typically monthly) from six small and six large watersheds in eastern Iowa between March 1996 and September 1997. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to determine land use and quantify inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus within the study area. Streamliow from the watersheds is to the Mississippi River. Chemical fertilizer and animal manure account for 92 percent of the estimated total nitrogen and 99.9 percent of the estimated total phosphorus input in the study area. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads for 1996 were estimated for nine of the 12 rivers and creeks using a minimum variance unbiased estimator model. A seasonal pattern of concentrations and loads was observed. The greatest concentrations and loads occur in the late spring to early summer in conjunction with row-crop fertilizer applications and spring nmoff and again in the late fall to early winter as vegetation goes into dormancy and additional fertilizer is applied to row-crop fields. The three largest rivers in eastern Iowa transported an estimated total of 79,000 metric tons of total nitrogen and 6,800 metric tons of total phosphorus to the Mississippi River in 1996. The estimated mass of total nitrogen and total phosphorus transported to the Mississippi River represents about 19 percent of all estimated nitrogen and 9 percent of all estimated phosphorus input to the study area. [source]


    Temporal coherence of two alpine lake basins of the Colorado Front Range, U.S.A.

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    J. I. L. L. S. Baron
    1. Knowledge of synchrony in trends is important to determining regional responses of lakes to disturbances such as atmospheric deposition and climate change. We explored the temporal coherence of physical and chemical characteristics of two series of mostly alpine lakes in nearby basins of the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Using year-to-year variation over a 10-year period, we asked whether lakes more similar in exposure to the atmosphere be-haved more similarly than those with greater influence of catchment or in-lake processes. 2. The Green Lakes Valley and Loch Vale Watershed are steeply incised basins with strong altitudinal gradients. There are glaciers at the heads of each catchment. The eight lakes studied are small, shallow and typically ice-covered for more than half the year. Snowmelt is the dominant hydrological event each year, flushing about 70% of the annual discharge from each lake between April and mid-July. The lakes do not thermally stratify during the period of open water. Data from these lakes included surface water temper-ature, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, silica, bicarbonate alkalinity and conductivity. 3. Coherence was estimated by Pearson's correlation coefficient between lake pairs for each of the different variables. Despite close geographical proximity, there was not a strong direct signal from climatic or atmospheric conditions across all lakes in the study. Individual lake characteristics overwhelmed regional responses. Temporal coherence was higher for lakes within each basin than between basins and was highest for nearest neighbours. 4. Among the Green Lakes, conductivity, alkalinity and temperature were temporally coherent, suggesting that these lakes were sensitive to climate fluctuations. Water tem-perature is indicative of air temperature, and conductivity and alkalinity concentrations are indicative of dilution from the amount of precipitation flushed through by snowmelt. 5. In Loch Vale, calcium, conductivity, nitrate, sulphate and alkalinity were temporally coherent, while silica and temperature were not. This suggests that external influences are attenuated by internal catchment and lake processes in Loch Vale lakes. Calcium and sulphate are primarily weathering products, but sulphate derives both from deposition and from mineral weathering. Different proportions of snowmelt versus groundwater in different years could influence summer lake concentrations. Nitrate is elevated in lake waters from atmospheric deposition, but the internal dynamics of nitrate and silica may be controlled by lake food webs. Temperature is attenuated by inconsistently different climates across altitude and glacial meltwaters. 6. It appears that, while the lakes in the two basins are topographically close, geologically and morphologically similar, and often connected by streams, only some attributes are temporally coherent. Catchment and in-lake processes influenced temporal patterns, especially for temperature, alkalinity and silica. Montane lakes with high altitudinal gradients may be particularly prone to local controls compared to systems where coherence is more obvious. [source]


    Ground Water Flow Analysis of a Mid-Atlantic Outer Coastal Plain Watershed, Virginia, U.S.A.

    GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2002
    Michael A. Robinson
    Models for ground water flow (MODFLOW) and particle tracking (MODPATH) were used to determine ground water flow patterns, principal ground water discharge and recharge zones, and estimates of ground water travel times in an unconfined ground water system of an outer coastal plain watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. By coupling recharge and discharge zones within the watershed, flowpath analysis can provide a method to locate and implement specific management strategies within a watershed to reduce ground water nitrogen loading to surface water. A monitoring well network was installed in Eyreville Creek watershed, a first-order creek, to determine hydraulic conductivities and spatial and temporal variations in hydraulic heads for use in model calibration. Ground water flow patterns indicated the convergence of flow along the four surface water features of the watershed; primary discharge areas were in the noontide portions of the watershed. Ground water recharge zones corresponded to the surface water features with minimal development of a regional ground water system. Predicted ground water velocities varied between < 0.01 to 0.24 m/day, with elevated values associated with discharge areas and areas of convergence along surface water features. Some ground water residence times exceeded 100 years, although average residence times ranged between 16 and 21 years; approximately 95% of the ground water resource would reflect land use activities within the last 50 years. [source]


    The effect of riparian land use on transport hydraulics in agricultural headwater streams located in northeast Ohio, USA

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 1 2010
    Kyle S. Herrman
    Abstract This study examined if riparian land use (forested vs agricultural) affects hydraulic transport in headwater streams located in an agriculturally fragmented watershed. We identified paired 50-m reaches (one reach in agricultural land use and the other in forested land use) along three headwater streams in the Upper Sugar Creek Watershed in northeast Ohio, USA (40 51,42,N, 81 50,29,W). Using breakthrough curves obtained by Rhodamine WT slug injections and the one-dimensional transport with inflow and storage model (OTIS), hydraulic transport parameters were obtained for each reach on six different occasions (n = 36). Relative transient storage (AS:A) was similar between both reach types (As: A = 03 01 for both agricultural and forested reaches). Comparing values of Fmed200 to those in the literature indicates that the effect of transient storage was moderately high in the study streams in the Upper Sugar Creek Watershed. Examining travel times revealed that overall residence time (HRT) and residence time in transient storage (TSTO) were both longer in forested reaches (forested HRT = 191 115 min and TSTO = 40 38 min; agricultural HRT = 93 53 min and TSTO = 17 14 min). We concluded that the effect of transient storage on solute transport was similar between the forested and agricultural reaches but the forested reaches had a greater potential to retain solutes as a result of longer travel times. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Building channel networks for flat regions in digital elevation models

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 20 2009
    Hua Zhang
    Abstract Digital elevation models (DEMs) are data sources for distributed rainfall,runoff modelling in terms of providing the channel network for a watershed of interest. Assigning flow directions over flat regions is an important issue in the field of DEM processing and extraction of drainage features. Existing methods cannot fully incorporate the information of known drainage features and terrain surrounding the flat region. This study presented a hydrological correction method that integrates topographic information from different sources to interpolate a convergent surface. It employs radial basis function interpolation to determine elevation increment at every position, utilizes data of digital channel network, incorporates elevation in the surrounding terrain, and ensures a convergent channel network while minimizing the impact of correction on the original DEM. The method can be easily implemented in geographic information system (GIS) environment. It was applied to the DEM of the Heshui Watershed, China. The extracted channel network was visually inspected and quantitatively assessed through analysing the flow direction raster. Results showed that the channel network generated by the hydrological correction was consistent with the known drainage features and contained less parallel channels comparing with the results from two existing methods. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Delineating runoff processes and critical runoff source areas in a pasture hillslope of the Ozark Highlands

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 21 2008
    M. D. Leh
    Abstract The identification of runoff contributing areas would provide the ideal focal points for water quality monitoring and Best Management Practice (BMP) implementation. The objective of this study was to use a field-scale approach to delineate critical runoff source areas and to determine the runoff mechanisms in a pasture hillslope of the Ozark Highlands in the USA. Three adjacent hillslope plots located at the Savoy Experimental Watershed, north-west Arkansas, were bermed to isolate runoff. Each plot was equipped with paired subsurface saturation and surface runoff sensors, shallow groundwater wells, H-flumes and rain gauges to quantify runoff mechanisms and rainfall characteristics at continuous 5-minute intervals. The spatial extent of runoff source areas was determined by incorporating sensor data into a geographic information-based system and performing geostatistical computations (inverse distance weighting method). Results indicate that both infiltration excess runoff and saturation excess runoff mechanisms occur to varying extents (0,58% for infiltration excess and 0,26% for saturation excess) across the plots. Rainfall events that occurred 1,5 January 2005 are used to illustrate the spatial and temporal dynamics of the critical runoff source areas. The methodology presented can serve as a framework upon which critical runoff source areas can be identified and managed for water quality protection in other watersheds. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Carbon isotope fractionation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) due to outgassing of carbon dioxide from a headwater stream

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 14 2008
    Daniel H. Doctor
    Abstract The stable isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (,13C-DIC) was investigated as a potential tracer of streamflow generation processes at the Sleepers River Research Watershed, Vermont, USA. Downstream sampling showed ,13C-DIC increased between 3,5, from the stream source to the outlet weir approximately 05 km downstream, concomitant with increasing pH and decreasing PCO2. An increase in ,13C-DIC of 24 01, per log unit decrease of excess PCO2 (stream PCO2 normalized to atmospheric PCO2) was observed from downstream transect data collected during snowmelt. Isotopic fractionation of DIC due to CO2 outgassing rather than exchange with atmospheric CO2 may be the primary cause of increased ,13C-DIC values downstream when PCO2 of surface freshwater exceeds twice the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Although CO2 outgassing caused a general increase in stream ,13C-DIC values, points of localized groundwater seepage into the stream were identified by decreases in ,13C-DIC and increases in DIC concentration of the stream water superimposed upon the general downstream trend. In addition, comparison between snowmelt, early spring and summer seasons showed that DIC is flushed from shallow groundwater flowpaths during snowmelt and is replaced by a greater proportion of DIC derived from soil CO2 during the early spring growing season. Thus, in spite of effects from CO2 outgassing, ,13C of DIC can be a useful indicator of groundwater additions to headwater streams and a tracer of carbon dynamics in catchments. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Estimation of mean residence times of subsurface waters using seasonal variation in deuterium excess in a small headwater catchment in Japan

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 3 2007
    Naoki Kabeya
    Abstract We measured deuterium excess (d = ,D , 8,18O) in throughfall, groundwater, soil water, spring water, and stream water for 3 years in a small headwater catchment (Matsuzawa, 068 ha) in the Kiryu Experimental Watershed in Japan. The d value represents a kinetic effect produced when water evaporates. The d value of the throughfall showed a sinusoidal change (amplitude: 69, relative to Vienna standard mean ocean water (V-SMOW)) derived from seasonal changes in the source of water vapour. The amplitude of this sinusoidal change was attenuated to 13,69, V-SMOW in soil water, groundwater, spring water, and stream water. It is thought that these attenuations derive from hydrodynamic transport processes in the subsurface and mixing processes at an outflow point (stream or spring) or a well. The mean residence time (MRT) of water was estimated from d value variations using an exponential-piston flow model and a dispersion model. MRTs for soil water were 0,5 months and were not necessarily proportional to the depth. This may imply the existence of bypass flow in the soil. Groundwater in the hillslope zone had short residence times, similar to those of the soil water. For groundwater in the saturated zone near the spring outflow point, the MRTs differed between shallow and deeper groundwater; shallow groundwater had a shorter residence time (5,8 months) than deeper groundwater (more than 9 months). The MRT of stream water (8,9 months) was between that of shallow groundwater near the spring and deeper groundwater near the spring. The seasonal variation in the d value of precipitation arises from changes in isotopic water vapour composition associated with seasonal activity of the Asian monsoon mechanism. The d value is probably an effective tracer for estimating the MRT of subsurface water not only in Japan, but also in other East Asian countries influenced by the Asian monsoon. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Appropriate vertical discretization of Richards' equation for two-dimensional watershed-scale modelling

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 1 2004
    Charles W. Downer
    Abstract A number of watershed-scale hydrological models include Richards' equation (RE) solutions, but the literature is sparse on information as to the appropriate application of RE at the watershed scale. In most published applications of RE in distributed watershed-scale hydrological modelling, coarse vertical resolutions are used to decrease the computational burden. Compared to point- or field-scale studies, application at the watershed scale is complicated by diverse runoff production mechanisms, groundwater effects on runoff production, runon phenomena and heterogeneous watershed characteristics. An essential element of the numerical solution of RE is that the solution converges as the spatial resolution increases. Spatial convergence studies can be used to identify the proper resolution that accurately describes the solution with maximum computational efficiency, when using physically realistic parameter values. In this study, spatial convergence studies are conducted using the two-dimensional, distributed-parameter, gridded surface subsurface hydrological analysis (GSSHA) model, which solves RE to simulate vadose zone fluxes. Tests to determine if the required discretization is strongly a function of dominant runoff production mechanism are conducted using data from two very different watersheds, the Hortonian Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed and the non-Hortonian Muddy Brook watershed. Total infiltration, stream flow and evapotranspiration for the entire simulation period are used to compute comparison statistics. The influences of upper and lower boundary conditions on the solution accuracy are also explored. Results indicate that to simulate hydrological fluxes accurately at both watersheds small vertical cell sizes, of the order of 1 cm, are required near the soil surface, but not throughout the soil column. The appropriate choice of approximations for calculating the near soil-surface unsaturated hydraulic conductivity can yield modest increases in the required cell size. Results for both watersheds are quite similar, even though the soils and runoff production mechanisms differ greatly between the two catchments. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Controls on old and new water contributions to stream flow at some nested catchments in Vermont, USA

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 3 2002
    James B. Shanley
    Abstract Factors controlling the partitioning of old and new water contributions to stream flow were investigated for three events in four catchments (three of which were nested) at Sleepers River Research Watershed in Danville, Vermont. In the 1993 snowmelt period, two-component isotopic hydrograph separations showed that new water (meltwater) inputs to the stream ranged widely from 41 to 74%, and increased with catchment size (41 to 11 125 ha) (with one exception) and with open land cover (0,73%). Peak dissolved organic carbon concentrations and relative alkalinity dilution in stream water ranked in the same order among catchments as the new water fractions, suggesting that new water followed shallow flow paths. During the 1994 snowmelt, despite similar timing and magnitude of melt inputs, the new-water contribution to stream flow ranged only from 30 to 36% in the four catchments. We conclude that the uncommonly high and variable new water fractions in streamwater during the 1993 melt were caused by direct runoff of meltwater over frozen ground, which was prevalent in open land areas during the 1993 winter. In a high-intensity summer rainstorm in 1993, new water fractions were smaller relative to the 1993 snowmelt, ranging from 28 to 46%, but they ranked in the identical catchment order. Reconciliation of the contrasting patterns of new,old water partitioning in the three events appears to require an explanation that invokes multiple processes and effects, including: 1.topographically controlled increase in surface-saturated area with increasing catchment size; 2.direct runoff over frozen ground; 3.low infiltration in agriculturally compacted soils; 4.differences in soil transmissivity, which may be more relevant under dry antecedent conditions. These data highlight some of the difficulties faced by catchment hydrologists in formulating a theory of runoff generation at varying basin scales. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Quantifying contributions to storm runoff through end-member mixing analysis and hydrologic measurements at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (Georgia, USA)

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 10 2001
    Douglas A. Burns
    Abstract The geographic sources and hydrologic flow paths of stormflow in small catchments are not well understood because of limitations in sampling methods and insufficient resolution of potential end members. To address these limitations, an extensive hydrologic dataset was collected at a 10 ha catchment at Panola Mountain Research Watershed near Atlanta, GA, to quantify the contribution of three geographic sources of stormflow. Samples of stream water, runoff from an outcrop, and hillslope subsurface stormflow were collected during two rainstorms in the winter of 1996, and an end-member mixing analysis model that included five solutes was developed. Runoff from the outcrop, which occupies about one-third of the catchment area, contributed 50,55% of the peak streamflow during the 2 February rainstorm, and 80,85% of the peak streamflow during the 6,7 March rainstorm; it also contributed about 50% to total streamflow during the dry winter conditions that preceded the 6,7 March storm. Riparian groundwater runoff was the largest component of stream runoff (80,100%) early during rising streamflow and throughout stream recession, and contributed about 50% to total stream runoff during the 2 February storm, which was preceded by wet winter conditions. Hillslope runoff contributed 25,30% to peak stream runoff and 15,18% to total stream runoff during both storms. The temporal response of the three runoff components showed general agreement with hydrologic measurements from the catchment during each storm. Estimates of recharge from the outcrop to the riparian aquifer that were independent of model calculations indicated that storage in the riparian aquifer could account for the volume of rain that fell on the outcrop but did not contribute to stream runoff. The results of this study generally indicate that improvements in the ability of mixing models to describe the hydrologic response accurately in forested catchments may depend on better identification, and detailed spatial and temporal characterization of the mobile waters from the principal hydrologic source areas that contribute to stream runoff. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Sensitivity of Stream flow and Water Table Depth to Potential Climatic Variability in a Coastal Forested Watershed,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 5 2010
    Zhaohua Dai
    Dai, Zhaohua, Carl C. Trettin, Changsheng Li, Devendra M. Amatya, Ge Sun, and Harbin Li, 2010. Sensitivity of Streamflow and Water Table Depth to Potential Climatic Variability in a Coastal Forested Watershed. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 1,13. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00474.x Abstract:, A physically based distributed hydrological model, MIKE SHE, was used to evaluate the effects of altered temperature and precipitation regimes on the streamflow and water table in a forested watershed on the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain. The model calibration and validation against both streamflow and water table depth showed that the MIKE SHE was applicable for predicting the streamflow and water table dynamics for this watershed with an acceptable model efficiency (E > 0.5 for daily streamflow and >0.75 for monthly streamflow). The simulation results from changing temperature and precipitation scenarios indicate that climate change influences both streamflow and water table in the forested watershed. Compared to current climate conditions, the annual average streamflow increased or decreased by 2.4% with one percentage increase or decrease in precipitation; a quadratic polynomial relationship between changes in water table depth (cm) and precipitation (%) was found. The annual average water table depth and annual average streamflow linearly decreased with an increase in temperature within the range of temperature change scenarios (0-6C). The simulation results from the potential climate change scenarios indicate that future climate change will substantially impact the hydrological regime of upland and wetland forests on the coastal plain with corresponding implications to altered ecosystem functions that are dependent on water. [source]


    Stream Condition in Piedmont Streams with Restored Riparian Buffers in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 3 2010
    Leslie L. Orzetti
    Orzetti, Leslie L., R. Christian Jones, and Robert F. Murphy, 2010. Stream Condition in Piedmont Streams with Restored Riparian Buffers in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 46(3):473-485. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2009.00414.x Abstract:, This study tested the efficacy of restored forest riparian buffers along streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed by examining habitat, selected water quality variables, and benthic macroinvertebrate community metrics in 30 streams with buffers ranging from zero to greater than 50 years of age. To assess water quality we measured in situ parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity) and laboratory-analyzed grab samples (soluble reactive phosphorus, total phosphorus, nitrate, ammonium, and total suspended solids). Habitat conditions were scored using the Environmental Protection Agency Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for high gradient streams. Benthic macroinvertebrates were quantified using pooled riffle/run kick samples. Results showed that habitat, water quality, and benthic macroinvertebrate metrics generally improved with age of restored buffer. Habitat scores appeared to stabilize between 10 and 15 years of age and were driven mostly by epifaunal substrate availability, sinuosity, embeddedness, and velocity depth regime. Benthic invertebrate taxa richness, percent Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera minus hydropsychids (%EPT minus H), % Ephemeroptera, and the Family Biotic Index were among the metrics which improved with age of buffer zone. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that forest riparian buffers enhance instream habitat, water quality, and resulting benthic macroinvertebrate communities with noticeable improvements occurring within 5-10 years postrestoration, leading to conditions approaching those of long established buffers within 10-15 years of restoration. [source]


    GIS-Based Predictive Models of Hillslope Runoff Generation Processes,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 4 2009
    Mansour D. Leh
    Abstract:, Successful nonpoint source pollution control using best management practice placement is a complex process that requires in-depth knowledge of the locations of runoff source areas in a watershed. Currently, very few simulation tools are capable of identifying critical runoff source areas on hillslopes and those available are not directly applicable under all runoff conditions. In this paper, a comparison of two geographic information system (GIS)-based approaches: a topographic index model and a likelihood indicator model is presented, in predicting likely locations of saturation excess and infiltration excess runoff source areas in a hillslope of the Savoy Experimental Watershed located in northwest Arkansas. Based on intensive data collected from a two-year field study, the spatial distributions of hydrologic variables were processed using GIS software to develop the models. The likelihood indicator model was used to produce probability surfaces that indicated the likelihood of location of both saturation and infiltration excess runoff mechanisms on the hillslope. Overall accuracies of the likelihood indicator model predictions varied between 81 and 87% for the infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff locations respectively. On the basis of accuracy of prediction, the likelihood indicator models were found to be superior (accuracy 81-87%) to the predications made by the topographic index model (accuracy 69.5%). By combining statistics with GIS, runoff source areas on a hillslope can be identified by incorporating easily determined hydrologic measurements (such as bulk density, porosity, slope, depth to bed rock, depth to water table) and could serve as a watershed management tool for identifying critical runoff source areas in locations where the topographic index or other similar methods do not provide reliable results. [source]


    Using SWAT to Model Streamflow in Two River Basins With Ground and Satellite Precipitation Data,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 1 2009
    Kenneth J. Tobin
    Abstract:, Both ground rain gauge and remotely sensed precipitation (Next Generation Weather Radar , NEXRAD Stage III) data have been used to support spatially distributed hydrological modeling. This study is unique in that it utilizes and compares the performance of National Weather Service (NWS) rain gauge, NEXRAD Stage III, and Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) 3B42 (Version 6) data for the hydrological modeling of the Middle Nueces River Watershed in South Texas and Middle Rio Grande Watershed in South Texas and northern Mexico. The hydrologic model chosen for this study is the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which is a comprehensive, physical-based tool that models watershed hydrology and water quality within stream reaches. Minor adjustments to selected model parameters were applied to make parameter values more realistic based on results from previous studies. In both watersheds, NEXRAD Stage III data yields results with low mass balance error between simulated and actual streamflow (13%) and high monthly Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients (NS > 0.60) for both calibration (July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2006) and validation (2007) periods. In the Middle Rio Grande Watershed NEXRAD Stage III data also yield robust daily results (time averaged over a three-day period) with NS values of (0.60-0.88). TRMM 3B42 data generate simulations for the Middle Rio Grande Watershed of variable qualtiy (MBE = +13 to ,16%; NS = 0.38-0.94; RMSE = 0.07-0.65), but greatly overestimates streamflow during the calibration period in the Middle Nueces Watershed. During the calibration period use of NWS rain gauge data does not generate acceptable simulations in both watersheds. Significantly, our study is the first to successfully demonstrate the utility of satellite-estimated precipitation (TRMM 3B42) in supporting hydrologic modeling with SWAT; thereby, potentially extending the realm (between 50N and 50S) where remotely sensed precipitation data can support hydrologic modeling outside of regions that have modern, ground-based radar networks (i.e., much of the third world). [source]