Water Years (water + year)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Tree Basal Growth Response to Flooding in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest in Central Ohio,

Christopher J. Anderson
Abstract:, Tree basal growth in response to flooding regime was evaluated at a 5.2-ha bottomland forest along the Olentangy River in central Ohio. Tree-ring analysis was used to develop a 14-year basal area increment (BAI) (cm2/year) series for 42 canopy trees (representing 10 species) throughout the bottomland. Mean annual BAI was evaluated relative to the frequency and duration of bankfull (>70 m3/s) and high-flood (>154 m3/s) river discharge for a given water year (October 1-September 30) and growing season (April 1-September 30). A significant polynomial relationship was detected between the number of days of high-flood river discharge over a combined two-year period (Year i + Year i , 1) and mean annual BAI. No significant relationships were detected when only the concurrent-year or previous-year flood regimes were considered or when growing season was considered. A similar relationship was detected when duration of high-flood discharge days and BAI were both evaluated in two-year increments (Year i + Year i , 1). Mean annual BAI was most influenced by boxelder (Acer negundo) which was the dominant species and exhibited strong agreement with the overall BAI series. In each case, the resulting parabolic curve of tree basal growth in response to flooding suggests an optimal number of flooding days, a response to perturbation consistent with the subsidy-stress model. Dendrochronology may be a useful tool for managers looking to restore environmental flows to regulated rivers. [source]


Roslyn A. Case
ABSTRACT: Information regarding long term hydrological variability is critical for the effective management of surface water resources. In the Canadian Prairie region, growing dependence on major river systems for irrigation and other consumptive uses has resulted in an increasing vulnerability to hydrological drought and growing interprovincial tension. This study presents the first dendrochronological records of streamflow for Canadian Prairie rivers. We present 1,113-year, 522-year, and 325-year reconstructions of total water year (October to September) streamflow for the North Saskatchewan, South Saskatchewan, and Saskatchewan Rivers, respectively. The reconstructions indicate relatively high flows during the 20th Century and provide evidence of past prolonged droughts. Low flows during the 1840s correspond with aridity that extended over much of the western United States. Similarly, an exceptional period of prolonged low flow conditions, approximately 900 A.D. to 1300 A.D., is coincident with evidence of sustained drought across central and western North America. The 16th Century megadrought of the western United States and Mexico, however, does not appear to have had a major impact on the Canadian rivers. The dendrohydrological records illustrate the risks involved if future water policy and infrastructure development in the Canadian Prairies are based solely on records of streamflow variability over the historical record. [source]

The sensitivity of annual grassland carbon cycling to the quantity and timing of rainfall

Abstract Global climate models predict significant changes to the rainfall regimes of the grassland biome, where C cycling is particularly sensitive to the amount and timing of precipitation. We explored the effects of both natural interannual rainfall variability and experimental rainfall additions on net C storage and loss in annual grasslands. Soil respiration and net primary productivity (NPP) were measured in treatment and control plots over four growing seasons (water years, or WYs) that varied in wet-season length and the quantity of rainfall. In treatment plots, we increased total rainfall by 50% above ambient levels and simulated one early- and one late-season storm. The early- and late-season rain events significantly increased soil respiration for 2,4 weeks after wetting, while augmentation of wet-season rainfall had no significant effect. Interannual variability in precipitation had large and significant effects on C cycling. We observed a significant positive relationship between annual rainfall and aboveground NPP across the study (P=0.01, r2=0.69). Changes in the seasonal timing of rainfall significantly affected soil respiration. Abundant rainfall late in the wet season in WY 2004, a year with average total rainfall, led to greater net ecosystem C losses due to a ,50% increase in soil respiration relative to other years. Our results suggest that C cycling in annual grasslands will be less sensitive to changes in rainfall quantity and more affected by altered seasonal timing of rainfall, with a longer or later wet season resulting in significant C losses from annual grasslands. [source]

Hydrology and water quality in two mountain basins of the northeastern US: assessing baseline conditions and effects of ski area development,,

Beverley Wemple
Abstract Mountain regions throughout the world face intense development pressures associated with recreational and tourism uses. Despite these pressures, much of the research on bio-geophysical impacts of humans in mountain regions has focused on the effects of natural resource extraction. This paper describes findings from the first 3 years of a study examining high elevation watershed processes in a region undergoing alpine resort development. Our study is designed as a paired-watershed experiment. The Ranch Brook watershed (9·6 km2) is a relatively pristine, forested watershed and serves as the undeveloped ,control' basin. West Branch (11·7 km2) encompasses an existing alpine ski resort, with approximately 17% of the basin occupied by ski trails and impervious surfaces, and an additional 7% slated for clearing and development. Here, we report results for water years 2001,2003 of streamflow and water quality dynamics for these watersheds. Precipitation increases significantly with elevation in the watersheds, and winter precipitation represents 36,46% of annual precipitation. Artificial snowmaking from water within West Branch watershed currently augments annual precipitation by only 3,4%. Water yield in the developed basin exceeded that in the control by 18,36%. Suspended sediment yield was more than two and a half times greater and fluxes of all major solutes were higher in the developed basin. Our study is the first to document the effects of existing ski area development on hydrology and water quality in the northeastern US and will serve as an important baseline for evaluating the effects of planned resort expansion activities in this area. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effects of the El Niño,southern oscillation on temperature, precipitation, snow water equivalent and resulting streamflow in the Upper Rio Grande river basin

Songweon Lee
Abstract Snowmelt runoff dominates streamflow in the Upper Rio Grande (URG) basin of New Mexico and Colorado. Annual variations in streamflow timing and volume at most stations in the region are strongly influenced by the El Niño,southern oscillation (ENSO) through its modulation of the seasonal cycles of temperature and precipitation, and hence on snow accumulation and melting. After removing long-term trends over the study period (water years 1952,99), the dependence of monthly temperature, precipitation, snow water equivalent (SWE) at snowcourse stations, and streamflow throughout the URG on ENSO was investigated using composite analyses of the detrended residuals and through dependence of the residuals on the Climate Prediction Center southern oscillation index during the preceding summer and fall. The climate of La Niña years was found to differ significantly from either El Niño or neutral years. Moreover, significant climatological ENSO-related effects are confined to certain months, predominantly at the beginning and end of the winter season. In particular, March of La Niña years is significantly warmer and drier than during either El Niño or neutral years, and November of El Niño years is significantly colder and wetter. Differences in temperature and precipitation lead to significant differences in SWE and streamflow in the URG between the three ENSO phases. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]