Water Withdrawals (water + withdrawal)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Design of a Low-Cost Bamboo Well

GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2009
S.K. Shakya
Bamboo wells are an economical alternative for water supply wells in developing countries. The design of the bamboo well described in this article was developed based on field tests. Following field experiments, the screen in the bamboo well was fabricated with seven 3-m-long bamboo strips, each 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick. The strips were bolted on 1-cm-wide mild steel rings spaced 30 cm along the length of the bamboo strips, with 9-cm-long galvanized iron pipe end pieces. Pipes used in the bamboo well were fabricated by wrapping polythene sheets on the bamboo screens. Excellent performance, low cost, and good service life justify the use of a bamboo well for ground water withdrawal in developing countries. [source]

Analytical Methods for Transient Flow to a Well in a Confined-Unconfined Aquifer

GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2008
Li-Tang Hu
Concurrent existence of confined and unconfined zones of an aquifer can arise owing to ground water withdrawal by pumping. Using Girinskii's potential function, Chen (1974, 1983) developed an approximate analytical solution to analyze transient ground water flow to a pumping well in an aquifer that changes from an initially confined system to a system with both unconfined and confined regimes. This article presents the details of the Chen model and then compares it with the analytical model developed by Moench and Prickett (1972) for the same problem. Hypothetical pumping test examples in which the aquifer undergoes conversion from confined to water table conditions are solved by the two analytical models and also a numerical model based on MODFLOW. Comparison of the results suggests that the solutions of the Chen model give better results than the Moench and Prickett model except when the radial distance is very large or aquifer thickness is large compared with drawdown. [source]

Ground Water Discharge and Nitrate Flux to the Gulf of Mexico

GROUND WATER, Issue 3 2004
Carolyn B. Dowling
Ground water samples (37 to 186 m depth) from Baldwin County, Alabama, are used to define the hydrogeology of Gulf coastal aquifers and calculate the subsurface discharge of nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico. The ground water flow and nitrate flux have been determined by linking ground water concentrations to 3H/3He and 4He age dates. The middle aquifer (A2) is an active flow system characterized by postnuclear tritium levels, moderate vertical velocities, and high nitrate concentrations. Ground water discharge could be an unaccounted source for nutrients in the coastal oceans. The aquifers annually discharge 1.1 ± 0.01 × 108 moles of nitrate to the Gulf of Mexico, or 50% and 0.8% of the annual contributions from the Mobile-Alabama River System and the Mississippi River System, respectively. In southern Baldwin County, south of Loxley, increasing reliance on ground water in the deeper A3 aquifer requires accurate estimates of safe ground water withdrawal. This aquifer, partially confined by Pliocene clay above and Pensacola Clay below, is tritium dead and contains elevated 4He concentrations with no nitrate and estimated ground water ages from 100 to 7000 years. The isotopic composition and concentration of natural gas diffusing from the Pensacola Clay into the A3 aquifer aids in defining the deep ground water discharge. The highest 4He and CH4 concentrations are found only in the deepest sample (Gulf State Park), indicating that ground water flow into the Gulf of Mexico suppresses the natural gas plume. Using the shape of the CH4 -He plume and the accumulation of 4He rate (2.2 ± 0.8 ,cc/kg/1000 years), we estimate the natural submarine discharge and the replenishment rate for the A3 aquifer. [source]

Soil moisture dynamics in an eastern Amazonian tropical forest

Rogério D. Bruno
Abstract We used frequency-domain reflectometry to make continuous, high-resolution measurements for 22 months of the soil moisture to a depth of 10 m in an Amazonian rain forest. We then used these data to determine how soil moisture varies on diel, seasonal and multi-year timescales, and to better understand the quantitative and mechanistic relationships between soil moisture and forest evapotranspiration. The mean annual precipitation at the site was over 1900 mm. The field capacity was approximately 0·53 m3 m,3 and was nearly uniform with soil depth. Soil moisture decreased at all levels during the dry season, with the minimum of 0·38 m3 m,3 at 3 m beneath the surface. The moisture in the upper 1 m showed a strong diel cycle with daytime depletion due to evapotranspiration. The moisture beneath 1 m declined during both day and night due to the combined effects of evapotranspiration, drainage and a nighttime upward movement of water. The depth of active water withdrawal changed markedly over the year. The upper 2 m of soil supplied ,56% of the water used for evapotranspiration in the wet season and ,28% of the water used in the dry season. The zone of active water withdrawal extended to a depth of at least 10 m. The day-to-day rates of moisture withdrawal from the upper 10 m of soil during rain-free periods agreed well with simultaneous measurements of whole-forest evapotranspiration made by the eddy covariance technique. The forest at the site was well adapted to the normal cycle of wet and dry seasons, and the dry season had only a small effect on the rates of land,atmosphere water vapour exchange. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effects of Water Use on Arsenic Release to Well Water in a Confined Aquifer

GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2004
Madeline B. Gotkowitz
Field-based experiments were designed to investigate the release of naturally occurring, low to moderate (< 50 ug/L) arsenic concentrations to well water in a confined sandstone aquifer in northeastern Wisconsin. Geologic, geochemical, and hydrogeologic data collected from a 115 m2 site demonstrate that arsenic concentrations in ground water are heterogeneous at the scale of the field site, and that the distribution of arsenic in ground water correlates to solid-phase arsenic in aquifer materials. Arsenic concentrations in a test well varied from 1.8 to 22 ug/L during experiments conducted under no, low, and high pumping rates. The quality of ground water consumed from wells under typical domestic water use patterns differs from that of ground water in the aquifer because of reactions that occur within the well. Redox conditions in the well can change rapidly in response to ground water withdrawals. The well borehole is an environment conducive to microbiological growth, and biogeochemical reactions also affect borehole chemistry. While oxidation of sulfide minerals appears to release arsenic to ground water in zones within the aquifer, reduction of arsenic-bearing iron (hydr)oxides is a likely mechanism of arsenic release to water having a long residence time in the well borehole. [source]

Relative Importance of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Anthropic Factors in the Geomorphic Zonation of the Trinity River, Texas,

Jonathan D. Phillips
Phillips, Jonathan D., 2010. Relative Importance of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Anthropic Factors in the Geomorphic Zonation of the Trinity River, Texas. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 46(4): 807-823. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00457.x Abstract:, The Trinity River, Texas, was characterized according to its geologic framework, valley width and confinement, slope, sinuosity, channel-floodplain connectivity, and flow regime, leading to the identification of 18 hinge points along the 638 km study area where major transitions in two or more criteria occur. These, and effects of human agency, avulsions, and sea level rise, delineate 21 river styles or zones. Each zone was evaluated with respect to dominant factors determining its geomorphological characteristics: geology/lithology, tectonics, Holocene sea level rise, meandering, cutoffs and other lateral channel changes, avulsions, valley constrictions by alluvial terraces, and paleomeander depressions. Direct human influences (a large impoundment and water withdrawals) are also evident. Entropy of the relationships between these controls and the geomorphological zones shows that all the controls are significant, and each accounts for 4-15% of the total entropy. Geologic controls, lateral channel changes, and constriction by terraces are the three most influential controls, illustrating that controls on river morphology include extrinsic boundary conditions, active process-form interrelationships, and inherited features. Extrinsic and intrinsic controls each account for about a third of the entropy, but the latter includes antecedent features as well as active channel dynamics, underscoring the importance of historical contingency even in alluvial rivers. [source]

Instream Flow Science For Sustainable River Management,

Geoffrey E Petts
Abstract:, Concerns for water resources have inspired research developments to determine the ecological effects of water withdrawals from rivers and flow regulation below dams, and to advance tools for determining the flows required to sustain healthy riverine ecosystems. This paper reviews the advances of this environmental flows science over the past 30 years since the introduction of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology. Its central component, Physical HABitat SIMulation, has had a global impact, internationalizing the e-flows agenda and promoting new science. A global imperative to set e-flows, including an emerging trend to set standards at the regional scale, has led to developments of hydrological and hydraulic approaches but expert judgment remains a critical element of the complex decision-making process around water allocations. It is widely accepted that river ecosystems are dependent upon the natural variability of flow (the flow regime) that is typical of each hydro-climatic region and upon the range of habitats found within each channel type within each region. But as the sophistication of physical (hydrological and hydraulic) models has advanced emerging biological evidence to support those assumptions has been limited. Empirical studies have been important to validate instream flow recommendations but they have not generated transferable relationships because of the complex nature of biological responses to hydrological change that must be evaluated over decadal time-scales. New models are needed to incorporate our evolving knowledge of climate cycles and morphological sequences of channel development but most importantly we need long-term research involving both physical scientists and biologists to develop new models of population dynamics that will advance the biological basis for 21st Century e-flow science. [source]

A Retrospective Look at the Water Resource Management Policies in Nassau County, Long Island, New York,

Daniel J. St. Germain
Abstract:, The residents of Nassau County Long Island, New York receive all of their potable drinking water from the Upper Glacial, Jameco/Magothy (Magothy), North Shore, and Lloyd aquifers. As the population of Nassau County grew from 1930 to 1970, the demand on the ground-water resources also grew. However, no one was looking at the potential impact of withdrawing up to 180 mgd (7.9 m3/s) by over 50 independent water purveyors. Some coastal community wells on the north and south shores of Nassau County were being impacted by saltwater intrusion. The New York State Legislature formed a commission to look into the water resources in 1972. The commission projected extensive population growth and a corresponding increase in pumping resulting in a projected 93.5 to 123 mgd (4.1 to 5.5 m3/s) deficit by 2000. In 1986, the New York Legislature passed legislation to strengthen the well permit program and also establish a moratorium on new withdrawals from the Lloyd aquifer to protect the coastal community's only remaining supply of drinking water. Over 30 years has passed since the New York Legislature made these population and pumping projections and it is time to take a look at the accuracy of the projections that led to the moratorium. United States Census data shows that the population of Nassau County did not increase but decreased from 1970 to 2000. Records show that pumping in Nassau County was relatively stable fluctuating between 170 and 200 mgd (7.5 to 8.8 m3/s) from 1970 to 2004, well below the projection of 242 to 321 mgd (10.6 to 14.1 m3/s). Therefore, the population and water demand never grew to projected values and the projected threat to the coastal communities has diminished. With a stable population and water demand, its time to take a fresh look at proactive ground-water resource management in Nassau County. One example of proactive ground-water management that is being considered in New Jersey where conditions are similar uses a ground-water flow model to balance ground water withdrawals, an interconnection model to match supply with demand using available interconnections, and a hydraulic model to balance flow in water mains. New Jersey also conducted an interconnection study to look into how systems with excess capacity could be used to balance withdrawals in stressed aquifer areas with withdrawals in unstressed areas. Using these proactive ground-water management tools, ground-water extraction could be balanced across Nassau County to mitigate potential impacts from saltwater intrusion and provide most water purveyors with a redundant supply that could be used during water emergencies. [source]

Water Use by Thermoelectric Power Plants in the United States,

Xiaoying Yang
Abstract:, Thermoelectric power generation is responsible for the largest annual volume of water withdrawals in the United States although it is only a distant third after irrigation and industrial sectors in consumptive use. The substantial water withdrawals by thermoelectric power plants can have significant impacts on local surface and ground water sources, especially in arid regions. However, there are few studies of the determinants of water use in thermoelectric generation. Analysis of thermoelectric water use data in existing steam thermoelectric power plants shows that there is wide variability in unitary thermoelectric water use (in cubic decimeters per 1 kWh) within and among different types of cooling systems. Multiple-regression models of unit thermoelectric water use were developed to identify significant determinants of unit thermoelectric water use. The high variability of unit usage rates indicates that there is a significant potential for water conservation in existing thermoelectric power plants. [source]


M.S. Bedinger
ABSTRACT: Devils Hole is a collapse depression connected to the regional carbonate aquifer of the Death Valley ground water flow system. Devils Hole pool is home to an endangered pupfish that was threatened when irrigation pumping in nearby Ash Meadows lowered the pool stage in the 1960s. Pumping at Ash Meadows ultimately ceased, and the stage recovered until 1988, when it began to decline, a trend that continued until at least 2004. Regional ground water pumping and changes in recharge are considered the principal potential stresses causing long term stage changes. A regression was found between pumpage and Devils Hole water levels. Though precipitation in distant mountain ranges is the source of recharge to the flow system, the stage of Devils Hole shows small change in stage from 1937 to 1963, a period during which ground water withdrawals were small and the major stress on stage would have been recharge. Multiple regression analyses, made by including the cumulative departure from normal precipitation with pumpage as independent variables, did not improve the regression. Drawdown at Devils Hole was calculated by the Theis Equation for nearby pumping centers to incorporate time delay and drawdown attenuation. The Theis drawdowns were used as surrogates for pumpage in multiple regression analyses. The model coefficient for the regression, R2= 0.982, indicated that changes in Devils Hole were largely due to effects of pumping at Ash Meadows, Amargosa Desert, and Army 1. [source]

A method to assess longitudinal riverine connectivity in tropical streams dominated by migratory biota,

Kelly E. Crook
Abstract 1.One way in which dams affect ecosystem function is by altering the distribution and abundance of aquatic species. 2.Previous studies indicate that migratory shrimps have significant effects on ecosystem processes in Puerto Rican streams, but are vulnerable to impediments to upstream or downstream passage, such as dams and associated water intakes where stream water is withdrawn for human water supplies. Ecological effects of dams and water withdrawals from streams depend on spatial context and temporal variability of flow in relation to the amount of water withdrawn. 3.This paper presents a conceptual model for estimating the probability that an individual shrimp is able to migrate from a stream's headwaters to the estuary as a larva, and then return to the headwaters as a juvenile, given a set of dams and water withdrawals in the stream network. The model is applied to flow and withdrawal data for a set of dams and water withdrawals in the Caribbean National Forest (CNF) in Puerto Rico. 4.The index of longitudinal riverine connectivity (ILRC), is used to classify 17 water intakes in streams draining the CNF as having low, moderate, or high connectivity in terms of shrimp migration in both directions. An in-depth comparison of two streams showed that the stream characterized by higher water withdrawal had low connectivity, even during wet periods. Severity of effects is illustrated by a drought year, where the most downstream intake caused 100% larval shrimp mortality 78% of the year. 5.The ranking system provided by the index can be used as a tool for conservation ecologists and water resource managers to evaluate the relative vulnerability of migratory biota in streams, across different scales (reach-network), to seasonally low flows and extended drought. This information can be used to help evaluate the environmental tradeoffs of future water withdrawals. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]