Water Use (water + use)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Water Use

  • efficient water use

  • Selected Abstracts

    Effects of Water Use on Arsenic Release to Well Water in a Confined Aquifer

    GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2004
    Madeline B. Gotkowitz
    Field-based experiments were designed to investigate the release of naturally occurring, low to moderate (< 50 ug/L) arsenic concentrations to well water in a confined sandstone aquifer in northeastern Wisconsin. Geologic, geochemical, and hydrogeologic data collected from a 115 m2 site demonstrate that arsenic concentrations in ground water are heterogeneous at the scale of the field site, and that the distribution of arsenic in ground water correlates to solid-phase arsenic in aquifer materials. Arsenic concentrations in a test well varied from 1.8 to 22 ug/L during experiments conducted under no, low, and high pumping rates. The quality of ground water consumed from wells under typical domestic water use patterns differs from that of ground water in the aquifer because of reactions that occur within the well. Redox conditions in the well can change rapidly in response to ground water withdrawals. The well borehole is an environment conducive to microbiological growth, and biogeochemical reactions also affect borehole chemistry. While oxidation of sulfide minerals appears to release arsenic to ground water in zones within the aquifer, reduction of arsenic-bearing iron (hydr)oxides is a likely mechanism of arsenic release to water having a long residence time in the well borehole. [source]

    Introduction to Water Use From Arctic Lakes: Identification, Impacts, and Decision Support,

    Paul K. Sibley
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar for Selecting Alaskan Lakes for Winter Water Use,

    D.M. White
    Abstract:, Water resources are limited in many areas of the North Slope, Alaska, particularly during winter. Water is used by the oil industry for ice road construction and maintenance, drilling and facility operations, and potable water supplies. The coastal plain between Teshekpuk Lake, in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A) and the Colville River has numerous shallow lakes, but further south in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, and east to the Canning River, lakes are fewer. While many oil and gas lease sales have been conducted, or are proposed, access to the leases may be limited because of the lack of available water for ice road construction. Ice roads are the main means by which exploration is conducted in the Arctic, putting a stress on freshwater bodies that do not freeze to the lakebed in winter. Lakes that do not freeze to the lakebed also serve as overwintering habitat for fish. The purpose of this paper is to report on the potential distribution of water bodies that may provide overwinter water in selected areas from Teshekpuk Lake to the Canning River. The project used synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to search for the presence of water in lakes in March 2006. In the Kuparuk and Canning SAR images, 52 and 61% of lakes were frozen to their beds by March 2006, accounting for 49 and 57% of the lake area in these study regions. Conversely, only 2% of the lakes in the Teshekpuk region were frozen to the bottom by March 2006. Unfrozen water was more available because of deeper and more numerous lakes in the Teshekpuk Lake region (west) than in the Canning River area (east). While only specific SAR tiles were analyzed herein, the method will be a useful tool for land managers who seek to evaluate the potential for ice road construction across the Arctic. [source]

    Water Use by Thermoelectric Power Plants in the United States,

    Xiaoying Yang
    Abstract:, Thermoelectric power generation is responsible for the largest annual volume of water withdrawals in the United States although it is only a distant third after irrigation and industrial sectors in consumptive use. The substantial water withdrawals by thermoelectric power plants can have significant impacts on local surface and ground water sources, especially in arid regions. However, there are few studies of the determinants of water use in thermoelectric generation. Analysis of thermoelectric water use data in existing steam thermoelectric power plants shows that there is wide variability in unitary thermoelectric water use (in cubic decimeters per 1 kWh) within and among different types of cooling systems. Multiple-regression models of unit thermoelectric water use were developed to identify significant determinants of unit thermoelectric water use. The high variability of unit usage rates indicates that there is a significant potential for water conservation in existing thermoelectric power plants. [source]

    The zone of vegetation influence on baseflow revealed by diel patterns of streamflow and vegetation water use in a headwater basin

    Barbara J. Bond
    Water use by vegetation can be closely linked to streamflow patterns on a variety of time scales. However, many of the details of these linkages are poorly understood. We compared diel (24 h) patterns of transpirational water use with streamflow patterns in a small headwater basin that displays a marked diel variation during summer months. The study site was in western Oregon. Our objectives were to: (1) determine the phase shift, i.e. the time lag between maximum transpiration and minimum streamflow, and the strength of the correlation at that time lag; (2) determine the amount of streamflow that is ,missing' during each diel cycle (i.e. the difference between base flow, defined by the daily maxima, and actual flow) and use it to estimate the zone, or area, of vegetation that influences daily streamflow patterns; (3) test and refine a conceptual model of how the coupling between vegetation water use and streamflow changes over the period of summer drought in this basin. We found that vegetation water use in the summer is coupled to streamflow over time scales of 4 to 8 h, and water-use-related fluctuations accounted for 1 to 6% of summer base flow. Direct evaporation from the channel was an order of magnitude less than the diel streamflow decrease. Transpiration within only 0·1 to 0·3% of the basin area accounted for the diel variation in streamflow. As the basin drained further through the summer, the coupling between vegetation and streamflow was diminished and occurred at longer time scales, and the zone of vegetation influence became smaller. This pattern is in accordance with our conceptual model, which attributes the summer decline in the strength of the vegetation,streamflow coupling to the increasing depth of plant-available water in the soil profile. Although this study is preliminary, we believe it is an important first step in describing better the coupling of vegetation water use to streamflow. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Urban and industrial water use in the Krishna Basin, India,

    Daniel J. Van Rooijen
    Bassin Krishna; utilisation urbaine de l'eau; utilisation industrielle de l'eau; modélisation Abstract Regional urbanization and industrial development require water that may put additional pressure on available water resources and threaten water quality in developing countries. In this study we use a combination of census statistics, case studies, and a simple model of demand growth to assess current and future urban and industrial water demand in the Krishna Basin in southern India. Water use in this "closed" basin is dominated by irrigation (61.9 billion cubic metres (BCM) yr,1) compared to a modest domestic and industrial water use (1.6 and 3.2 BCM yr,1). Total water diversion for non-irrigation purposes is estimated at 7,8% of available surface water in the basin in an average year. Thermal power plants use the majority of water used by industries (86% or 2.7 BCM yr,1), though only 6.8% of this is consumed via evaporation. Simple modelling of urban and industrial growth suggests that non-agricultural water demand will range from 10 to 20 BCM by 2030. This is 14,28% of basin water available surface water for an average year and 17,34% for a year with 75% dependable flow. Although water use in the Krishna Basin will continue to be dominated by agriculture, water stress, and the fraction of water supplies at risk of becoming polluted by urban and industrial activity, will become more severe in urbanized regions in dry years. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. L'urbanisation régionale et le développement industriel demandent de l'eau, ce qui peut augmenter la pression sur les ressources en eau disponibles dans les pays en développement. Dans cette étude nous utilisons une combinaison de données de recensement, des études de cas et un modèle simple de croissance de la demande pour évaluer la demande en eau urbaine et industrielle actuelle et future dans le bassin Krishna en Inde du sud. Les usages de l'eau dans ce bassin « fermé » sont dominés par l'irrigation (61.9 milliards de m3/an) alors que les usages domestiques et industriels sont modestes (1.6 et 3.2 milliards de m3/an). L'eau utilisée en dehors de l'irrigation est estimée à 7 ,8% de l'eau de surface disponible dans le bassin en année moyenne. Les centrales thermiques utilisent la plus grosse partie de l'eau allouée aux industries (86% ou 2.7 milliards de m3/an) bien que seulement 6.8% de cette quantité soit consommé par évaporation. Une modélisation simple de la croissance urbaine et industrielle suggère que la demande non-agricole d'eau variera de 10 à 20 milliards de m3/an d'ici à 2030. C'est 14,28% de l'eau de surface disponible du bassin en année moyenne et 17,34% de l'écoulement garanti à 75%. Bien que l'utilisation de l'eau dans le bassin Krishna continue à être dominée par l'agriculture, la tension sur l'eau peut devenir plus sévère en année sèche dans les régions urbanisées avec en outre le risque d'une pollution par l'activité urbaine et industrielle. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Water use and productivity of two small reservoir irrigation schemes in Ghana's upper east region,

    Joshua W. Faulkner
    irrigation; gestion des ressources en eau; développement international; petit réservoirs Abstract To examine the impact of small reservoir irrigation development in Africa, the performance and productivity of two small reservoirs and irrigation schemes in the Upper East Region of Ghana were investigated in this study. Hydrologic data measured included daily irrigation volumes and daily evaporation. Farmer cost inputs, excluding labor, and harvest data were also recorded. There was a strong contrast in water availability between the two systems, the Tanga system having a higher amount of available water than did the Weega system. The concept of relative water supply was used to confirm this disparity; Tanga was an inefficient system with a relative water supply of 5.7, compared to a value of 2.4 for the efficient Weega system. It was also concluded that the dissimilar water availabilities resulted in the evolution of very different irrigation methods and coincided with different management structures. Where there was more water available per unit land (Tanga), management was relaxed and the irrigation inefficient. Where there was less water available per unit land (Weega), management was well structured and irrigation efficient. The productivity of water (US$ m,3) of the Tanga system was half that of the Weega system, when analyzed at a high market price for crops grown. In terms of productivity of cultivated land (US$ ha,1), however, the Tanga system was 49% more productive than the Weega system. The difference in the productivity of land is primarily a result of increased farmer cash inputs in the Tanga system as compared to the Weega system. The difference in the productivity of water can be attributed to the varying irrigation methods and management structures, and ultimately to the contrasting water availability. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. L'impact du développement de petits réservoirs d'irrigation en Afriques est étudié en analysant la performance et le bénéfice économique de deux petits réservoirs avec de différents schèmes d'utilisation dans une région au nord-est du Ghana. Les données hydrologiques utilisées dans cette étude comprennent les volumes journaliers d'irrigation, ainsi que des mesures journaliers d'évaporation. En outre les coûts des investissements des agriculteurs ainsi que des données de récoltes ont été enregistrés. La quantité d'eau disponible était considérablement différente dans les deux systèmes: les ressources en eau du système de Tanga étaient nettement supérieures par rapport à celles du système de Weega. Le concept de l'approvisionnement relatif en eau a été utilisé pour démontrer cette disparité: Tanga avait un système inefficace avec un taux d'approvisionnement relatif en eau de 5.7 comparé à un taux de 2.4 du système efficace de Weega. Il a été conclu que les différences au niveau de la disponibilité d'eau sont à la base d'une évolution de méthodes et s'accordent avec de concepts de gestion d'irrigation très contrastés. Quand il y avait plus d'eau disponible par unité de surface (Tanga), la gestion était peu organisée et l'irrigation moins efficace. Par contre, quand les ressources en eau étaient limitées (Weega) la gestion était bien structurée et l'irrigation très efficace. En termes d'eau les agriculteurs de Tanga recevaient seulement la moitié du bénéfice économique des agriculteurs de Weega quand le prix du marché était élevé pour les produits récoltés. Par contre, en termes de surface cultivée, les agriculteurs de Tanga faisaient 49% plus de profit par rapport aux agriculteurs de Weega. La différence du bénéfice économique de la terre cultivé est principalement une conséquence des investissements élevés des agriculteurs dans le système de Tanga comparé au système de Weega. La différence du bénéfice économique de l'eau peut être attribuée aux variations des méthodes d'irrigation et des structures de gestion et donc finalement aux disponibilités en eau très contrastées. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Water use (and abuse) and its effects on the crater-lakes of Valle de Santiago, Mexico

    Javier Alcocer
    Abstract Most Mexicans live in the arid and semiarid regions that represent two-thirds of the Mexican territory, where water is scarce. Natural, as well as human, causes are favouring the degradation of Mexican lakes. There is a clear need to develop and implement sustainable water-use programmes at a catchment scale. However, the accelerated degradation rate of the Mexican lakes means that there will not be enough time to perform whole-basin evaluations to establish sustainable water-use programmes before the lakes dry up. The case of the Valle de Santiago crater-lakes clearly illustrates the declining trend that Mexican inland aquatic resources follow. Vegetation clearance, overgrazing, abatement of phreatic waters and salinization have induced severe erosion and overall desertification (land degradation) in the basin for what, it seems, a long time (i.e. prehispanic times). In this way, human activities could be provoking at least the following negative consequences: a hotter and drier local climate, water scarcity, dust storms and soil salinization. The aquatic (surface and groundwater) resources of the Valle de Santiago basin have been seriously threatened. Two of the four crater-lakes have already dried up and phreatic mantle abatement reaches up to 2.5 m per year. In spite of these facts, no sustainable water-use programme has been established yet. The future scenery of this Mexican basin looks alarmingly like many other basins in the central and northern Mexican territories. [source]

    Developmental shifts in watermelon growth and reproduction caused by the squash bug, Anasa tristis

    NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 2 2002
    Maciej Biernacki
    Summary ,,Compared with leaf-feeding herbivores, little is known about how sap-feeding herbivores affect plant growth, morphology and reproduction. This study examines effects of the sap-feeding squash bug ( Anasa tristis ) on watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) root, leaf and reproductive structures. ,,Plants at the four-leaf stage were exposed to different densities of caged squash bugs for 67 d (to plant maturity). ,,Initial effects were on roots. Herbivory was associated with a significant reduction in mean total root length, root surface area and number of root tips, as well as an increase in root diameters. Herbivore-exposed plants had significantly more leaves, although leaf lifespan was decreased. Both total plant dry mass and fruit dry mass per unit leaf area were significantly greater in controls. Significant effects of herbivores on plant reproductive traits included delayed flower formation (by 7,12 d), change in floral sex ratio (in favor of femaleness), increased fruit abortion, and smaller fruit size. ,,Developmental consequences were related to changes in plant water relations, including decreased water-use efficiency. Water use in treated plants was three to nine times greater per unit of plant dry mass than in controls. [source]

    Water use in the surgical scrub: isn't it time to stop using water at all?

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 12 2009
    FRACS, John E. Cunningham BSc, MB BS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Water use in the surgical scrub: surgeons can reduce their environmental footprint

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 12 2009
    David Mitchell MBBS, FRACS(Ortho)
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Water use in the surgical scrub: surgeons can reduce their environmental footprint

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 5 2009
    Evan E. Jones BAS (Physiotherapy) (Hons), MB BS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Soil water dynamics along a tree diversity gradient in a deciduous forest in Central Germany

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Inga Krämer
    Abstract This study aimed to investigate whether soil water dynamics differ along a tree species diversity gradient. The 12 study plots in the Hainich National Park, Germany, were composed of up to 11 tree species. Fagus sylvatica formed the monospecific plots. Mixed forest plots consisted of a variable admixture of other broad-leaved deciduous tree species such as Tilia spp., Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus betulus, and Acer pseudoplatanus. Volumetric soil water content and soil water potential were measured for about two and a half years. Overall patterns of soil water dynamics were similar in all study plots. However, during a desiccation period in summer 2006, significant correlations between soil water in the upper soil and tree species diversity of the 12 study plots were observed. At the beginning of this period, soil water was extracted at higher rates in the species-rich plots than in the beech-dominated plots. However, later during the desiccation period, when atmospheric evaporative demand was higher, only the beech-dominated stands were able to increase soil water extraction. In plots of high tree species diversity, soil water reserves were already low and soil water extraction reduced. Possible explanations for high water extraction rates in mixed species plots at the beginning of the desiccation period include species-specific characteristics such as high maximum water use rate of some species, enhanced exploitation of soil water resources in mixed stands (complementarity effect), and additional water use of the herb layer, which increased along the tree species diversity gradient. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Water use characteristics of cacao and Gliricidia trees in an agroforest in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Michael Köhler
    Abstract Water use characteristics of cacao (Theobroma cacao) and Gliricidia sepium shade trees were studied in an agroforest on Sulawesi, Indonesia. The objectives were: (1) to identify environmental and tree structural factors controlling water use, (2) to analyse the effect of shade tree cover on cacao water use and (3) to estimate stand level transpiration. Sap flux density was measured in up to 18 trees per species and described with a Jarvis-type model. Model parameters suggested a 49% higher maximum sap flux density in cacao than in Gliricidia and species differences in the response to vapour pressure deficit and radiation. Tree water use was positively related to tree diameter in both species, but this relationship tended to differ between species. In cacao trees maximal tree water use increased with decreasing canopy gap fraction above the trees (R2adj = 0·39, p = 0·04). This was paralleled by an increase of cacao stem diameter and leaf area with decreasing gap fraction. Maximum water use rate per unit crown area of cacao was 13% higher than that of Gliricidia. At the stand level the average transpiration rate was estimated at 1·5 mm day,1 per unit ground area, 70% of which was contributed to by cacao. We conclude that, in the given stand, species differed substantially in water use characteristics, while estimated stand transpiration is in line with findings from other studies for cacao stands. Shade trees may enhance stand transpiration through own water use and additionally by increasing water use rates of cacao trees. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Topographic controls on spatial patterns of conifer transpiration and net primary productivity under climate warming in mountain ecosystems

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    C. Tague
    Abstract The response of forests to a warmer climate depends upon the direct impacts of temperature on forest ecophysiology and indirect effects related to a range of biogeophysical processes. In alpine regions, reduced snow accumulation and earlier melt of seasonal snowpacks are expected hydrologic consequences of warming. For forests, this leads to earlier soil moisture recharge, and may increase summer drought stress. At the same time, increased air temperature alters plant net primary productivity. Most models of climate change impacts focus either on hydrologic behaviour or ecosystem structure or function. In this study we address the interactions between them. We use a coupled model of eco-hydrologic processes to estimate changes in evapotranspiration and vegetation productivity under temperature warming scenarios. Results from Yosemite National Park, in the California Sierra Nevada, suggest that for most snow-dominated elevations, the shift in the timing of recharge is likely to lead to declines in productivity and vegetation water use, even with increased water-use efficiency associated with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The strength of this effect, however, depends upon interactions between several factors that vary substantially across elevation gradients, including the initial timing of melt relative to the summer growing season, vegetation growth, and the extent to which initial vegetation is water-limited or temperature-limited. These climate-driven changes in vegetation water use also have important implications for summer streamflow. Results from this analysis provide a framework that can be used to develop strategic measurement campaigns and to extrapolate from local measurements of vegetation responses to watershed scale patterns. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ecohydrological controls on snowmelt partitioning in mixed-conifer sub-alpine forests

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Noah P. Molotch
    Abstract We used co-located observations of snow depth, soil temperature, and moisture and energy fluxes to monitor variability in snowmelt infiltration and vegetation water use at mixed-conifer sub-alpine forest sites in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico (3020 m) and on Niwot Ridge, Colorado (3050 m). At both sites, vegetation structure largely controlled the distribution of snow accumulation with 29% greater accumulation in open versus under-canopy locations. Snow ablation rates were diminished by 39% in under-canopy locations, indicating increases in vegetation density act to extend the duration of the snowmelt season. Similarly, differences in climate altered snow-season duration, snowmelt infiltration and evapotranspiration. Commencement of the growing season was coincident with melt-water input to the soil and lagged behind springtime increases in air temperature by 12 days on average, ranging from 2 to 33 days under warmer and colder conditions, respectively. Similarly, the timing of peak soil moisture was highly variable, lagging behind springtime increases in air temperature by 42 and 31 days on average at the Colorado and New Mexico sites, respectively. Latent heat flux and associated evaporative loss to the atmosphere was 28% greater for the year with earlier onset of snowmelt infiltration. Given the large and variable fraction of precipitation that was partitioned into water vapour loss, the combined effects of changes in vegetation structure, climate and associated changes to the timing and magnitude of snowmelt may have large effects on the partitioning of snowmelt into evapotranspiration, surface runoff and ground water recharge. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Vegetation of the river Yamuna floodplain in the Delhi stretch, with reference to hydrological characteristics

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Tanveera Tabasum
    Abstract Vegetation in the Delhi stretch of the floodplain of the river Yamuna was examined in relation to hydrological characteristics. The floodplain was delineated into four zones based on hydrological interventions. Seventy-four plant species including forty-two aquatic/semi-aquatic were identified. The decrease in water discharge from Jhangola to downstream Okhla, led to reduction in species richness. Co-structures between hydrological characteristics and vegetational composition indicated that vegetation in the four identified zones was governed essentially by hydrological factors. Zones I and III exhibited near-perfect correspondence signifying that variation in vegetational composition in these zones could be explained, to a great extent, on the basis of variations in the hydrological conditions. Zone II and IV, with relatively weaker correspondence, indicated that there were gradients other than hydrological conditions, which caused variations in vegetational characteristics. The present study highlighted the importance of allocation of water for periodic inundation to maintain floodplain characteristics including aquatic/semi-aquatic vegetation cover as critical to the management of the river ecosystem. The current policy of water use focused entirely on human uses ignoring ecological requirements, and had clear adverse implications on the health of the river ecosystem. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Wide-area estimates of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) evapotranspiration on the lower Colorado River measured by heat balance and remote sensing methods,,

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Pamela L. Nagler
    Abstract In many places along the lower Colorado River, saltcedar (Tamarix spp) has replaced the native shrubs and trees, including arrowweed, mesquite, cottonwood and willows. Some have advocated that by removing saltcedar, we could save water and create environments more favourable to these native species. To test these assumptions we compared sap flux measurements of water used by native species in contrast to saltcedar, and compared soil salinity, ground water depth and soil moisture across a gradient of 200,1500 m from the river's edge on a floodplain terrace at Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (CNWR). We found that the fraction of land covered (fc) with vegetation in 2005,2007 was similar to that occupied by native vegetation in 1938 using satellite-derived estimates and reprocessed aerial photographs scaled to comparable spatial resolutions (3,4 m). We converted fc to estimates of leaf area index (LAI) through point sampling and destructive analyses (r2 = 0·82). Saltcedar LAI averaged 2·54 with an fc of 0·80, and reached a maximum of 3·7 with an fc of 0·95. The ranges in fc and LAI are similar to those reported for native vegetation elsewhere and from the 1938 photographs over the study site. On-site measurements of water use and soil and aquifer properties confirmed that although saltcedar grows in areas where salinity has increased much better than native shrubs and trees, rates of transpiration are similar. Annual water use over CNWR was about 1·15 m year,1. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mechanisms of positive biodiversity,production relationships: insights provided by ,13C analysis in experimental Mediterranean grassland plots

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 5 2001
    Maria C. Caldeira
    We investigated the role of water use in a Mediterranean grassland, in which diversity was experimentally manipulated, and a positive relationship was observed between plant species richness and productivity. Soil moisture patterns and stable carbon isotope ratios (,13C) in leaves indicated greater water use by plants growing in species-rich mixtures compared to monocultures. These results suggest that complementarity or facilitation may be the mechanism responsible for the positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem processes. [source]


    Alexander Smajgl
    The Reef Water Quality Protection Plan defined a landmark in the political discussion on water use in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region. In order to develop a decision support tool that integrates market values and non-market values we combine Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modelling with multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) to integrate socio-economic, ecological and hydrological aspects of water use. In two scenarios the applied modelling approach of this paper is explained. [source]

    Environmental benchmarking for management of energy and water use: A study of SMEs in the Mediterranean region

    Aikaterini Makrinou
    First page of article [source]

    Species richness and susceptibility to heat and drought extremes in synthesized grassland ecosystems: compositional vs physiological effects

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2004
    Summary 1We investigated effects of declining plant species richness (S) on resistance to extremes in grassland communities. 2Synthesized model ecosystems of different S, grown outdoors in containers, were exposed to a stress peak combining heat and drought. The heat wave was induced experimentally by infrared irradiation in free air conditions. 3Before the heat wave, the more species-rich communities produced more biomass as a result of a large and positive complementarity effect that outweighed a small negative selection effect. 4Water use during the heat wave was likewise enhanced by S, which could not be attributed to dominance of ,water-wasting' species. Instead, water consumption at high S exceeded that expected from changes in community biomass and biomass composition. The observed enhancement of resource (water) acquisition under stress with increasing S therefore probably originated from complementarity. 5Despite enhanced water use in the more diverse communities, plant survival was significantly less, affecting all species alike. Physiological stress, recorded as photochemical efficiency of photosystem II electron transport, was significantly greater. Before the heat wave, the changes in biomass composition that coincided with increasing S did not favour species that would later prove intrinsically sensitive or insensitive. 6Complementarity in resource use for biomass production had a cost in terms of reduced survival under stress, despite the likelihood of complementarity in water acquisition during exposure. The greater loss of individuals from the more diverse grasslands suggests enhanced risk of local extinction. [source]

    Effects of fire on surface carbon, energy and water vapour fluxes over campo sujo savanna in central Brazil

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
    A. J. B. Santos
    Summary 1Tower-based eddy covariance measurements were used to quantify the effect of fire on subsequent carbon dioxide fluxes and water and surface energy balance characteristics for campo sujo savanna located near Brasília in Central Brazil (15°56, S, 47°51, W). Campo sujo is a xeromorphic, open shrub savanna with very scattered but definitely visible shrubs and tree-like shrub elements. We studied two areas, one exposed to a prescribed fire late in the dry season, and a second that had not been burned for the previous 4 years. 2The fire on 22 September 1998 consumed an estimated 26 mol C m,2. Immediately after the fire, evapotranspiration rates decreased and the savanna became a stronger net source of CO2 to the atmosphere. This was attributed to the removal of the still slightly physiologically active grass layer and higher soil CO2 efflux rates as a consequence of elevated surface soil temperatures post-burning. 3On the commencement of the first rains in early October 1998, this situation was reversed, with the burned area rapidly becoming a stronger sink for CO2 and with higher evapotranspiration rates than a nearby unburned (control) area. This difference persisted throughout the wet season (until at least June 1999) and was attributable to greater physiological activity of the regrowing vegetation in the burned area. Early in the growing season, higher soil evaporation rates may also have contributed to faster water use by the previously burned area. 4Overall, we estimate an annual gross primary productivity for the burned area of 135 mol C m,2 year,1, with that for the unburned area being 106 mol C m,2 year,1. Estimated ecosystem respiration rates were more similar on an annual basis (96 and 82 mol C m,2 year,1 for the burned and unburned areas, respectively), giving rise to a substantially higher net ecosystem productivity for the previously burned area (38 vs 24 mol C m,2 year,1). 5Stimulation of photosynthetic activity in the rapid post-fire growth phase means that the negative effects of fire on the ecosystem carbon balance were more or less neutralized after only 12 months. [source]

    Defoliation alters water uptake by deep and shallow roots of Prosopis velutina (Velvet Mesquite)

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    K. A. Snyder
    Summary 1Prosopis velutina Woot. (Velvet Mesquite) at a site with limited groundwater availability derived a greater percentage of water from shallow soil at the onset of the summer rainy season than did trees at a site with greater availability of groundwater. Predawn leaf water potentials (,pd) were not a strong indicator of shallow water use for this species with roots in multiple soil layers. 2We experimentally defoliated P. velutina plants to determine if reduced-canopy photosynthesis would alter vertical patterns of root activity. After natural rain events, hydrogen isotope ratios of xylem sap indicated that defoliated P. velutina took up a greater percentage of its water from shallow soils than did undefoliated plants. 3Irrigation with deuterium-labelled water further demonstrated that undefoliated plants were able to use shallow soil water. Defoliation appeared to affect the ability of trees to use deep-water sources. 4Reduced carbon assimilation limited water uptake from deep soil layers. These data highlight that there are internal physiological controls on carbon allocation that may limit water uptake from different soil layers. During periods of high vapour pressure deficit or soil drought, when leaf gas exchange and carbon assimilation decline, this may create positive feedbacks where plants are unable to forage for deep water due to carbon limitations. [source]

    Strategy shifts in leaf physiology, structure and nutrient content between species of high- and low-rainfall and high- and low-nutrient habitats

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    I. J. Wright
    Summary 1,Relationships were examined among photosynthetic capacity (Amass and Aarea), foliar dark respiration rate (Rd-mass and Rd-area), stomatal conductance to water (Gs), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) across 79 perennial species occurring at four sites with contrasting rainfall levels and soil nutrients in eastern Australia. We hypothesized that the slope of log,log ,scaling' relationships between these traits would be positive and would not differ between sites, although slope elevations might shift between habitat types. 2,Amass, Rd-mass, SLA, Nmass and Pmass were positively associated in common slopes fitted across sites or rainfall zones, although rather weakly within individual sites in some cases. The relationships between Amass (and Rd-mass) with each of Nmass and SLA were partially independent of each other, with Amass (or Rd-mass) increasing with SLA at a given Nmass, or with Nmass at a given SLA (only weakly in the case of Amass). These results improve the quantification and extend the generalization of reported patterns to floras largely unlike those studied previously, with the additional contribution of including phosphorus data. 3,Species from drier sites differed in several important respects. They had (i) higher leaf N and P (per dry mass or area); (ii) lower photosynthetic capacity at a given leaf N or P; (iii) higher Rd-mass at a given SLA or Amass; and (iv) lower Gs at a given Aarea (implying lower internal CO2 concentration). 4,These trends can be interpreted as part of a previously undocumented water conservation strategy in species from dry habitats. By investing heavily in photosynthetic enzymes, a larger drawdown of internal CO2 concentration is achieved, and a given photosynthetic rate is possible at a lower stomatal conductance. Transpirational water use is similar, however, due to the lower-humidity air in dry sites. The benefit of the strategy is that dry-site species reduce water loss at a given Aarea, down to levels similar to wet-site species, despite occurring in lower-humidity environments. The cost of high leaf N is reflected in higher dark respiration rates and, presumably, additional costs incurred by N acquisition and increased herbivory risk. [source]

    Gender, light and water effects in carbon isotope discrimination, and growth rates in the dioecious tree Ilex aquifolium

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
    R. Retuerto
    Abstract 1.,Detailed understanding of the specific physiology of sexes in dioecious species is required to explain patterns in gender dimorphism. Under controlled-environment conditions we tested the hypothesis that sexes of the dioecious tree holly Ilex aquifolium L. (Aquifoliaceae) differed in growth and long-term potential water-use efficiency, as measured by carbon isotope discrimination (,13C), and that these differences were dependent on the environmental context. 2.,Patterns of response in ,13C to the various combinations of light and water were gender-specific. Under more xeric conditions, females maintained significantly higher ,13C than males. 3.,Female plants exhibited significantly greater relative diameter growth rates than male plants. 4.,As expected, ,13C significantly increased with decreasing irradiance, and decreased with increasing limitation in water supply. Light and water effects were not independent, with a more pronounced drought effect in decreasing leaf ,13C under unshaded than under shaded conditions. 5.,Our results suggest that between-sex differences in physiology are context-dependent. Future studies attempting to assess gender dimorphism should take more account of gender-specific interactions with the environment. Gender-specific efficiency in water use could play a decisive role in explaining gender differences in growth and ecological interactions. [source]

    Leaf-level resource use for evergreen and deciduous conifers along a resource availability gradient

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    B. D. Kloeppel
    Abstract 1.,We compared leaf-level carbon, nitrogen and water use for a deciduous (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) and sympatric evergreen (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Beissn., Franco, or Pinus contorta Engelm.) conifer along a resource availability gradient spanning the natural range of L. occidentalis in western Montana, USA. 2.,We hypothesized that leaf photosynthesis (A), respiration (r), specific leaf area (SLA) and foliar nitrogen concentration (N) would be higher for deciduous than sympatric evergreen conifers in mixed stands, and that these interspecies differences would increase from high to low resource availability. We also hypothesized that leaf-level nitrogen and water-use efficiency would be higher for the co-occurring evergreen conifer than L. occidentalis. 3.,In general, mass-based photosynthesis (Am) was significantly higher for L. occidentalis than co-occurring evergreen conifers in the drier sites, but Am was similar for evergreen and deciduous conifers at the mesic site. 4.,Mass-based foliar nitrogen concentration (Nm) was positively correlated to SLA for all species combined across the gradient (R2 = 0·64), but the relationship was very weak (R2 = 0·08,0·34) for evergreen and deciduous species separately. Mass-based Am and rm were poorly correlated to Nm for all species combined across the gradient (R2 = 0·28 and 0·04, respectively). 5.,For each site-species combination, daily maximum Am was negatively correlated to vapour pressure deficit (VPD) (R2 = 0·36,0·59), but was poorly correlated to twig predawn water potential (R2 < 0·04). 6.,Instantaneous nitrogen-use efficiency (NUEi; Am divided by Nm) and water-use efficiency (,13C) increased significantly (P = 0·05) from high to low resource availability for both evergreen and deciduous conifers, except for NUEi in L. occidentalis. [source]


    Sheryl Luzzadder-Beach
    ABSTRACT. Chunchucmil, on the Yucatán Peninsula, was densely populated in the Maya Late Classic period (ca. a.d. 550,830), even though it depends principally on groundwater. In the 1990s, hydrologic investigations were conducted to determine whether groundwater could have met domestic and agricultural needs. The region's groundwater is near the surface and is influenced by sea-level fluctuations; however, geochemical analysis revealed that groundwater quality is not affected by mixing with seawater. The potential exists for high and spatially extensive nitrate contamination in this karstic area, yet water-quality analyses revealed only moderate levels of nitrate in the groundwater. Agricultural limitations are imposed by chloride, total dissolved solids, and salinity, as indicated by electrical conductivity; domestic water use is limited by the presence of nitrate, sulfate, and chloride. Throughflow in the ring of cenotes (sinkholes) around the Chicxulub impact crater may explain the movement and spatial distribution of water-quality constituents in Chunchucmil's groundwater. [source]

    Monsoon in the Americas: Opportunities and Challenges

    Thomas M. Rickenbach
    This article presents a comparative review of the North and South America Monsoon Systems and highlights the challenges and opportunities presented to those regions by the seasonal rains. Monsoon precipitation represents a major component of the water resources available to the southwestern US and to Brazil. Although each system shares classical features of the well-known southwest Indian monsoon, water use, agriculture, public safety, and energy policy in these two countries have been shaped by the unique regional complexities of monsoon rain across each region. A comparison between these two systems may offer perspective for ways by which these societies may adapt to current and future challenges, and take advantage of new opportunities. [source]

    Regional water resource implications of bioethanol production in the Southeastern United States

    Abstract The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 mandates US production of 136 billion L of biofuel by 2022. This target implies an appropriation of regional primary production for dedicated feedstocks at scales that may dramatically affect water supply, exacerbate existing water quality challenges, and force undesirable environmental resource trade offs. Using a comparative life cycle approach, we assess energy balances and water resource implications for four dedicated ethanol feedstocks , corn, sugarcane, sweet sorghum, and southern pine , in two southeastern states, Florida and Georgia, which are a presumed epicenter for future biofuel production. Net energy benefit ratios for ethanol and coproducts range were 1.26 for corn, 1.94 for sweet sorghum, 2.51 for sugarcane, and 2.97 for southern pine. Corn also has high nitrogen (N) and water demand (11.2 kg GJnet,1 and 188 m3 GJnet,1, respectively) compared with other feedstocks, making it a poor choice for regional ethanol production. Southern pine, in contrast, has relatively low N demand (0.4 kg GJnet,1) and negligible irrigation needs. However, it has comparatively low gross productivity, which results in large land area per unit ethanol production (208 m2 GJnet,1), and, by association, substantial indirect and incremental water use (51 m3 GJnet,1). Ultimately, all four feedstocks require substantial land (10.1, 3.1, 2.5, and 6.1 million ha for corn, sugarcane, sweet sorghum, and pine, respectively), annual N fertilization (3230, 574, 396, 109 million kg N) and annual total water (54 400, 20 840, 8840, and 14 970 million m3) resources when scaled up to meet EISA renewable fuel standards production goals. This production would, in turn, offset only 17.5% of regional gasoline consumption on a gross basis, and substantially less when evaluated on a net basis. Utilization of existing waste biomass sources may ameliorate these effects, but does not obviate the need for dedicated primary feedstock production. Careful scrutiny of environmental trade-offs is necessary before embracing aggressive ethanol production mandates. [source]