Water Surface (water + surface)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Laser-Induced Alignment of Self-Assembled Films of an Oligopeptide ,,Sheet on the Water Surface,

Atalia Birman
Ordnung durch Licht: Ein Peptid, das in Lösung durch Glu-Lys-Wechselwirkungen ein cyclisches ,-Strangdimer bildet, ergab beim Spreizen auf Wasser nach dem Verdunsten des Lösungsmittels eine selbstorganisierte ,-Faltblatt-Doppelschicht (siehe Schema). Wurde dabei fast linear polarisiertes Laserlicht eingestrahlt, entstand ein ausgerichteter kristalliner Film, circulare Polarisation dagegen bewirkte nichts. [source]

Magnetic-Field-Induced Locomotion of Glass Fibers on Water Surfaces: Towards the Understanding of How Much Force One Magnetic Nanoparticle Can Deliver

Feng Shi
The amount of force one magnetic nanoparticle (MNPs) can deliver is calculated using Fe3O4 MNPs building blocks to modify glass fibers. Our results demonstrate that one weight unit of Fe3O4 MNPs can eventually drag ,10,000 times its own weight on a water surface, a significant finding for the development of new magnetic delivery systems and micromanipulators. [source]

Spectrally based remote sensing of river bathymetry

Carl J. Legleiter
Abstract This paper evaluates the potential for remote mapping of river bathymetry by (1) examining the theoretical basis of a simple, ratio-based technique for retrieving depth information from passive optical image data; (2) performing radiative transfer simulations to quantify the effects of suspended sediment concentration, bottom reflectance, and water surface state; (3) assessing the accuracy of spectrally based depth retrieval under field conditions via ground-based reflectance measurements; and (4) producing bathymetric maps for a pair of gravel-bed rivers from hyperspectral image data. Consideration of the relative magnitudes of various radiance components allowed us to define the range of conditions under which spectrally based depth retrieval is appropriate: the remotely sensed signal must be dominated by bottom-reflected radiance. We developed a simple algorithm, called optimal band ratio analysis (OBRA), for identifying pairs of wavelengths for which this critical assumption is valid and which yield strong, linear relationships between an image-derived quantity X and flow depth d. OBRA of simulated spectra indicated that water column optical properties were accounted for by a shorter-wavelength numerator band sensitive to scattering by suspended sediment while depth information was provided by a longer-wavelength denominator band subject to strong absorption by pure water. Field spectra suggested that bottom reflectance was fairly homogeneous, isolating the effect of depth, and that radiance measured above the water surface was primarily reflected from the bottom, not the water column. OBRA of these data, 28% of which were collected during a period of high turbidity, yielded strong X versus d relations (R2 from 0·792 to 0·976), demonstrating that accurate depth retrieval is feasible under field conditions. Moreover, application of OBRA to hyperspectral image data resulted in spatially coherent, hydraulically reasonable bathymetric maps, though negative depth estimates occurred along channel margins where pixels were mixed. This study indicates that passive optical remote sensing could become a viable tool for measuring river bathymetry. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Techniques to measure the dry aeolian deposition of dust in arid and semi-arid landscapes: a comparative study in West Niger

Dirk Goossens
Abstract Seven techniques designed to measure the dry aeolian deposition of dust on a desert surface were tested during field experiments in Niger, central-west Africa. Deposition fluxes were measured during eight periods of 3,4 days each. Experimental techniques tested were the MDCO (marble dust collector) method, the Frisbee method, the glass plate method (optical analysis of dust deposited on glass surfaces using particle imaging software), the soil surface method (deposition on a simulated desert floor) and the CAPYR (capteur pyramidal) method. Theoretical techniques tested were the inferential method and the combination method (gradient method extended with a deposition term for coarse dust particles). The results obtained by the MDCO, Frisbee, inferential and combination methods could be directly compared by converting the data to identical standard conditions (deposition on a water surface producing no resuspension). The results obtained by the other methods (glass plate, soil surface, CAPYR) were compared relatively. The study shows that the crude (unconverted) deposition fluxes of the five experimental techniques were similar, while the crude deposition fluxes calculated by the two theoretical techniques were substantially higher, of the order of four to five times as high as for the experimental techniques. Recalculation of the data to identical environmental conditions (the standard water surface) resulted in nearly identical deposition fluxes for the MDCO, Frisbee, inferential and combination techniques, although the latter two still had slightly higher values (but the differences remained small). The measurements illustrate the need to include a grain shape factor in theoretical dust deposition models. Without such a factor, theoretical models overestimate the deposition. The paper also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques tested. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Assessing a numerical cellular braided-stream model with a physical model

Andrea B. Doeschl-Wilson
Abstract A. B. Murray and C. Paola (1994, Nature, vol. 371, pp. 54,57; 1997, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, vol. 22, pp. 1001,1025) proposed a cellular model for braided river dynamics as an exploratory device for investigating the conditions necessary for the occurrence of braiding. The model reproduces a number of the general morphological and dynamic features of braided rivers in a simplified form. Here we test the representation of braided channel morphodynamics in the Murray,Paola model against the known characteristics (mainly from a sequence of high resolution digital elevation models) of a physical model of a braided stream. The overall aim is to further the goals of the exploratory modelling approach by first investigating the capabilities and limitations of the existing model and then by proposing modifications and alternative approaches to modelling of the essential features of braiding. The model confirms the general inferences of Murray and Paola (1997) about model performance. However, the modelled evolution shows little resemblance to the real evolution of the small-scale laboratory river, although this depends to some extent on the coarseness of the grid used in the model relative to the scale of the topography. The model does not reproduce the bar-scale topography and dynamics even when the grid scale and amplitude of topography are adapted to be equivalent to the original Murray,Paola results. Strong dependence of the modelled processes on local bed slopes and the tendency for the model to adopt its own intrinsic scale, rather than adapt to the scale of the pre-existing topography, appear to be the main causes of the differences between numerical model results and the physical model morphology and dynamics. The model performance can be improved by modification of the model equations to more closely represent the water surface but as an exploratory approach hierarchical modelling promises greater success in overcoming the identified shortcomings. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Spatial patterns of water surface topography at a river confluence

Dr Pascale M. Biron
Abstract Understanding flow structures in river confluences has largely been the product of interpretations made from measured flow velocity data. Here, we turn the attention to the investigation of the patterns of both the average and standard deviations of the micro-topography of the water surface at an asymmetrical natural discordant confluence for different flow conditions. Water surface topography is measured using a total station to survey the position of a reflector mounted on a custom-built raft. To limit error problems related to changes in the water level, measurements are taken and analysed by cross-stream transects where five water surface profiles are taken before moving to the next transect. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flow dynamics at the field site are used to examine predicted water surface topography for a steady-state situation. The patterns are interpreted with respect to flow structure dynamics, visual observations of boils, and bed topography. Results indicate that coherent patterns emerge at the water surface of a discordant bed confluence for different flow conditions. The zone of stagnation and the mixing layer are characterized by super-elevation, a lateral tilt is present at the edge of the mixing layer, and a zone of super-elevation is present on the tributary side at the downstream junction corner. The latter seems associated with periodical upwelling and is not present in the numerical simulations that do not take into account instantaneous velocity fluctuations. Planform curvature, topographic steering related to the tributary mouth bar, and turbulent structures associated with the mixing layer all play a key role in the pattern of both the average and standard deviation of the water surface topography at confluences. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Fabrication and Characterization of Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Dynamic Stability

Xi Yao
Abstract Superhydrophobic surfaces of dynamic stability are crucial for applications in water-repellent materials. In this work, a hierarchical structure composed of a dendritic microporous surface with nanostructured porosity is demonstrated that shows robust superhydrophobicity with dynamic stability. The hierarchical structures are obtained on both copper foils and wires by a dynamic gas-bubble template-assisted electrochemical deposition method. The substrates can then be modified with alkyl thiols to obtain the surface superhydrophobicity. A new kind of testing, mechanical monitor-assisted continuous water surface strokes, is developed to reveal the dynamic stability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic copper wires. The as-prepared superhydrophobic copper wires can exert a high propulsive force, and particularly, show little adhesive force in the process of continuous strokes on the water surface, exhibiting robust superhydrophobicity with dynamic stability. The approach allows a strategy for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with dynamic stability, and suggests a new method to evaluate the dynamic stability of superhydrophobic surfaces. [source]

Influence of water flow velocity, water depth and colony distance on distribution and foraging patterns of terns in the Wadden Sea

Abstract Surface-feeding seabirds, such as Common (Sterna hirundo) and Arctic Terns (Sterna paradisaea) in the German Wadden Sea, are dependent on biological and physical processes that affect prey availability close to the water surface. We proposed the following four hypotheses: (i) relationships should exist between high water flow velocity and foraging activity of terns, as turbulence should enhance prey availability at the surface; (ii) the areas of highest foraging success should be located within areas of low water depth, due to enhanced biological productivity; (iii) as terns are known to have small foraging radii, the location of their breeding grounds should be related to the location of their foraging grounds; (iv) terns should forage intensely in river estuaries, as these should hold ample food supplies. The time between terns leaving the colony and their first foraging attempt differed significantly among different tidal stages: the time was shortest during flood and ebb tides (i.e., highest water flow velocities). Modelling of a long-term data set revealed the highest probability of foraging activity in conditions of high water currents, in both shallow areas and in areas of around 15,20 m depth. Foraging activity was negatively correlated with distance from colony. The distance to the closest estuary had no significant effect on foraging behaviour. Our findings emphasize the physical,biological coupling in the Wadden Sea and highlight the overall importance of small-scale physical processes in directly influencing prey availability for surface-feeding seabirds. [source]

The dispersal and deposition of hydrochorous plant seeds in drainage ditches

Summary 1. Surface water is an important dispersal vector for wetland plant species. However, most previous studies on hydrochory (i.e. water dispersal) have focused on ecosystems with relatively rapid water flow. Therefore, there is a need to study such dispersal in slow-flowing or stagnant waterbodies, such as drainage ditches, which might act as dispersal corridors between habitat patches. 2. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which seeds are transported in drainage ditches, the effect of the velocity of wind and water on the rate of transport of floating seeds of three wetland species (Carex pseudocyperus L., Iris pseudacorus L. and Sparganium erectum L.) was investigated. Furthermore, in release and retrace experiments with painted C. pseudocyperus seeds, a number of factors potentially determining the probability of seed deposition were investigated. 3. Net wind speed was found to be the main factor determining the rate at which seeds are transported in drainage ditches. No relation between water flow at middepth in the ditches and seed transport was found. Wind speed and flow at the water surface were positively related. The effect of wind speed on the rate of transport of floating seeds was greater for S. erectum seeds, because a greater ratio of their volume protrudes from the water, than for C. pseudocyperus and I. pseudacorus seeds. 4. The principal factors that determine seed deposition were aquatic plant cover, ditch slope and indentations in the ditch bank. Seeds changed direction if the wind direction changed, or if there was a bend in the ditch. The final pattern of deposition was related to mean net wind speed. Mean transport distance after 2 days varied between 34 and 451 m. 5. Unlike in rivers, seed transport in ditches was determined by wind speed and direction, enabling multidirectional seed dispersal. We conclude that in slow-flowing waters, wind is a more important driver for hydrochorous seed transport than the flow of water. This sheds a new light on hydrochory and has important consequences for the management of otherwise fragmented wetland remnants. [source]

To sink or float: the fate of dormant offspring is determined by maternal behaviour in Daphnia

Summary 1As the ephippia (chitinous shells enclosing diapausing eggs) of pelagic crustaceans of the genus Daphnia have been occasionally reported to float at the water surface, we considered that this might be an adaptation promoting their passive dispersal. We investigated the mechanisms by which ephippia appear at the water surface. 2While field surveys revealed that floating Daphnia ephippia are often numerous in various freshwater habitats, laboratory tests showed that newly formed ephippia are not buoyant initially. Once transferred to the surface by whatever means, however, they may remain there due either to surface tension or gas absorption. 3Video recordings showed that all ephippia at the water surface in laboratory vessels were shed there by ephippial females when moulting (despite the attendant risk of exposure to UV radiation). This implies that the moulting behaviour of female Daphnia may determine the fate of their dormant offspring, predetermining whether they remain in the natal environment (when the ephippium is released into the water column) or disperse (when it is deposited at the water surface). 4Our findings reveal a potential mechanism underlying the high dispersal capacity of freshwater cladocerans inhabiting island-like aquatic habitats. [source]

How can dragonflies discern bright and dark waters from a distance?

The degree of polarisation of reflected light as a possible cue for dragonfly habitat selection
SUMMARY 1.,Based on the findings that some dragonflies prefer either ,dark' or ,bright' water (as perceived by the human eye viewing downwards perpendicularly to the water surface), while others choose both types of water bodies in which to lay their eggs, the question arises: How can dragonflies distinguish a bright from a dark pond from far away, before they get sufficiently close to see it is bright or dark? 2.,Our hypothesis is that certain dragonfly species may select their preferred breeding sites from a distance on the basis of the polarisation of reflected light. Is it that waters viewed from a distance can be classified on the basis of the polarisation of reflected light? 3.,Therefore we measured, at an angle of view of 20° from the horizontal, the reflection-polarisation characteristics of several ponds differing in brightness and in their dragonfly fauna. 4.,We show that from a distance, at which the angle of view is 20° from the horizontal, dark water bodies cannot be distinguished from bright ones on the basis of the intensity or the angle of polarisation of reflected light. At a similar angle of view, however, dark waters reflect light with a significantly higher degree of linear polarisation than bright waters in any range of the spectrum and in any direction of view with respect to the sun. 5.,Thus, the degree of polarisation of reflected light may be a visual cue for the polarisation-sensitive dragonflies to distinguish dark and bright water bodies from far away. Future experimental studies should prove if dragonflies do indeed use this cue for habitat selection. [source]

Multiple predator-avoidance behaviours of the freshwater snail Physella heterostropha pomila: responses vary with risk

Thomas M. McCarthy
Summary 1We examined the predator-avoidance behaviour, exhibited in response to chemical cues, of two populations of the snail Physella heterostropha pomila. Snails were subjected to four treatments simulating different degrees of predation risk: control water (low risk), or water from tanks containing nonforaging crayfish (intermediate risk), crushed conspecifics (high risk) or crayfish consuming conspecifics (high risk). Data were analysed using three-way ANOVA models (population × predator chemicals × injured conspecific chemicals). 2Physella increased its avoidance behaviour as risk increased. Crayfish cue elicited a significantly greater response than from controls. Cues from injured conspecifics elicited the strongest response. 3Physella exhibited several types of avoidance behaviour, including burial into the substratum, moving to the water surface, and crawling out of the water. The type of cue present influenced response type. Cues from crayfish reduced burial and increased movement to the water surface or out of the water. Cues from injured-conspecifics significantly increased crawling completely out of the water. 4The two populations differed in the type and degree of response exhibited. One population exhibited significantly greater ,reactivity' (i.e. any avoidance behaviour) in response to foraging crayfish, and more burial and crawl-out behaviours were exhibited in high-risk treatments. [source]

Predicting river water temperatures using the equilibrium temperature concept with application on Miramichi River catchments (New Brunswick, Canada)

Daniel Caissie
Abstract Water temperature influences most of the physical, chemical and biological properties of rivers. It plays an important role in the distribution of fish and the growth rates of many aquatic organisms. Therefore, a better understanding of the thermal regime of rivers is essential for the management of important fisheries resources. This study deals with the modelling of river water temperature using a new and simplified model based on the equilibrium temperature concept. The equilibrium temperature concept is an approach where the net heat flux at the water surface can be expressed by a simple equation with fewer meteorological parameters than required with traditional models. This new water temperature model was applied on two watercourses of different size and thermal characteristics, but within a similar meteorological region, i.e., the Little Southwest Miramichi River and Catamaran Brook (New Brunswick, Canada). A study of the long-term thermal characteristics of these two rivers revealed that the greatest differences in water temperatures occurred during mid-summer peak temperatures. Data from 1992 to 1994 were used for the model calibration, while data from 1995 to 1999 were used for the model validation. Results showed a slightly better agreement between observed and predicted water temperatures for Catamaran Brook during the calibration period, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1·10 °C (Nash coefficient, NTD = 0·95) compared to 1·45 °C for the Little Southwest Miramichi River (NTD = 0·94). During the validation period, RMSEs were calculated at 1·31 °C for Catamaran Brook and 1·55 °C for the Little Southwest Miramichi River. Poorer model performances were generally observed early in the season (e.g., spring) for both rivers due to the influence of snowmelt conditions, while late summer to autumn modelling performances showed better results. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Magnetic-Field-Induced Locomotion of Glass Fibers on Water Surfaces: Towards the Understanding of How Much Force One Magnetic Nanoparticle Can Deliver

Feng Shi
The amount of force one magnetic nanoparticle (MNPs) can deliver is calculated using Fe3O4 MNPs building blocks to modify glass fibers. Our results demonstrate that one weight unit of Fe3O4 MNPs can eventually drag ,10,000 times its own weight on a water surface, a significant finding for the development of new magnetic delivery systems and micromanipulators. [source]

Variations in the retinal designs of pulmonate snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): squaring phylogenetic background and ecophysiological needs (I)

Marina V. Bobkova
Abstract. The eyes of aquatic pulmonates differ from those of terrestrial pulmonates; the latter, in species such as Cepaea nemoralis and Trichia hispida, possess conventional, cup-shaped retinas, but the aquatic species Lymnaea stagnalis, Radix peregra, Physa fontinalis, and Planorbarius corneus have retinas that are partitioned into dorsal and ventral depressions ("pits"). The pits are separated by an internal ridge, called the "crest", and on account of their pigmentation can be seen in vivo. The dominant cellular components of the retinae of terrestrial as well as aquatic snails are pigmented cells and microvillar photoreceptors, the latter occurring in two morphologically distinct types (I and II). Aquatic snails with preferences for shallow water possess eyes with both type I and type II photoreceptive cells, but Pl. corneus, an inhabitant of deeper water, only has type-I receptors, supporting an earlier finding that type I cells represent dim- and type II cells bright-light receptors. On the basis of histological and optical comparisons, we conclude that the eyes of L. stagnalis and R. peregra, species that are known to escape and seek temporary refuge above the water surface, are well adapted to function in water as well as air, but that the eyes of P. fontinalis and Pl. corneus are less modified from those of their terrestrial ancestors. [source]

Self-assembled structures of hydrophobins HFBI and HFBII

Serimaa Ritva
Hydrophobins are small proteins that function in the growth and development of fungi. The structures of class II hydrophobins HFBI and HFBII from Trichoderma reesei were studied using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. HFBI was weakly ordered but HFBII formed a highly crystalline coating on water surface. Change from monoclinic to hexagonal structure was observed as the sample dried. The three-dimensional structures differed from the oblique two-dimensional structures observed in Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of both HFBI and HFBII by atomic force microscopy. [source]

The riverscape of Western Amazonia , a quantitative approach to the fluvial biogeography of the region

Tuuli Toivonen
Abstract Aim, To provide a quantitative spatial analysis of the riverscape (open-water bodies and their surrounding areas) of the Western Amazonian lowlands using a consistent surface of remotely sensed imagery. Taking into account the essential significance of fluvial environments for the Amazonian biota, we propose that an enhanced understanding of the Amazonian riverscape will provide new insight for biogeographical studies in the region and contribute to the understanding of these megadiverse tropical lowlands. Location, An area of 2.2 million km2 covering the Western Amazonian lowlands of the Andean foreland region, i.e. the upper reaches of the Amazon river system. Areas in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Bolivia between longitudes 83 °W and 65 °W and latitudes 5 °N and 12 °S are included. Methods, A mosaic of 120 Landsat TM satellite images was created with 100-m resolution, and water areas of over 1 ha in size or c. 60 m in width were extracted using a simple ratio threshold applicable to a large set of data. With this method, 99.1% of the water areas present in 30-m imagery were mapped with images with 100-m resolution. Water pixels of distinct river segments were assigned to river classes on the basis of their channel properties, and islands and lakes were distinguished separately and classified. Measures of water patterns such as structure, composition, richness and remoteness were provided for various spatial units. Riverine corridors were computed from the open-water mask by outer limits of active channels and floodplain lakes. Analytical results are shown as both thematic maps and statistics. Results, A total of 1.1% of Western Amazonia is covered by open-water bodies over 1 ha in size or 60 m in width. River-bound waters comprise 98% of the total water surface. Whilst isolated lakes are scarce, river-bound oxbow and backchannel lakes are plentiful, comprising 17.5% of all waters. They are particularly frequent along meandering channels, which dominate both in area and length. The riverine corridors including active channels and floodplain lakes cover 17% of the land area. The average distance from any point of land to the nearest water is 12 km. Geographically speaking, the distribution of waters is uneven across the region, and the detailed characteristics of the riverscape are geographically highly variable. Three major, fluvially distinct regions can be identified: central Western Amazonia, the south, and the north-east. The proportional surface areas of the riverine corridors, numbers of lakes, sizes of islands and their distributions depend largely on the types and sizes of the rivers. Main conclusions, Our results support the notion of Western Amazonia as a dynamic, highly fluvial environment, highlighting and quantifying considerable internal variation within the region in terms of fluvial patterns and the processes that they reflect and control. Biogeographically, the variety of types of fluvial environments and their characteristics are important constituents of what influences the distribution of species and dynamics of terrestrial habitats. Spatially consistent riverscape data can serve as a consistent and scalable source of relevant information for other biogeographical approaches in the region. [source]

Incidence and severity of marine borer attack at different depths at Mtongwe Jetty Pontoon Mombasa, Kenya

P. K. Sirmah
Abstract The activity of marine borers was investigated at Mtongwe Jetty Pontoon, Mombasa, Kilindini harbour using untreated panels of Pinus patula (Schlecht) submerged to different depths. Twenty test panels replicated over 7 months were each strung in three ladder-like frames using nylon twine and suspended vertically, in such a way that the top most panels were 25 cm below the water surface at low and high tide. Monthly observations were made between January and July for the vertical incidence and extent of marine borer attack following the technique of Bobat (1995). Marine borers were collected from test panels, identified and counted. In addition, the percentage weight loss for panels at different depths was determined at the end of 7 months. Teredo fulleri (Clapp) was dominant on panels near water surface while Martesia striata (Linne) and Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) were predominant at the bottom. The results showed that attack began within the first month of exposure and was severest by the seventh month. The vertical incidence and extent of attack decreased with increasing depth of panel exposure and was negatively correlated with depth. This is attributed to changes in hydrographic conditions. Résumé L'activité des foreurs marins a étéétudiée dans le Ponton de Mtongwe Jetty, Mombasa, dans le port de Kilindini, en utilisant des panneaux de Pinus patula (Schlecht) non traités, plongés à différentes profondeurs. Vingt panneaux tests identiques ont été attachés avec des cordes de nylon pour former trois cadres ressemblant à des échelles et suspendus pendant sept mois verticalement de façon à ce que les panneaux supérieurs se trouvent à 25 cm sous la surface à marée basse et haute. L'on a fait des observations mensuelles entre janvier et juillet de l'occurrence verticale et l'étendue de l'attaque des foreurs marins en utilisant la technique de Bobat (1995). Les foreurs marins ont été collectés sur les panneaux tests, identifiés et comptés. De plus, on a déterminé le pourcentage de la perte de poids des panneaux aux différentes profondeurs à la fin des sept mois. Teredo fulleri (Clapp) était dominant sur les panneaux situés près de la surface de l'eau alors que Martesia striata (Linné) et Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) étaient prédominants en profondeur. Les résultats ont montré que l'attaque a commencé dès le premier mois et que c'est alors qu'elle fut la plus sévère. L'occurrence verticale et l'étendue de l'attaque diminuaient quand le panneau était plus profond et étaient négativement liées à la profondeur. Cela est attribué aux changements des conditions hydrographiques. [source]

Susceptibility of zoospores to UV radiation determines upper depth distribution limit of Arctic kelps: evidence through field experiments

Summary 1The UV susceptibility of zoospores of the brown seaweeds Saccorhiza dermatodea, Alaria esculenta and Laminaria digitata (Laminariales) was determined in field experiments in June 2004 on Spitsbergen (78°55, N, 11°56, E). 2Freshly released zoospores were exposed for 1 or 2 days at various water depths to ambient solar radiation, ambient solar radiation depleted of UVB radiation (UVBR) and ambient solar radiation depleted of both UVBR and UVAR. Subsequently, germination rates were determined after exposure to favourable light and temperature conditions in the laboratory. 3The radiation regime was monitored at the water surface and in the water column using data loggers attached adjacent to each experimental platform for the duration of the field exposure. 4Under ambient solar radiation, the tolerance of zoospores to UVR was highest in the shallow water species S. dermatodea, intermediate in the upper to mid sublittoral A. esculenta and lowest in the upper to mid sublittoral L. digitata. There was, however, no difference in the susceptibility of the zoospores to ambient solar radiation or to solar radiation depleted of UVBR. 5The water column was relatively UV transparent, especially in the upper water layers. The 1% UVB depth ranged between 5.35 and 6.87 m, although on one stormy day the 1% UVB depth was only 3.57 m, indicating resuspension of sediments. 6Early developmental stages are most susceptible to environmental stress. Tolerance of zoospores to UVR is a major if not one of the most important factors determining the upper distribution limit of different Laminariales on the shore. 7Kelps are very important primary producers in inshore coastal ecosystems, serving as food for herbivores and as habitat for many organisms. Enhanced UVBR due to stratospheric ozone depletion may lead to changes in the depth distribution of kelps and may cause significant ecological domino effects. [source]

Hypoxia tolerance of the mummichog: the role of access to the water surface

K. L. Stierhoff
Low dissolved oxygen (DO) had a significant effect on specific growth rate (GS), length increment (IL) and haematocrit (Hct) of the mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus. Regardless of access to the water surface, F. heteroclitus maintained high growth rates (GS and IL) at DO concentrations as low as 3 mg O2 l,1. With access to the water surface, both GS and IL of F. heteroclitus decreased by c. 60% at 1·0 mg O2 l,1 compared to all higher DO treatments. When denied access to the water surface, a further decrease in GS (c. 90%) and IL (c. 75%) was observed at 1 mg O2 l,1. There was no effect of diel-cycling DO (1,11 mg O2 l,1) with or without surface access on GS, IL or Hct of F. heteroclitus. Similar trends between GS and faecal production across DO treatments suggest that decreased feeding contributed significantly to the observed decrease in growth rate. Haematocrit was significantly elevated at 1 mg O2 l,1 for fish with and without access to the water surface. Increased Hct, however, was not sufficient to maintain high GS or IL at severely low DO. When permitted to respire in the surface layer, however, F. heteroclitus was capable of maintaining moderate growth rates at DO concentrations of 1 mg O2 l,1 (c. 15% saturation). Although aquatic surface respiration (ASR) was not quantified in this study, F. heteroclitus routinely swam in contact with the water surface and performed ASR at DO concentrations ,3 mg O2 l,1. No hypoxia-related mortality was observed in any DO or surface access treatment for as long as 9 days. This study demonstrates that surface access, and thus potential for ASR, plays an important role in providing F. heteroclitus substantial independence of growth rate over a wide range of low DO conditions commonly encountered in shallow estuarine environments. [source]

Differences in Evaporation Between a Floating Pan and Class A Pan on Land,

Jason R. Masoner
Abstract:, Research was conducted to develop a method for obtaining floating pan evaporation rates in a small (less than 10,000 m2) wetland, lagoon, or pond. Floating pan and land pan evaporation data were collected from March 1 to August 31, 2005, at a small natural wetland located in the alluvium of the Canadian River near Norman, Oklahoma, at the U.S. Geological Survey Norman Landfill Toxic Substances Hydrology Research Site. Floating pan evaporation rates were compared with evaporation rates from a nearby standard Class A evaporation pan on land. Floating pan evaporation rates were significantly less than land pan evaporation rates for the entire period and on a monthly basis. Results indicated that the use of a floating evaporation pan in a small free-water surface better simulates actual physical conditions on the water surface that control evaporation. Floating pan to land pan ratios were 0.82 for March, 0.87 for April, 0.85 for May, 0.85 for June, 0.79 for July, and 0.69 for August. [source]

Strategy-switching in the gaffing bat

V. L. G. Todd
Abstract Foraging in Daubenton's bats Myotis daubentonii, at two altitudinal locations along a river gradient in North Wales was investigated in relation to aerial insect density and to the density of prey on the water surface. Prey capture in Daubenton's bats consisted of aerial hawking, where prey was taken in the air, and trawling, where bats gaffed invertebrates from the water surface. Aerial hawking accounted for 86% of all prey capture attempts, despite aerial insect availability falling close to zero for much of the night. Conversely, prey density on the water surface was an order of magnitude higher than aerial prey density and increased through the night due to aquatic invertebrate drift. At the higher altitude site, M. daubentonii switched prey capture strategy to gaffing, possibly to reflect this change in prey availability on the water's surface, but at the lower altitude site, they maintained aerial hawking as the preferred strategy. The switch to gaffing may be inhibited by the significant downstream accumulation of large numbers of inedible exuviae of caddis flies, Trichoptera, at the low-altitude site, which form both acoustic clutter and increase the probability of capturing inedible prey, making foraging less efficient. These small altitudinal differences in foraging strategy should be factored into the design of future altitudinal bat foraging studies and if found to be a widespread strategy, taken into consideration by conservation planners when reviewing the habitat requirements of Daubenton's bats in river valleys within the United Kingdom. [source]

Modelling the reciprocal water exchange between a river (Havel) and a lake (Tegeler See) during spring and autumn overturns

Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt
Abstract A finite volume computer model (current flow and transport) was used to simulate the reciprocal water exchange between a river (Havel) and a lake (Tegeler See) appendaged to the river in Berlin, Germany. The discretization of the model control volume is 2-D along the plane of the water surface, which restricts the modelling to time periods of complete overturn. The finite volume method does, however, allow a depth to be given for each volume cell. A k -, turbulence submodel was integrated into the model to calculate the distinct dispersion coefficients for each volume cell. As current flow measurements were unavailable, the model was verified indirectly by the transport simulation of dissolved chloride, a conservative substance. The results show that the Havel contributes up to 30% of the total inflow to Tegeler See when it is overturned. As the Havel is more heavily polluted with respect to phosphorus loading, this has negative implications to the water quality of Tegeler See. Suggestions are given for controlling the Havel inflow amount by increasing the output of the phosphate elimination facility, the second main inflow to Tegeler See. Its output has very low phosphorus concentrations and serves as a flushing function. [source]

Control of orientation for carbazole group in comb copolymers arranged by method of organized molecular films

Hiroko Hoshizawa
Abstract We investigated the molecular orientation of organized molecular films with regard to solid-state structures for newly synthesized comb copolymers with N -vinylcarbazole (NVCz) by in-plane and out-of plane X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In the bulk state, hydrogenated and fluorinated comb copolymers form side-chain crystals for a two-dimensional lattice spacing of 4.2 and 5.0,Å, respectively. The findings suggest that the carbazole rings in the main-chain are arranged in opposition to each other. From the results of the DSC measurement, sharp-shaped melting peaks appear on the relatively lower temperature side of the thermograms. This result supports the formation of side-chain crystals in the synthesized comb copolymers. These monolayers of the copolymers on the water surface were extremely condensed, except for the fluorocarbon:NVCz,=,1:1 copolymer. From the in-plane XRD measurement of multilayers on solids, the changes in the two-dimensional lattice structure of fluorinated comb copolymer films containing NVCz units, as opposed to their bulk state, were confirmed. It seems that these structural changes are caused by the stronger ,,, interaction between the carbazole rings rather than the van der Waals interaction between fluorocarbons. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Pilot-scale demonstration of in situ capping of PCB-containing sediments in the lower Grasse River

REMEDIATION, Issue 1 2003
James D. Quadrini
A fish-consumption advisory is currently in effect in a seven-mile stretch of the Grasse River in Massena, New York, due to elevated levels of PCBs in fish tissue. One remedial approach that is being evaluated to reduce the PCB levels in fish from the river is in situ capping. An in-river pilot study was conducted in the summer of 2001 to assess the feasibility of capping PCB-containing sediments of the river. The study consisted of the construction of a subaqueous cap in a seven-acre portion of the river using various combinations of capping materials and placement techniques. Optimal results were achieved with a 1:1 sand/topsoil mix released from a clamshell bucket either just above or several feet below the water surface. A longer-term monitoring program of the capped area commenced in 2002. Results of this monitoring indicated: 1) the in-place cap has remained intact since installation; 2) no evidence of PCB migration into and through the cap; 3) groundwater advection through the cap is not an important PCB transport mechanism; and 4) macroinvertebrate colonization of the in-place cap is continuing. Additional follow-up monitoring in the spring of 2003 indicated that a significant portion of the cap and, in some cases, the underlying sediments had been disturbed in the period following the conclusion of the 2002 monitoring work. An analysis of river conditions in the spring of 2003 indicated that a significant ice jam had formed in the river directly over the capping pilot study area, and that the resulting increase in river velocities and turbulence in the area resulted in the movement of both cap materials and the underlying sediments. The pilot cap was not designed to address ice jam,related forces on the cap, as the occurrence of ice jams in this section of the river had not been known prior to the observations conducted in the spring of 2003. These findings will preclude implementation of the longer-term monitoring program that had been envisioned for the pilot study. The data collected immediately after cap construction in 2001 and through the first year of monitoring in 2002 serve as the basis for the conclusions presented in this article. It should be recognized that, based on the observation made in the spring of 2003, some of these conclusions are no longer valid for the pilot study area. The occurrence of ice jams in the lower Grasse River and their importance on sediments and PCBs within the system are currently under investigation. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Effects of shear sheltering in a stable atmospheric boundary layer with strong shear

Ann-Sofi Smedman
Abstract Data from two marine field experiments in the Baltic Sea with stable stratification have been analysed. The purpose was to test the concept of the ,detached' or ,top-down' eddies and the ,shear-sheltering' mechanism in the presence of a low-level wind speed maximum in the atmosphere. Data used include turbulence and profile measurements on two 30 m towers and concurrent wind profiles throughout the boundary layer obtained from pilot-balloon soundings. Measurements show that large eddies are being suppressed when there is a low-level wind speed maximum present somewhere in the layer 40,300 m above the water surface and when the stratification is slightly stable. The effect is seen both in normalized standard deviations of the velocity components and in corresponding component spectra. In previous work it was argued that the relatively large eddies, which dominate the low wave number spectra in measurements in the surface layer, are detached or top-down eddies generated higher up in the boundary layer, that interact with the surface layer. The low-level wind maximum introduces a distinct layer with strong vorticity which, according to the shear-sheltering hypothesis, prevents these eddies from penetrating downwards. In the limit of the wind maximum occurring at a very low height (less than about 100 m), usual turbulence statistics characteristic of the ,canonical' boundary layer are found. Combining all the statistics, it is demonstrated that the wavelength of maximum spectral energy is locally related to a turbulence length-scale, which shows that for values of the Richardson number of unity or less the effect of the local wind gradient is greater than that of static stability. The reduction of length-scale with the strength of a low-level wind maximum, explains the observed reduction (by a factor of two) of the turbulent flux of sensible heat at the surface. This result indicates that the shear-sheltering mechanism is likely to play an important role in the turbulent exchange process at the surface in sea areas where low-level wind maxima are a frequently occurring phenomenon, such as the Baltic and other large water bodies surrounded by landmasses. Copyright © 2004 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

The pressure required to force liquid through breathing system filters,

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 5 2006
C. Cann
Summary Liquid in the form of sputum and condensation may be forced through a breathing system filter if sufficient pressure is applied to the filter layer, with the potential for cross-infection. Twenty-three different breathing system filters (12 adult, 11 paediatric) were assessed to determine the pressure causing liquid penetration. Five samples of each were tested by connecting the ventilator end of a breathing system filter to a water-filled U-tube and reservoir. The reservoir was positioned so that the water surface was level with the filter layer and raised until liquid appeared through the filter layer on the patient side and the water-column height recorded. There were substantial differences in performance between models. Liquid penetration occurred at lower pressures for adult electrostatic than adult pleated filters: median [IQR] 1.18 [1.08, 1.32] and 8.04 [4.27,12.80] kPa, respectively, p < 0.0001. Liquid penetration occurred at similar pressures in paediatric electrostatic filters (0.98 [0.74,1.32] kPa) compared to adult electrostatic filters. [source]

Extreme habitats are not refuges: poeciliids suffer from increased aerial predation risk in sulphidic southern Mexican habitats

Extreme environments are often considered a predation refuge for organisms living in them. In southern Mexico several species of poeciliid fishes are undergoing incipient speciation in a variety of extreme (i.e. permanently dark and/or sulphidic) freshwater systems, and previous research has demonstrated reproductive isolation between populations from sulphidic and adjacent benign habitats. In the present study, we investigated bird predation rates (measured as successful captures per minute) in two sulphidic surface and several benign surface habitats, to test the hypothesis that extreme habitats are predation refuges. We found capture rates to be approximately 20 times higher in sulphidic environments: probably facilitated by extremophile poeciliids spending most of their time at the water surface, where they engage in aquatic surface respiration as a direct response to hypoxia. Even birds that are usually not considered major fish predators regularly engage in fish predation in the toxic habitats of southern Mexico. Our results demonstrate that extreme environments do not necessarily represent a refuge from predation, and we discuss the general importance of predation in driving incipient speciation in these systems. Finally, we hypothesize that natural selection via avian predation may play an important role in maintaining reproductive isolation between divergent poeciliid populations. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 101, 417,426. [source]

A ,polarisation sun-dial' dictates the optimal time of day for dispersal by flying aquatic insects

Summary 1. Daily changes in the flight activity of aquatic insects have been investigated in only a few water beetles and bugs. The diel flight periodicity of aquatic insects and the environmental factors governing it are poorly understood. 2. We found that primary aquatic insects belonging to 99 taxa (78 Coleoptera, 21 Heteroptera) fly predominantly in mid-morning, and/or around noon and/or at nightfall. There appears to be at least four different types of diurnal flight activity rhythm in aquatic insects, characterised by peak(s): (i) in mid-morning; (ii) in the evening; (iii) both in mid-morning and the evening; (iv) around noon and again in the evening. These activity maxima are quite general and cannot be explained exclusively by daily fluctuations of air temperature, humidity, wind speed and risks of predation, which are all somewhat stochastic. 3. We found experimental evidence that the proportion (%) P(,) of reflecting surfaces detectable polarotactically as ,water' is always maximal at the lowest (dawn and dusk) and highest (noon) angles of solar elevation (,) for dark reflectors while P(,) is maximal at dawn and dusk (low solar elevations) for bright reflectors under clear or partly cloudy skies. 4. From the temporal coincidence between peaks in the diel flight activity of primary aquatic insects and the polarotactic detectability P(,) of water surfaces we conclude that the optimal times of day for aquatic insects to disperse are the periods of low and high solar elevations ,. The , -dependent reflection,polarisation patterns, combined with an appropriate air temperature, clearly explain why polarotactic aquatic insects disperse to new habitats in mid-morning, and/or around noon and/or at dusk. We call this phenomenon the ,polarisation sun-dial' of dispersing aquatic insects. [source]

Strategy-switching in the gaffing bat

V. L. G. Todd
Abstract Foraging in Daubenton's bats Myotis daubentonii, at two altitudinal locations along a river gradient in North Wales was investigated in relation to aerial insect density and to the density of prey on the water surface. Prey capture in Daubenton's bats consisted of aerial hawking, where prey was taken in the air, and trawling, where bats gaffed invertebrates from the water surface. Aerial hawking accounted for 86% of all prey capture attempts, despite aerial insect availability falling close to zero for much of the night. Conversely, prey density on the water surface was an order of magnitude higher than aerial prey density and increased through the night due to aquatic invertebrate drift. At the higher altitude site, M. daubentonii switched prey capture strategy to gaffing, possibly to reflect this change in prey availability on the water's surface, but at the lower altitude site, they maintained aerial hawking as the preferred strategy. The switch to gaffing may be inhibited by the significant downstream accumulation of large numbers of inedible exuviae of caddis flies, Trichoptera, at the low-altitude site, which form both acoustic clutter and increase the probability of capturing inedible prey, making foraging less efficient. These small altitudinal differences in foraging strategy should be factored into the design of future altitudinal bat foraging studies and if found to be a widespread strategy, taken into consideration by conservation planners when reviewing the habitat requirements of Daubenton's bats in river valleys within the United Kingdom. [source]