Water Supply (water + supply)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Water Supply

  • drinking water supply

  • Terms modified by Water Supply

  • water supply system

  • Selected Abstracts


    Q. Hu
    Frequent episodes of algal-related tastes and odors (T & O) in drinking waters in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona prompted initiation of a three-year project in July 1999 to investigate the occurrence of T & O metabolites and to develop a comprehensive management strategy to reduce the problems in drinking water supplies in arid environments. Two metabolites, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin, have been identified as compounds responsible for the earthy-musty tastes and odors in water supplies. Both were detected in the water supply system, including source rivers, reservoirs, canal delivery system and water treatment plants. Higher concentrations of MIB and geosmin occurred in distribution canals than in the upstream reservoirs indicating that significant production of the T & O compounds occurs within the canal system. A baseline-monitoring program has been established for the complex water supply system, with special emphasis on the canal system. Efforts are underway to investigate possible correlations between physical/chemical parameters, algal composition and biomass, with the occurrence of MIB and geosmin. In addition, several physical and chemical treatments are planned for the canal system to reduce algal growth and related MIB and geosmin concentrations. [source]


    Zekai Sen
    ABSTRACT: The quality of ground water in any aquifer takes its final form due to natural mixture of waters, which may originate from different sources. Water quality varies from one aquifer to another and even within the same aquifer itself. Different ground water quality is obtained from wells and is mixed in a common reservoir prior to any consumption. This artificial mixing enables an increase in available ground water of a desired quality for agricultural or residential purposes. The question remains as to what proportions of water from different wells should be mixed together to achieve a desired water quality for this artificial mixture. Two sets of laboratory experiments were carried out, namely, the addition of saline water to a fixed volume of fresh water. After each addition, the mixture volume and the electric conductivity value of the artificially mixed water were recorded. The experiments were carried out under the same laboratory temperature of 20°C. A standard curve was developed first experimentally and then confirmed theoretically. This curve is useful in determining either the volume or discharge ratio from two wells to achieve a predetermined electrical conductivity value of the artificial mixture. The application of the curve is given for two wells within the Quaternary deposits in the western part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [source]

    The MTBE Threat to Our Water Supply: How to Detect and Remediate It

    David Kahler
    Methyl tertiary butyl ether, a gasoline additive once used to reduce air pollution, is now contaminating water sources around the United States. Monitoring for this chemical,and remediating it where it is found,should be an environmental priority. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Paddy Rice and the Water Supply

    GERMAN RESEARCH, Issue 1 2005
    Burkhard Sattelmacher Prof. Dr.
    Over half of Asia,s fresh water is used for growing rice. A new procedure in China has been developed to test a new water-saving cultivation system [source]

    Public Provision for Urban Water: Getting Prices and Governance Right

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 4 2008
    Public sector monopolies are often associated with inefficiencies and inability to meet rising demand. Scholars attribute this to fundamental problems associated with public provision: (1) a tradition of below-cost pricing due to populist pressures, (2) owner,regulator conflicts of interest, and (3) perverse organizational incentives arising from non-credible threat of bankruptcy, weak competition, rigidities, and agency and performance measurement problems. Many governments worldwide have shifted to private provision, but recent experience in urban water utilities in developing countries has shown their limitations because of weak regulatory regimes compounded by inherent problems of information, incentives, and commitment. This article examines the paradoxical case of the Phnom Penh Water Supply in Cambodia to illustrate how public provision of urban water can be substantially improved by getting prices and governance right. Findings have implications for the search for solutions to provide one billion people worldwide with better access to potable water. [source]

    Testing Community Empowerment Strategies in Zimbabwe: Examples from Nutrition Supplementation, and Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes

    IDS BULLETIN, Issue 1 2000
    Mungai Lenneiye
    Summary This article provides a brief overview and examples of how communities were involved in feeding programmes during years of drought in Zimbabwe, and in the management of rural water supply and sanitation programmes throughout the 1980s. The balance between political and technical demands in the implementation of these programmes indicates that they started off with community interests at the centre, but gradually gave way to the needs of the bureaucracy (both political and administrative). The main lessons to be learnt from these programmes is that information on entitlements and obligations (on the part of communities and external agencies) is a prerequisite for successful community development projects. Furthermore, the extent of accountability to communities is directly proportional to progress made towards the devolution of power to democratic development structures, be they directly or indirectly elected. [source]

    Privatisation Results: Private Sector Participation in Water Services After 15 Years

    Naren Prasad
    Privatisation of public infrastructure has been the mantra of many development agencies since the late 1980s. Water supply is no exception, and various forms of private sector participation (PSP) have been tried in the water and sanitation sector. This article examines the results of these experiments. It suggests that PSP has had mixed results and that in several important respects the private sector seems to be no more efficient in delivering services than the public sector. Despite growing evidence of failures and increasing public pressure against it, privatisation in water and sanitation is still alive, however. Increasingly, it is being repackaged in new forms such as that of public-private partnership. [source]

    Water supply and sanitation in remote Indigenous communities-priorities for health development

    Ross S. Bailie
    Objective:To review available national and State/Territory survey data on water supply and sanitation in remote Indigenous Australian communities and to discuss the findings in terms of priorities for health and infrastructure development. Methods:Descriptive analysis of data on relevant variables from available data sources. Results:All relevant published reports arose from only two data sources: the Community Housing and Infrastructure Needs Surveys, and from a Northern Territory-wide survey of community-owned dwellings. The data show that many communities do not have a reliable water supply and experience frequent and prolonged breakdown in sewerage systems. For example, 12% of communities of 50 people or more experienced five or more periods of water restrictions in a one-year period, and 10% of communities experienced sewage overflow or leakage 20 or more times in a one-year period. Items of basic household infrastructure regarded as essential for household hygiene are missing or not functional in many community-owned dwellings. For example, in about one-third of houses bathroom taps and toilet drainage required major repairs. Conclusion and Implications:Given the widely accepted importance of water and sanitation to health, the data support the contention that poor environmental conditions are a major cause of poor health in remote communities and provide some measure at a national level of the magnitude of the problem. Action to ensure easy access to adequate quantities of water and secure sanitation should receive greater priority. There is need for better quality information systems to monitor progress, equity and accountability in the delivery of water and sanitation services. [source]

    Application of real-time PCR for quantitative detection of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry, milk and environmental water

    Chengbo Yang
    Abstract Campylobacter jejuni is a leading human food-borne pathogen. The rapid and sensitive detection of C. jejuni is necessary for the maintenance of a safe food/water supply. In this article, we present a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for quantitative detection of C. jejuni in naturally contaminated poultry, milk and environmental samples without an enrichment step. The whole assay can be completed in 60 min with a detection limit of approximately 1 CFU. The standard curve correlation coefficient for the threshold cycle versus the copy number of initial C. jejuni cells was 0.988. To test the PCR system, a set of 300 frozen chicken meat samples, 300 milk samples and 300 water samples were screened for the presence of C. jejuni. 30.6% (92/300) of chicken meat samples, 27.3% (82/300) of milk samples, and 13.6% (41/300) of water samples tested positive for C. jejuni. This result indicated that the real-time PCR assay provides a specific, sensitive and rapid method for quantitative detection of C. jejuni. Moreover, it is concluded that retail chicken meat, raw milk and environmental water are commonly contaminated with C. jejuni and could serve as a potential risk for consumers in eastern China, especially if proper hygienic and cooking conditions are not maintained. [source]

    Privatisation and outsourcing in wartime: the humanitarian challenges

    DISASTERS, Issue 4 2006
    Gilles Carbonnier
    Abstract The tendency today to privatise many activities hitherto considered the exclusive preserve of the state has given rise to sharp debate. The specific nature of humanitarian emergencies elucidates in particularly stark contrast some of the main challenges connected to the privatisation and outsourcing of essential public services, such as the provision of drinking water and health care. Privatising the realms of defence and security, which are at the very core of state prerogative, raises several legal and humanitarian concerns. This article focuses on the roles and responsibilities of the various parties involved in armed conflicts, especially those of private companies engaged in security, intelligence and interrogation work, and in the provision of water supply and health services. It highlights the need for humanitarian and development actors to grasp better the potential risks and opportunities related to privatisation and outsourcing with a view to supplying effective protection and assistance to communities affected by war. [source]

    High resolution quantification of gully erosion in upland peatlands at the landscape scale

    Martin Evans
    Abstract The upland peatlands of the UK are severely eroded, with large areas affected by gully erosion. The peatlands are important areas of carbon storage and provide a range of other ecosystem services including water supply and biodiversity all of which are negatively impacted by erosion of the upland surface. The magnitude of the gully erosion, and consequent adjustment of the peatland morphology, is such that in degraded peatlands the extent and magnitude of erosion is a major control on peatland function. Accurate mapping of gully form is therefore a necessary precondition to the understanding and management of these systems. This paper develops an approach to extracting gully maps from high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). Gully maps of the Bleaklow Plateau in northern England were derived from a 2,m LiDAR DEM by combining areas of low difference from mean elevation and high positive plan curvature. Gully depth was modelled by interpolating between gully edges. Testing of the gully mapping and depth modelling against aerial photography, manual interpretation of the DEM and ground survey revealed that gully plan form is well represented and gully width and depth are modelled with tolerances close to the horizontal and vertical resolution of the LiDAR imagery. Estimates of gully width and depth were less reliable for gullies with total width of less than four pixels. The approach allows for the first time the derivation of accurate estimates of gully extent and magnitude over large areas and provides the basis for modelling a range of processes controlled by gullying. The approach has wider applicability to mapping gully erosion in a wide range of environments. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The use of technical knowledge in European water policy-making

    Perry J. M. van Overveld
    Abstract Environmental policy-making often involves a mix of technical knowledge, normative choice and uncertainty. Numerous actors, each with their own distinct objectives, are involved in these policy-making processes. One question these actors face, is how they can effectively communicate their technical knowledge and represent their interests in policy-making. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors that influence the use of technical knowledge and its impact on decision-making in the European Union. This is done for case of water policy-making for organic micropollutants, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals. These pollutants enter the surface water in many ways and although concentrations are low, adverse effects cannot be ruled out. Via the EU Water Framework Directive, legislation has been developed to reduce the emissions of pollutants that pose a risk to ecology or public health. Using the advocacy coalition framework, the formal EU decision-making processes are analyzed for the identification of priority pollutants (Priority Substances) and the derivation of maximum allowable concentrations (Environmental Quality Standards). To enable a detailed analysis, the focus is on three specific micropollutants that pose health risks via drinking water supply. The findings show the extent to which actors can influence the decision-making process with technical knowledge. Early involvement in the drafting process that is led by the European Commission is important to influence decision-making outcomes. For this, organizational capacity in coalitions to mobilize and coordinate the required targeted contribution of technical knowledge is crucial. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Recent trends in the regulation of water supply

    Mark Gerath
    First page of article [source]

    Seasonal succession of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum blooms with cylindrospermopsin occurrence in the volcanic Lake Albano, Central Italy

    Valentina Messineo
    Abstract The cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin is rapidly spreading in the European temperate Countries. Cylindrospermopsin was detected for the first time in Italy in 2004; in this study, the presence of this toxin in Albano Lake (Central Italy) has been correlated to the cyanobacterial species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and their population dynamics. In 2004, these two species succeeded in the lake during spring, summer, and early autumn without overlapping, causing superficial blooms. Cylindrospermopsin was detected in lake samples by LC-MS/MS and ELISA immunoassay, showing extracellular superficial values ranging from 2.6 to 126 ,g/L, and water column values ranging from 0.41 to 18.4 ,g/L. Twenty-six of 30 positive water samples (86%) exceeded the recommended limit of 1 ,g/L. Intracellular values up to 42.3 ,g/g were measured. Moreover, cylindrospermopsin was detected in tissues from two Salmo trutta trouts (up to 2.7 ng/g) and in a well for drinking water supply (1.6 ,g/L). For the first time, two cyanobacterial species producing cylindrospermopsin were detected in the same lake in Italy. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 2010. [source]

    Oral toxicity of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in male Swiss albino mice: Determination of no observed adverse effect level for deriving a drinking water guideline value

    A. R. Humpage
    Abstract The cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a frequent contaminant of freshwaters throughout the world, including those that are sources of drinking water. The first cases of human poisoning attributed to this toxin occurred from a treated drinking water supply in Queensland, Australia, in 1979. The toxin causes extensive damage to the liver, kidneys, spleen, heart, and other organs. It is known to be a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, but there is mounting evidence for genotoxicity and that it metabolizes to even more toxic forms. As part of a risk assessment process leading to a guideline for a safe drinking water level for this toxin, we performed a series of experiments to determine a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for this toxin. In the first trial male mice were exposed to CYN-containing cyanobacterial extract in their drinking water (0,657 ,g CYN kg,1 day,1) for 10 weeks. In the second trial mice received purified CYN by daily gavage (0,240 ,g CYN kg,1 day,1) for 11 weeks. Body and organ weights were recorded; urine, serum, and hematology analyses were performed; and histopathological examination of tissues was carried out. Body weights were significantly increased at low doses (30 and 60 ,g kg,1 day,1) and decreased at high doses (432 and 657 ,g kg,1 day,1). Liver and kidney weights were significantly increased at doses of 240 ,g kg,1 day,1 and 60 ,g kg,1 day,1, respectively. Serum bilirubin levels were significantly increased and bile acids significantly decreased at doses of 216 ,g kg day,1 and greater. Urine total protein was significantly decreased at doses above 60 ,g kg,1 day,1. The kidney appeared to be the more sensitive organ to this toxin. If it is assumed that increased organ weights and changes in functional capacity are responses to an underlying toxic effect, then the NOAEL based on this data is 30 ,g kg,1 day,1, which, with standard calculations and uncertainty factors, provides a proposed guideline safety value of 1 ,g/L in drinking water. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 18: 94,103, 2003. [source]

    New regionalism in five Swiss metropolitan areas: An assessment of inclusiveness, deliberation and democratic accountability

    In the first, theoretical, part it draws upon the debate on old and new routes towards regionalism in order to identify four different types of metropolitan governance. It then develops two working hypotheses , an optimistic and a pessimistic one , in order to analyse the implications of various types of metropolitan governance on inclusiveness, modes of decision making and democratic accountability. In the second part, these hypotheses are tested on the basis of comparative case studies on twenty schemes of area-wide policy coordination in five Swiss metropolitan areas in the fields of water supply, public transport, social services for drug users and cultural amenities. The results suggest that ,governance' is superior to ,government' in terms of inclusiveness, that it cannot be seen as significantly linked to the fostering of deliberative decision making, and that it can present serious flaws in terms of accountability. It is noted, however, that a shift ,from government to governance' does not intrinsically imply democratic drawbacks. Contextual factors play a strong conditioning role. [source]

    Welche Bedeutung hat die sexuelle Reproduktion für den Erfolg der Art Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth?

    FEDDES REPERTORIUM, Issue 3-4 2003
    A. Grüttner Dr.
    Als Quellen der Variabilität im Potential der sexuellen Reproduktion fanden sich Unterschiede in der Keimungsgeschwindigkeit (entspelzte Karyopsen keimten rascher und synchroner), bei den Keimraten und vor allem bei der Zahl keimfähiger Diasporen pro Rispe. Von den anderen abweichend zeigten kleine isolierte Bestände geringere Keimraten und brachten , wohl bedingt durch Selbstinkompatibilität , kaum keimfähige Diasporen hervor. Bei gezielter Suche fanden sich Keimlinge auf offenen, zumindest leicht tonhaltigen Rohböden. Das Wachstum der Keimlinge stagnierte und keiner von über 6000 überlebte bis zum nächsten Jahr. Da Bewässerung die Entwicklung auf dem selben Substrat sehr förderte, war offenbar Wassermangel für das geringe Wachstum ausschlaggebend. Die erfolgreiche generative Etablierung ist also auf den Zufall günstiger Witterungsphasen oder Standorte angewiesen. Auch im Frühjahr waren noch keimfähige Diasporen in aufrechten Rispen nachweisbar, sodass sich der Diasporenfall mehr oder weniger über das gesamte Jahr erstreckt. Im Zusammenspiel mit dem Fehlen von Dormanz ermöglicht das die Nutzung nicht vorhersagbarer günstiger Witterungsphasen. Bei einem Kulturversuch kamen einzelne Individuen auch mit schwierigen Substraten gut zurecht, auf denen die Mehrzahl kümmerte. Danach ergibt sich die standörtliche Breite der Art C.,epigejos als Summe sehr unterschiedlicher Reaktionsnormen der Individuen. Die angeführten Befunde unterstreichen insgesamt die Bedeutung der sexuellen Reproduktion und der genetischen Diversität für den Erfolg der Art. Is sexual reproduction important to the success of Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth? Calamagrostis epigejos is very common in Central Europe and occupies an extraordinary wide range of habitats. As up to now nearly no reports exist on spontaneous seedling emergence, we aimed to investigate several aspects of sexual reproduction, thereby refering to contrasting habitat types. Components in the variability of the potential of sexual reproduction were differences in germination speed and rates and, above all, number of germinable seeds per panicle. Unlike the others, small isolated stands produced very low numbers of germinable seeds, probably caused by selfincompatibility. Our search for seedlings was successful at several sites , all distinguished by raw soil, a certain clay content, and little cover of vegetation and plant litter. The seedlings grew very slowly and none of more than 6000 survived the first year. Additional water enabling much better growth indicates the necessity of favorable weather or favorable habitats (with constant water supply) for successful seedling establishment. Seed dispersal nearly all around the year, combined with the lack of dormancy, allows to make use of the unpredictable opportunities of suitable weather periods. A growth experiment on different substrates demonstrated: the more extreme the conditions, the more differentiated the amount of biomass achieved by each of 20 genets. Some genets grew well even on substrates where most others stagnated. This outcome suggests the wide range of habitats covered by C. epigejos to be the result of the genetic diversity, which in turn is maintained by sexual reproduction and avoidance of inbreeding. [source]

    Climatic influences and anthropogenic stressors: an integrated framework for streamflow management in Mediterranean-climate California, U.S.A.

    Summary 1. In Mediterranean and other water-stressed climates, water management is critical to the conservation of freshwater ecosystems. To secure and maintain water allocations for the environment, integrated water management approaches are needed that consider ecosystem flow requirements, patterns of human water demands and the temporal and spatial dynamics of water availability. 2. Human settlements in Mediterranean climates have constructed water storage and conveyance projects at a scale and level of complexity far exceeding those in other, less seasonal climates. As a result, multiple ecological stressors associated with natural periods of flooding and drying are compounded by anthropogenic impacts resulting from water infrastructure development. 3. Despite substantial investments in freshwater ecosystem conservation, particularly in California, U.S.A., success has been limited because the scales at which river management and restoration are implemented are often discordant with the temporal and spatial scales at which ecosystem processes operate. Often, there is also strong social and political resistance to restricting water allocation to existing consumptive uses for environmental protection purposes. Furthermore, institutions rarely have the capacity to develop and implement integrated management programmes needed for freshwater ecosystem conservation. 4. We propose an integrated framework for streamflow management that explicitly considers the temporal and spatial dynamics of water supply and needs of both human and natural systems. This approach makes it possible to assess the effects of alternative management strategies to human water security and ecosystem conditions and facilitates integrated decision-making by water management institutions. 5. We illustrate the framework by applying a GIS-based hydrologic model in a Mediterranean-climate watershed in Sonoma County, California, U.S.A. The model is designed to assess the hydrologic impacts of multiple water users distributed throughout a stream network. We analyse the effects of vineyard water management on environmental flows to (i) evaluate streamflow impacts from small storage ponds designed to meet human water demands and reduce summer diversions, (ii) prioritise the placement of storage ponds to meet human water needs while optimising environmental flow benefits and (iii) examine the environmental and social consequences of flow management policies designed to regulate the timing of diversions to protect ecosystem functions. 6. Thematic implications: spatially explicit models that represent anthropogenic stressors (e.g. water diversions) and environmental flow needs are required to address persistent and growing threats to freshwater biodiversity. A coupled human,natural system approach to water management is particularly useful in Mediterranean climates, characterised by severe competition for water resources and high spatial and temporal variability in flow regimes. However, lessons learned from our analyses are applicable to other highly seasonal systems and those that are expected to have increased precipitation variability resulting from climate change. [source]

    Xylem root and shoot hydraulics is linked to life history type in chaparral seedlings

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Robert B. Pratt
    Summary 1.,Shrubs in fire prone chaparral communities have evolved different life history types in response to fire. A key to understanding the evolution of life history type differences is to understand how physiological traits are linked to differences in life history type. Vascular adaptations are important for delivering an efficient and stable water supply to evergreen chaparral shrub leaves. This study tested for a link between vascular physiology and life history type in chaparral shrubs. 2.,Chaparral shrub species along the south-western coast of North America survive wildfire by three different life histories. Non-sprouters are killed by fire and re-establish exclusively through germination of fire-stimulated seeds, facultative sprouters re-establish by a combination of vegetative sprouting and fire-stimulated seeds, and obligate sprouters re-establish exclusively by vegetative sprouting because their seeds do not survive fire. Non-sprouters and facultative sprouters establish seedlings in the open canopy post fire environment, whereas obligate sprouters establish seedlings in the shady understory of the mature chaparral canopy. 3.,Seedlings of nine species (Rhamnaceae) representing three each of the different life history types were grown in deep containers in a common garden under treatments of sun and shade. Hydraulic conductance was measured using a high-pressure flow meter for all organs, and a vacuum technique was used to measure conductance of fine and woody roots. We predicted that non-sprouters would exhibit greater hydraulic efficiency than the sprouting species, and that facultative sprouters would be more efficient than the shade tolerant obligate sprouters. 4.,Non-sprouters had the greatest hydraulic conductance per unit leaf and sapwood area at the whole seedling level, whereas facultative and obligate sprouters were not different. Comparing hydraulic conductance across major organs (from fine roots to leaves) showed that the hydraulic system was well coordinated. At the whole seedling level, the root system was more of a bottleneck than the shoot system. This pattern was consistent with high resistance extraxylary pathways in roots and differences in root architecture. 5.,The greater hydraulic efficiency of the non-sprouter life history type is attributed to its post-fire pioneering habit and may partially explain the relatively high speciation in the non-sprouters. Lower hydraulic efficiency is associated with a sprouting life history and greater shade tolerance. The seedling root systems represent a hydraulic bottleneck that may place roots under especially intense selection. [source]

    Gender, light and water effects in carbon isotope discrimination, and growth rates in the dioecious tree Ilex aquifolium

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
    R. Retuerto
    Abstract 1.,Detailed understanding of the specific physiology of sexes in dioecious species is required to explain patterns in gender dimorphism. Under controlled-environment conditions we tested the hypothesis that sexes of the dioecious tree holly Ilex aquifolium L. (Aquifoliaceae) differed in growth and long-term potential water-use efficiency, as measured by carbon isotope discrimination (,13C), and that these differences were dependent on the environmental context. 2.,Patterns of response in ,13C to the various combinations of light and water were gender-specific. Under more xeric conditions, females maintained significantly higher ,13C than males. 3.,Female plants exhibited significantly greater relative diameter growth rates than male plants. 4.,As expected, ,13C significantly increased with decreasing irradiance, and decreased with increasing limitation in water supply. Light and water effects were not independent, with a more pronounced drought effect in decreasing leaf ,13C under unshaded than under shaded conditions. 5.,Our results suggest that between-sex differences in physiology are context-dependent. Future studies attempting to assess gender dimorphism should take more account of gender-specific interactions with the environment. Gender-specific efficiency in water use could play a decisive role in explaining gender differences in growth and ecological interactions. [source]

    Formation processes at the Ohalo II submerged prehistoric campsite, Israel, inferred from soil micromorphology and magnetic susceptibility studies

    Alexander Tsatskin
    Soil-geomorphic analysis coupled with micromorphology, SEM/EDS, magnetic susceptibility, and conventional sedimentological studies allowed us to reconstruct the site formation history and validate the archaeologically observed variability of human activities in the prehistoric camp of Ohalo II (19.5 ka B.P.), Sea of Galilee, Israel. The cultural layers rest upon the Late Pleistocene Lake Lisan deposits that accumulated under conditions of changing water supply and increasing rate of sedimentation from deep-water varvelike deposits to basalt-derived, near-shore sandy lacustrine deposits. Intermittent occupation is recorded in some localities, indicating short-term inundation episodes, which led to partial truncation and deformation of the sediments, primarily in the eastern lakeward part of the site. On the elevated, landward positions, incipient soils with strongly bioturbated profiles formed. Micromorphology demonstrates that intentional flooring was applied within the remains of brush huts, where millimeter-sized, horizontally organized burnt and unheated vegetal tissues were likely to have been placed upon the compacted ground. In fireplaces, the cultural deposits in thin sections are composed of strongly mixed, abundant wood charcoal, ashes, and fishbone remains. Post-depositional alterations were controlled by intermittent inundation of the site and salinization, which induced gypsum and pyrite deposition, primarily along decayed roots, and eventual pyrite oxidation. Accumulation of sodium and chlorine in the post-occupation deposits is likely to have occurred because of discharge of saline groundwater. Although only suggestive at this stage of research, the conclusions drawn from magnetic susceptibility parameters of archaeologically related deposits at Ohalo II fit well with the micromorphological reconstructions and provide new information on the Late Pleistocene evolution of the Lake Lisan/Sea of Galilee fluctuating system. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Daanish Mustafa
    ABSTRACT. The article identifies important themes and future research directions for analyzing water and conflict dynamics at the subnational scale in the Indus Basin. A historical overview of water development in the Indus Basin suggests that the water-security nexus was always a salient theme in the minds of water developers, even in the nineteenth century. Conflicts over contemporary large-scale water-development projects in the Indian and Pakistani parts of the Indus Basin are reviewed. Engineers' single-minded focus on megaprojects, to the neglect of the wider set of values that societies attach to water resources in the eastern and western Indus Basin are largely to blame for continuing low-grade conflict in the basin. A review of local-level conflicts over water supply and sanitation in Karachi and the distribution of irrigation water in Pakistani Punjab illustrates the critical role of governance and differential social power relations in accentuating conflict. The article argues against neo-Malthusian assumptions about the inevitability of conflict over water because of its future absolute scarcity. Instead, the article seeks to demonstrate that, despite evidence suggesting that international armed conflict over water does not exist, the potential for political instability over domestic water distribution and development issues is real. The question of whether conflict at the subnational scale will culminate in violence will depend on how water-resources institutions in the basin behave. [source]

    The hydroelectric problem of porous rocks: inversion of the position of the water table from self-potential data

    A. Revil
    SUMMARY The self-potential (SP) method is a fast and cheap reconnaissance tool sensitive to ground water flow in unconfined aquifers. A model based on the use of Green's functions for the coupled hydroelectric problem yields an integral equation relating the SP field to the distribution of the piezometric head describing the phreatic surface and to the electrical resistivity contrast through this phreatic surface. We apply this model to SP data measured on the south flank of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a large shield volcano located on Réunion island, Indian ocean. The phreatic surface, inverted with the help of the Simplex algorithm from the SP data, agrees well with the available information in this area [one borehole and electromagnetic (EM) data]. This interpretation scheme, which we call electrography, has many applications to the crucial problem of water supply in volcanic areas where drilling is expensive. [source]

    Regional water resource implications of bioethanol production in the Southeastern United States

    Abstract The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 mandates US production of 136 billion L of biofuel by 2022. This target implies an appropriation of regional primary production for dedicated feedstocks at scales that may dramatically affect water supply, exacerbate existing water quality challenges, and force undesirable environmental resource trade offs. Using a comparative life cycle approach, we assess energy balances and water resource implications for four dedicated ethanol feedstocks , corn, sugarcane, sweet sorghum, and southern pine , in two southeastern states, Florida and Georgia, which are a presumed epicenter for future biofuel production. Net energy benefit ratios for ethanol and coproducts range were 1.26 for corn, 1.94 for sweet sorghum, 2.51 for sugarcane, and 2.97 for southern pine. Corn also has high nitrogen (N) and water demand (11.2 kg GJnet,1 and 188 m3 GJnet,1, respectively) compared with other feedstocks, making it a poor choice for regional ethanol production. Southern pine, in contrast, has relatively low N demand (0.4 kg GJnet,1) and negligible irrigation needs. However, it has comparatively low gross productivity, which results in large land area per unit ethanol production (208 m2 GJnet,1), and, by association, substantial indirect and incremental water use (51 m3 GJnet,1). Ultimately, all four feedstocks require substantial land (10.1, 3.1, 2.5, and 6.1 million ha for corn, sugarcane, sweet sorghum, and pine, respectively), annual N fertilization (3230, 574, 396, 109 million kg N) and annual total water (54 400, 20 840, 8840, and 14 970 million m3) resources when scaled up to meet EISA renewable fuel standards production goals. This production would, in turn, offset only 17.5% of regional gasoline consumption on a gross basis, and substantially less when evaluated on a net basis. Utilization of existing waste biomass sources may ameliorate these effects, but does not obviate the need for dedicated primary feedstock production. Careful scrutiny of environmental trade-offs is necessary before embracing aggressive ethanol production mandates. [source]

    Are more productive varieties of Paspalum dilatatum less tolerant to drought?

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2010
    L. L. Couso
    Abstract Paspalum dilatatum Poir., is a perennial C4 grass widely distributed in the Argentinean Pampas. The response to water availability for materials developed with forage-production purposes is unknown. We hypothesized that genetic differences between commercial varieties are reflected in their regrowth capacity under water stress. The effect of five levels of constant water supply on three plant varieties (two derived from apomictic materials: ,Relincho' and ,Alonso' and one from sexually-derived material: ,Primo') were examined in the greenhouse. Leaf- and plant-response traits were followed during 38 d after a single defoliation event. Seven response variables were measured: three of them were morphogenetic (leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and leaf elongation duration) and four were structural (number of live leaves, lamina length, tiller biomass and tiller production). The sexual material showed higher values for growth variables than the apomictic varieties (leaf elongation rate, leaf length and tiller biomass) across the environmental range. Apomictic varieties showed a proportionally similar drought response to the sexual material for the seven variables. No intra-specific trade-off (statistical interaction) was found between growth under high water availability conditions and drought tolerance. [source]

    Fluorescence of Dissolved Organic Matter as a Natural Tracer of Ground Water

    GROUND WATER, Issue 5 2001
    Andy Baker
    The fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in ground water in the Permian limestone of northeast England is determined from six monitoring boreholes, a private water supply well and from a natural resurgence in a flooded collapse doline in the environs of Darlington, County Durham, northeast England. Measurements of both protein and "fulvic-like" fluorescence was undertaken from January to December 1999. The wavelengths of fulvic-like fluorescence excitation and emission and of protein fluorescence emission were all determined to be sensitive fingerprints of organic matter fluxes through the ground water, with water within the till and within both gypsum and limestone strata deep inside the Magnesian Limestone being differentiated by these parameters. Previous research has suggested that proteins in waters are "young" in age, hence our seasonal variations suggest that we are sampling recently formed DOM. The rapid response of all deep borehole samples suggests relatively rapid ground water flow, probably through karstic cave systems developed in the gypsum and solution widened features in the dolomitic limestone. Our results suggest that use of both protein and fulvic-like fluorescence wavelength variations provides a DOM signature that can be used as a natural tracer. [source]

    Arsenic in Glacial Drift Aquifers and the Implication for Drinking Water,Lower Illinois River Basin

    GROUND WATER, Issue 3 2001
    Kelly L. Warner
    The lower Illinois River Basin (LIRB) covers 47,000 km2 of central and western Illinois. In the LIRB, 90% of the ground water supplies are from the deep and shallow glacial drift aquifers. The deep glacial drift aquifer (DGDA) is below 152 m altitude, a sand and gravel deposit that fills the Mahomet Buried Bedrock Valley, and overlain by more than 30.5 m of clayey till. The LIRB is part of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment program, which has an objective to describe the status and trends of surface and ground water quality. In the DGDA, 55% of the wells used for public drinking-water supply and 43% of the wells used for domestic drinking water supply have arsenic concentrations above 10 ,g/L (a new U.S. EPA drinking water standard). Arsenic concentrations greater than 25 ,g/L in ground water are mostly in the form of arsenite (AsIII). The proportion of arsenate (AsV) to arsenite does not change along the flowpath of the DGDA. Because of the limited number of arsenic species analyses, no clear relations between species and other trace elements, major ions, or physical parameters could be established. Arsenic and barium concentrations increase from east to west in the DGDA and are positively correlated. Chloride and arsenic are positively correlated and provide evidence that arsenic may be derived locally from underlying bedrock. Solid phase geochemical analysis of the till, sand and gravel, and bedrock show the highest presence of arsenic in the underlying organic-rich carbonate bedrock. The black shale or coal within the organic-rich carbonate bedrock is a potential source of arsenic. Most high arsenic concentrations found in the DGDA are west and downgradient of the bedrock structural features. Geologic structures in the bedrock are potential pathways for recharge to the DGDA from surrounding bedrock. [source]

    A First Estimate of Ground Water Ages for the Deep Aquifer of the Kathmandu Basin, Nepal, Using the Radioisotope Chlorine-36

    GROUND WATER, Issue 3 2001
    Richard G. Cresswell
    The Kathmandu Basin in Nepal contains up to 550 m of Pliocene-Quaternary fluvio-lacustrine sediments which have formed a dual aquifer system. The unconfined sand and gravel aquifer is separated by a clay aquitard, up to 200 m thick, from the deeper, confined aquifer, comprised of Pliocene sand and gravel beds, intercalated with clay, peat, and lignite. The confined aquifer currently provides an important water supply to the central urban area but there are increasing concerns about its sus-tainability due to overexploitation. A limited number of determinations of the radioisotope 36Cl have been made on bore waters in the basin, allowing us to postulate on the age of ground water in the deeper, confined aquifer. Ground water evolution scenarios based on radioisotope decay, gradual dissolution of formational salts as the ground waters move downgradient, and flow velocity estimations produce comparable ground water ages for the deep waters, ranging from 200,000 to 400,000 years. From these ages, we deduce a mean ground water flow velocity of only 45 mm/year from recharge in the northeast to the main extraction region 15 km to the southwest. We thus estimate current recharge at about 5 to 15 mm/year, contributing 40,000 to 1.2 million m3/year to the ground water system. Current ground water extraction is estimated to be 20 times this amount. The low specific discharge confirms that the resource is being mined, and, based on current projections, reserves will be used up within 100 years. [source]

    Recharge Through a Regional Till Aquitard: Three-Dimensional Flow Model Water Balance Approach

    GROUND WATER, Issue 3 2000
    Richard E. Gerber
    In southern Ontario, vertical leakage through a regionally extensive till is the primary source of recharge to underlying aquifers used for domestic and municipal water supply. Since leakage is largely controlled by the bulk hydraulic conductivity (K) of the aquitard, accurate estimates of K are necessary to quantify the resource. Considerable controversy exists regarding estimates of K for this aquitard, which vary according to the scale of the test method. For the till matrix, estimates from core samples and slug tests consistently range from 10,11 to 10,10 m/s. Isotopic evidence (3H), on the other hand, indicates that nonmatrix structures such as sand lenses, erosional surfaces, joints, and fractures significantly enhance till permeability. This is confirmed by slug test, pump test, recharge, and water balance studies, which show that K varies over seven orders of magnitude (10,12 to 10,5 m/s). To provide a regional estimate of bulk K and a reliable estimate of vertical recharge through the Northern Till, a numerical ground water flow model was constructed for the Duffins and Petticoat Creek drainage hasin. The model was calibrated to measurements of hydraulic head and estimates and measurements of base flow throughout the basin. This model demonstrates that the vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) for the Northern Till ranges from 5 × 10,10 to 5 × 10,9 m/s, values that are up to 2.5 orders of magnitude greater than matrix K estimates. Regional recharge through the Northern Till is estimated to range from 30 to 35 mm/a. [source]

    Application of Direct Push Methods to Investigate Uranium Distribution in an Alluvial Aquifer

    Wesley McCall
    The U.S. EPA 2000 Radionuclide Rule established a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for uranium of 30 µg/L. Many small community water supplies are struggling to comply with this new regulation. At one such community, direct push (DP) methods were applied to obtain hydraulic profiling tool (HPT) logs and install small diameter wells in a section of alluvial deposits located along the Platte River. This work was conducted to evaluate potential sources of elevated uranium in the Clarks, Nebraska drinking water supply. HPT logs were used to understand the hydrostratigraphy of a portion of the aquifer and guide placement of small diameter wells at selected depth intervals. Low-flow sampling of the wells provided water quality parameters and samples for analysis to study the distribution of uranium and variations in aquifer chemistry. Contrary to expectations, the aquifer chemistry revealed that uranium was being mobilized under anoxic and reducing conditions. Review of the test well and new public water supply well construction details revealed that filter packs extended significantly above the screened intervals of the wells. These filter packs were providing a conduit for the movement of groundwater with elevated concentrations of uranium into the supply wells and the community drinking water supply. The methods applied and lessons learned here may be useful for the assessment of unconsolidated aquifers for uranium, arsenic, and many other drinking water supply contaminants. [source]