Water Stress (water + stress)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Water Stress

  • severe water stress
  • soil water stress

  • Terms modified by Water Stress

  • water stress tolerance

  • Selected Abstracts


    WATER STRESS ALTERS THE GENETIC ARCHITECTURE OF FUNCTIONAL TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH DROUGHT ADAPTATION IN AVENA BARBATA

    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2009
    Mark E. Sherrard
    Environmental stress can alter genetic variation and covariation underlying functional traits, and thus affect adaptive evolution in response to natural selection. However, the genetic basis of functional traits is rarely examined in contrasting resource environments, and consequently, there is no consensus regarding whether environmental stress constrains or facilitates adaptive evolution. We tested whether resource availability affects genetic variation for and covariation among seven physiological traits and seven morphological/performance traits by growing the annual grass Avena barbata in dry and well-watered treatments. We found that differences in the overall genetic variance,covariance (G) matrix between environments were driven by physiological traits rather than morphology and performance traits. More physiological traits were heritable in the dry treatment than the well-watered treatment and many of the genetic correlations among physiological traits were environment dependent. In contrast, genetic variation and covariation among the morphological and performance traits did not differ across treatments. Furthermore, genetic correlations between physiology and performance were stronger in the dry treatment, which contributed to differences in the overall G -matrix. Our results therefore suggest that physiological adaptation would be constrained by low heritable variation in resource-rich environments, but facilitated by higher heritable variation and stronger genetic correlations with performance traits in resource-poor environments. [source]


    EFFECTS OF WATER STRESS ON THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND MINERAL CONTENTS OF SEEDS OF TWO LUPINS (LUPINUS ALBUS AND LUPINUS MUTABILIS)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 4 2005
    ISABEL MARIA MARQUES SARAIVA DE CARVALHO
    ABSTRACT Because mineral composition data for lupins subjected to water stress (ws) are incomplete, it is essential to analyze those seeds in order to assess the quality of potential food source for both human and animal nutrition. So, we have performed chemical proximate analysis and determined the mineral profile of seeds from two lupins subjected to ws period and compared with seeds from well-watered (ww) plants. From the above results we can conclude that the values obtained fall within the range of values reported for both species (at ww conditions) and no significant (P > 0.05) differences were found in nutritional composition and mineral content between both lupins. Ws period was responsible for a significant increase in sugar, ash, both macroelements (Ca, Na, K, Mg) and microelements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu) as well as phytate content. The results obtained are relevant for selection of better mineral nutritive value of seeds from lupin species. [source]


    Impact of Water Stress on Maize Grown Off-Season in a Subtropical Environment

    JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
    C. M. T. Soler
    Abstract During the last decade, the production of off-season maize has increased in several regions of Brazil. Growing maize during this season, with sowing from January through April, imposes several climatic risks that can impact crop yield. This is mainly caused by the high variability of precipitation and the probability of frost during the reproduction phases. High production risks are also partially due to the use of cultivars that are not adapted to the local environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate crop growth and development and associated yield, yield components and water use efficiency (WUE) for maize hybrids with different maturity ratings grown off-season in a subtropical environment under both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Three experiments were conducted in 2001 and 2002 in Piracicaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil with four hybrids of different maturity duration, AG9010 (very short season), DAS CO32 and Exceler (short season) and DKB 333B (normal season). Leaf area index (LAI), plant height and dry matter were measured approximately every 18 days. Under rainfed conditions, the soil water content in the deeper layers was reduced, suggesting that the extension of the roots into these layers was a response to soil water limitations. On average, WUE varied from 1.45 kg m,3 under rainfed conditions to 1.69 kg m,3 under irrigated conditions during 2001. The average yield varied from 4209 kg ha,1 for the hybrids grown under rainfed conditions to 5594 kg ha,1 under irrigated conditions during 2001. Yield reductions under rainfed conditions were affected by the genotype. For the hybrid DKB 333B with a normal maturity, yield was reduced by 25.6 % while the short maturity hybrid Exceler was the least impacted by soil water limitations with a yield reduction of only 8.4 %. To decrease the risk of yield loss, the application of supplemental irrigation should be considered by local farmers, provided that this practice is not restricted by either economic considerations or the availability of sufficient water resources. [source]


    Influence of Water Stress on the Chemical Composition of Seeds of Two Lupins (Lupinus albus and Lupinus mutabilis)

    JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 2 2005
    I. S. Carvalho
    Abstract We have performed chemical proximate analysis and determined the carbohydrate profile of mature seeds of Lupinus albus, cv. Rio Maior and Lupinus mutabilis, cv. Potosi plants, either well watered (ww) or subjected to a water-stress period (imposed from the 15th to 35th day after anthesis). Protein content from lupin seeds was 450 and 320 g kg,1 of seed on dry weight basis, for ww plants, respectively, of L. albus and L. mutabilis. Water stress did not affect protein content. The oil content of ww plants was about 120 g kg,1 of seed dry weight for L. albus and 180 g kg,1 of seed dry weight for L. mutabilis. Water stress reduced those values of half. The sugar content was about 90 g kg,1 for L. albus and 50 g kg,1 of seed dry weight for L. mutabilis, in ww plants. Water stress led to an increase in sugar content to 200 and 130 g kg,1 of seed dry weight, respectively, for L. albus and L. mutabilis. The , -galactosides amounted to 70 % of the total sugars (raffinose being 30 % and stachyose, 40 %) and sucrose was about 20 % of the total sugars. Water stress increased total carbohydrates and increased the sucrose/, -galactoside ratio, although reducing raffinose content and increasing sucrose content. [source]


    Effect of Water Stress at Various Growth Stages on Some Quality Characteristics of Winter Wheat

    JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 2 2004
    A. Ozturk
    Abstract A field experiment was carried out in Erzurum (Turkey) on winter wheat to analyse the effect of water stress at different growth stages , fully irrigated (FI), rainfed (R), early water stress (EWS), late water stress (LWS) and continuous water stress (CWS), on some quality characteristics , in the 1995,96 and 1996,97 cropping seasons. Water stress had a substantial effect on most of the quality characteristics. As averages of cropping seasons, CWS, EWS, R and LWS treatments decreased grain yields by 65.5, 40.6, 30.5 and 24.0 %, respectively, compared with the FI treatment. CWS increased grain protein content by 18.1 %, sedimentation volume by 16.5 %, wet gluten content by 21.9 % and decreased 1000-kernel weight by 7.5 g compared with FI treatment. LWS caused an increase of 8.3 % in grain protein content, 8.7 % in sedimentation volume, 10.8 % in wet gluten content and a reduction of 3.8 g in 1000-kernel weight compared with FI. EWS and R increased sedimentation volume and wet gluten content, but decreased 1000-kernel weight compared with FI. The effect of LWS on grain quality was more significant than that of EWS. The results suggest that soil moisture conditions increase grain yield and kernel weight of winter wheat but decrease its quality. [source]


    Photosynthetic Responses of a Temperate Liana to Xylella fastidiosa Infection and Water Stress

    JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    A. J. McElrone
    Abstract Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen that causes bacterial leaf scorch in its hosts. Our previous work showed that water stress enhances leaf scorch symptom severity and progression along the stem of a liana, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, infected by X. fastidiosa. This paper explores the photosynthetic gas exchange responses of P. quinquefolia, with the aim to elucidate mechanisms behind disease expression and its interaction with water stress. We used a 2 × 2-complete factorial design, repeated over two growing seasons, with high and low soil moisture levels and infected and non-infected plants. In both years, low soil moisture levels reduced leaf water potentials, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance at all leaf positions, while X. fastidiosa -infection reduced these parameters at basally located leaves only. Intercellular CO2 concentrations were reduced in apical leaves, but increased at the most basal leaf location, implicating a non-stomatal reduction of photosynthesis in leaves showing the greatest disease development. This result was supported by measured reductions in photosynthetic rates of basal leaves at high CO2 concentrations, where stomatal limitation was eliminated. Repeated measurements over the summer of 2000 showed that the effects of water stress and infection were progressive over time, reaching their greatest extent in September. By reducing stomatal conductances at moderate levels of water stress, P. quinquefolia maintained relatively high leaf water potentials and delayed the onset of photosynthetic damage due to pathogen and drought-induced water stress. In addition, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that P. quinquefolia has an efficient means of dissipating excess light energy that protects the photosynthetic machinery of leaves from irreversible photoinhibitory damage that may occur during stress-induced stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. However, severe stress induced by disease and drought eventually led to non-stomatal decreases in photosynthesis associated with leaf senescence. [source]


    Solute Heterogeneity and Osmotic Adjustment in Different Leaf Structures of Semi-Leafless Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Subjected to Water Stress

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    E. M. González
    Abstract: Semi-leafless varieties of pea have considerable agronomic importance and it has been suggested that they may have a superior response to water deficits than conventional varieties. However, these varieties are poorly characterized from a physiological point of view and there is lack of a physiological basis for their supposed better performance under conditions of water deficit. Here, we describe the solute distribution in the different leaf structures of a semi-leafless pea variety (Pisum sativum L.) under non-limiting water conditions and under water stress. A conventional variety was subjected to the same conditions for comparative purposes. A detailed study was carried out both at the tissue level and at the single cell level. In control conditions, epidermal vacuoles of tendrils showed a different ion distribution of those of the laminar leaf structures. However, under water deficit, only stipules of the semi-leafless variety showed a significantly higher capability to increase osmolarity. This occurred by accumulating potassium, magnesium and chloride to a higher extent than other leaf structures. The inability of performing an adequate osmotic adjustment in tendrils may be the cause of the lack of a better response to water deficit. [source]


    Pathogenicity of fungi isolated from Quercus suber in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
    J. Luque
    Summary Thirty-four fungal species isolated from cork oak (Quercus suber) in Catalonia (NE Spain) during 1992,95 were tested for pathogenicity either in stem, leaf or root inoculations. Eleven species were found to be pathogenic on stem: Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Botryosphaeria stevensii, Diatrype cf. stigma, Endothia gyrosa, Fusarium solani, Graphium sp., Ophiostoma quercus, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sporendocladia bactrospora and an unidentified Coelomycete. Three fungi showed pathogenic effects on leaves: Dendrophoma myriadea, Lembosia quercina and Phomopsis quercella. No clear pathogenic effects were detected in the root inoculation experiment. Trunk pathogens were differentiated into two groups according to the effects induced in the inoculated plants; B. stevensii, Phomopsis sp. and P. cinnamomi caused the death of the inoculated plants and induced the formation of large cankers and vascular necroses. The other pathogenic species also produced severe cankers and vascular lesions, but no significant mortality was detected. Water stress increased the lesions caused by B. mediterranea and Phomopsis sp., but limited those of P. cinnamomi and the rest of the inoculated fungi. However, water stress did not significantly affect the damage caused by B. stevensii, which was the most virulent of the species tested. Leaf pathogens only showed their effects if the leaf cuticle was previously damaged. Lembosia quercina caused small dark lesions whereas D. myriadea and P. quercella produced large necrotic areas in well-watered plants. The lesions caused by the last two fungi were reduced by water stress. Résumé Le pouvoir pathogène de trente-quatre espèces fongiques isolées de chêne liège en Catalogne (nord-est de l'Espagne) de 1992 à 1995 a été testé par inoculation sur tronc, feuilles et racines. Onze espèces se sont montrées pathogènes sur tronc: Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Botryosphaeria stevensii, Diatrype cf. stigma, Endothia gyrosa, Fusarium solani, Graphium sp., Ophiostoma quercus, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sporendocladia bactrospora et un Coelomycète non identifié. Trois champignons ont eu un effet pathogène sur feuilles: Dendrophoma myriadae, Lembosia quercina et Phomopsis quercella. Aucun effet clair n'a été détecté chez les inoculations de racines. Les pathogènes de tronc se répartissaient en deux groupes selon leurs effets en inoculation; B. stevensii, Phomopsis sp. et P. cinnamomi provoquaient la mort des plants et induisaient le formation de grands chancres et des nécroses vasculaires. Les autres espèces pathogènes produisaient aussi des chancres graves et des lésions vasculaires, mais pas de mortalité significative. Un stress hydrique augmentait les lésions provoquées par B. mediterranea et Phomopsis sp. mais limitait ceux de P. cinnamomi et des autres champignons inoculés. Cependant, le stress hydrique n'affectait pas significativement les dégâts par B. stevensii qui était la plus agressive des espèces testées. Les pathogènes foliaires n'avaient d'effet que si la cuticule foliaire était préalablement endommagée. Lembosia quercina provoquait de petites lésions sombres et D. myriadea et P. quercella provoquaient de grandes plages nécrotiques chez les plants bien arrosés; les lésions causées par ces deux derniers champignons étaient réduites par le stress hydrique. Zusammenfassung Die Pathogenität von 34 Pilzarten, die im Zeitraum 1992,1995 von Korkeichen (Quercus suber) in Katalonien (NO-Spanien) isoliert wurden, wurden mit Hilfe von Trieb-, Blatt- oder Wurzelinokulationen untersucht. Am Stamm erwiesen sich 11 Arten als pathogen: Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Botryosphaeria stevensii, Diatrype cf. stigma, Endothia gyrosa, Fusarium solani, Graphium sp., Ophiostoma quercus, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sporendocladia bactrospora und ein nicht identifizierter Coelomycet. Drei Arten verursachten Symptome auf Bla¨ttern: Dendrophoma myriadea, Lembosia quercina und Phomopsis quercella. Bei den Wurzelinokulationen wurden keine pathogenen Effekte beobachtet. Bei den Stammpathogenen wurden nach den von ihnen an den inokulierten Pflanzen verursachten Symptomen zwei Gruppen unterschieden: B. stevensii, Phomopsis sp. und P. cinnamomi verursachten den Tod der Pflanzen und induzierten die Bildung von grossen Rinden- und Xylemnekrosen. Die anderen pathogenen Arten verursachten ebenfalls starke Rindennekrosen und Gefa¨ssla¨sionen, es wurde jedoch keine auffallende Mortalita¨t beobachtet. Unter Wasserstress war die durch B. mediterranea und Phomopsis sp. induzierte Nekrosebildung versta¨rkt, dagegen war sie bei P. cinnamomi und den u¨brigen inokulierten Pilzen reduziert. Wasserstress beeinflusst jedoch das Ausmass der Scha¨digung durch B. stevensii, der virulentesten der untersuchten Arten, nicht. Die Blattpathogene verursachten nur dann Symptome, wenn zuvor die Blattcuticula bescha¨digt worden war. Lembosia quercina verursachte kleine dunkle La¨sionen, wa¨hrend D. myriadea und P. quercella bei gut bewa¨sserten Pflanzen grosse Nekrosen verursachten. Diese Symptome waren unter Wasserstress weniger stark ausgepra¨gt. [source]


    Climatic controls on the carbon and water balances of a boreal aspen forest, 1994,2003

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    ALAN G. BARR
    Abstract The carbon and water budgets of boreal and temperate broadleaf forests are sensitive to interannual climatic variability and are likely to respond to climate change. This study analyses 9 years of eddy-covariance data from the Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites (BERMS) Southern Old Aspen site in central Saskatchewan, Canada and characterizes the primary climatic controls on evapotranspiration, net ecosystem production (FNEP), gross ecosystem photosynthesis (P) and ecosystem respiration (R). The study period was dominated by two climatic extremes: extreme warm and cool springs, which produced marked contrasts in the canopy duration, and a severe, 3-year drought. Annual FNEP varied among years from 55 to 367 g C m,2 (mean 172, SD 94). Interannual variability in FNEP was controlled primarily by factors that affected the R/P ratio, which varied between 0.74 and 0.96 (mean 0.87, SD 0.06). Canopy duration enhanced P and FNEP with no apparent effect on R. The fraction of annual photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) that was absorbed by the canopy foliage varied from 38% in late leaf-emergence years to 51% in early leaf-emergence years. Photosynthetic light-use efficiency (mean 0.0275, SD 0.026 mol C mol,1 photons) was relatively constant during nondrought years but declined with drought intensity to a minimum of 0.0228 mol C mol,1 photons during the most severe drought year. The impact of drought on FNEP varied with drought intensity. Years of mild-to-moderate drought suppressed R while having little effect on P, so that FNEP was enhanced. Years of severe drought suppressed both R and P, causing either little change or a subtle reduction in FNEP. The analysis produced new insights into the dominance of canopy duration as the most important biophysical control on FNEP. The results suggested a simple conceptual model for annual FNEP in boreal deciduous forests. When water is not limiting, annual P is controlled by canopy duration via its influence on absorbed PAR at constant light-use efficiency. Water stress suppresses P, by reducing light-use efficiency, and R, by limiting growth and/or suppressing microbial respiration. The high photosynthetic light-use efficiency showed this site to be a highly productive boreal deciduous forest, with properties similar to many temperate deciduous forests. [source]


    Exogenous Glycinebetaine and Salicylic Acid Application Improves Water Relations, Allometry and Quality of Hybrid Sunflower under Water Deficit Conditions

    JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009
    M. Hussain
    Abstract Limited water availability hampers the sustainability of crop production. Exogenous application of glycinebetaine (GB) and salicylic acid (SA) has been found very effective in reducing the adverse effects of water scarcity. This study was conducted to examine the possible role of exogenous GB and SA application in improving the growth and water relations of hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under different irrigation regimes. There were three levels of irrigation, viz. control (normal irrigations), water stress at budding stage (irrigation missing at budding stage) and water stress at flowering stage (FS) (irrigation missing at FS). GB and SA were applied exogenously at 100 and 0.724 mm respectively, each at the budding and FS. Control plants did not receive application of GB and SA. Water stress reduced the leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration (LAD), crop growth rate (CGR), leaf relative water contents, water potential, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, achene yield and water use efficiency. Nevertheless, exogenous GB and SA application appreciably improved these attributes under water stress. However, exogenous GB application at the FS was more effective than other treatments. Net assimilation rate was not affected by water stress as well as application of GB and SA. The protein contents were considerably increased by water stress at different growth stages, but were reduced by exogenous GB and SA application. The effects of water stress and foliar application of GB were more pronounced when applied at FS than at the budding stage. Moreover, exogenous GB application was only advantageous under stress conditions. [source]


    Improving Drought Tolerance by Exogenous Application of Glycinebetaine and Salicylic Acid in Sunflower

    JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
    M. Hussain
    Abstract Water shortage is a severe threat to the sustainability of crop production. Exogenous application of glycinebetaine (GB) and salicylic acid (SA) has been found very effective in reducing the adverse affects of drought stress. This study was conducted to examine the possible role of exogenous GB and SA application in improving the yield of hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under different irrigation regimes. There were three levels of irrigation, viz. control (normal irrigations), water stress at vegetative stage (irrigation missing at vegetative stage) and water stress at flowering stage (irrigation missing at flowering stage). GB and SA were applied exogenously at 100 and 0.724 mm, respectively, each at the vegetative and at the flowering stage. Control plants did not receive application of GB and SA. Water stress reduced the head diameter, number of achene, 1000-achene weight, achene yield and oil yield. Nevertheless, exogenous GB and SA application significantly improved these attributes under water stress. However, drought stress increased the free leaf proline and GB, and were further increased by exogenous application of GB and SA. However, exogenous GB application at the flowering stage was more effective than other treatments. Oil contents were also reduced under water stress; however, GB and SA application could not ameliorate the negative effect of water stress on achene oil contents. The effects of water stress and foliar application of GB were more pronounced when applied at the flowering stage than at the vegetative stage. Moreover, exogenous GB application was only beneficial under stress conditions. [source]


    Influence of Water Stress on the Chemical Composition of Seeds of Two Lupins (Lupinus albus and Lupinus mutabilis)

    JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 2 2005
    I. S. Carvalho
    Abstract We have performed chemical proximate analysis and determined the carbohydrate profile of mature seeds of Lupinus albus, cv. Rio Maior and Lupinus mutabilis, cv. Potosi plants, either well watered (ww) or subjected to a water-stress period (imposed from the 15th to 35th day after anthesis). Protein content from lupin seeds was 450 and 320 g kg,1 of seed on dry weight basis, for ww plants, respectively, of L. albus and L. mutabilis. Water stress did not affect protein content. The oil content of ww plants was about 120 g kg,1 of seed dry weight for L. albus and 180 g kg,1 of seed dry weight for L. mutabilis. Water stress reduced those values of half. The sugar content was about 90 g kg,1 for L. albus and 50 g kg,1 of seed dry weight for L. mutabilis, in ww plants. Water stress led to an increase in sugar content to 200 and 130 g kg,1 of seed dry weight, respectively, for L. albus and L. mutabilis. The , -galactosides amounted to 70 % of the total sugars (raffinose being 30 % and stachyose, 40 %) and sucrose was about 20 % of the total sugars. Water stress increased total carbohydrates and increased the sucrose/, -galactoside ratio, although reducing raffinose content and increasing sucrose content. [source]


    Effect of Water Stress at Various Growth Stages on Some Quality Characteristics of Winter Wheat

    JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 2 2004
    A. Ozturk
    Abstract A field experiment was carried out in Erzurum (Turkey) on winter wheat to analyse the effect of water stress at different growth stages , fully irrigated (FI), rainfed (R), early water stress (EWS), late water stress (LWS) and continuous water stress (CWS), on some quality characteristics , in the 1995,96 and 1996,97 cropping seasons. Water stress had a substantial effect on most of the quality characteristics. As averages of cropping seasons, CWS, EWS, R and LWS treatments decreased grain yields by 65.5, 40.6, 30.5 and 24.0 %, respectively, compared with the FI treatment. CWS increased grain protein content by 18.1 %, sedimentation volume by 16.5 %, wet gluten content by 21.9 % and decreased 1000-kernel weight by 7.5 g compared with FI treatment. LWS caused an increase of 8.3 % in grain protein content, 8.7 % in sedimentation volume, 10.8 % in wet gluten content and a reduction of 3.8 g in 1000-kernel weight compared with FI. EWS and R increased sedimentation volume and wet gluten content, but decreased 1000-kernel weight compared with FI. The effect of LWS on grain quality was more significant than that of EWS. The results suggest that soil moisture conditions increase grain yield and kernel weight of winter wheat but decrease its quality. [source]


    Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Hexaploid and Tetraploid Wheat to Drought Stress

    JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 4 2000
    V. Chandrasekar
    An experiment was conducted to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of two hexaploids viz., C 306 (water stress tolerant) and Hira (water stress susceptible), and two tetraploids, HW 24 (Triticum dicoccum) and A 9-30-1 (Triticum durum) wheat genotypes to water stress under pot culture condition. Water stress was imposed for a uniform period of 10 days at 50, 60 and 70 days after sowing (DAS) and observations were recorded at 60, 70 and 80 DAS. Total dry matter and plant height were recorded at harvest. Water stress caused a decline in relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll and carotenoid content, membrane stability and nitrate reductase activity and increased accumulation of proline at all stages and abscisic acid (ABA) at 80 DAS in all the genotypes. Both the tetraploids showed a lower reduction in RWC and highest ABA accumulation under water stress. Among the hexaploids Hira showed the most decline in RWC and the lowest ABA accumulation. The tetraploids also showed comparatively higher carotenoid content and membrane stability, closely followed by C 306, while Hira showed the minimum response under water stress. Nitrate reductase activity and chlorophyll content under irrigated conditions were highest in Hira but under water stress the lowest per cent decline was observed in C 306, followed by HW 24, A 9-30-1, and Hira. Proline accumulation under water stress conditions was highest in hexaploids C 306 and Hira and lowest in tetraploids HW 24 and A 9-30-1. Tetraploids HW 24, followed by A 9-30-1 maintained higher plant height and total dry matter (TDM) under water stress and also showed a lower per cent decline under stress than hexaploids C 306 and Hira. From the results it is clear that proline accumulation did not contribute to better drought tolerance of tetraploids than hexaploids. It is also apparent that water stress tolerance is the result of the cumulative action of various physiological processes, and all the parameters/processes may not be positively associated with the drought tolerance of a particular tolerant genotype. [source]


    Photochemical reflectance index as a mean of monitoring early water stress

    ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    V. Sarlikioti
    Water stress in plants affects a number of physiological processes such as photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance as well as the operating efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is reported to be sensitive to changes in xanthophyll cycle which occur during stress and could possibly be used to monitor changes in the parameters mentioned before. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of PRI as an early water stress indicator. Water stress treatment was imposed in a greenhouse tomato crop. CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, light-adapted and dark-adapted fluorescence as well as PRI and relative water content (RWCs%) of the rooting medium were repeatedly measured. The same measurements were also performed on well-irrigated plants that acted as a reference. The experiment was repeated in four consecutive weeks. Results showed a strong correlation between RWCs% and photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, NPQ and operating efficiency of PSII but not with PRI when the whole dataset was considered. Nevertheless, more detailed analysis revealed that PRI gave a good correlation when light levels were above 700 µmol m,2 s,1. Therefore, the use of PRI as a water stress indicator cannot be independent of the ambient light conditions. [source]


    Identification and significance of sources of spatial variation in grapevine water status

    AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF GRAPE AND WINE RESEARCH, Issue 1 2010
    J.A. TAYLOR
    Abstract Background and Aims:, Water stress in grapevines is directly linked to grape quality. Differential vine water management should therefore be strongly linked to the water stress in the vine. To do this, an understanding of the dominant drivers and indicators of vine water status are needed from a sub-block to whole vineyard level. This understanding will help generate effective vine water status models for variable rate irrigation systems. Methods and Results:, A vineyard in the south of France was sampled for pre-dawn leaf water potential (,PD) at several dates during the growing season for two consecutive years. Sampling was stratified by soil types and relative within-block vegetative expression. A recursive partitioning analysis identified that cultivar had a dominant effect at low water stress, while vegetative expression and then soil unit effects became dominant as water restriction increased. Variance in ,PD was calculated at difference scales (plant, site, block and vineyard) and Smith's heterogeneity law was used to evaluate the scalar nature of ,PD variance. Spatial heterogeneity increased as the season and water restriction increased. Conclusion:, Variance in ,PD changed temporally through a season and the dominant drivers/indicators also changed. The opportunity to spatially manage water stress (irrigation) increased as water restriction increased. Significance of the Study:, Managing vine water stress helps optimise production and a ,PD model would be a useful addition to a viticulture decision support system. This study identified how the variance in ,PD evolved during a season and the best ancillary indicators of ,PD for spatial and temporal modelling. [source]


    Physiological and morphological responses of the soil bacterium Rhodococcus opacus strain PD630 to water stress

    FEMS MICROBIOLOGY ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Héctor M. Alvarez
    Abstract Rhodococcus opacus PD630 was investigated for physiological and morphological changes under water stress challenge. Gluconate- and hexadecane-grown cells were extremely resistant to these conditions, and survival accounted for up to 300 and 400 days; respectively, when they were subjected to slow air-drying. Results of this study suggest that strain PD630 has specific mechanisms to withstand water stress. Water-stressed cells were sensitive to the application of ethanol, high temperatures and oxidative stress, whereas they exhibited cross-protection solely against osmotic stress during the first hours of application. Results indicate that the resistance programme for water stress in R. opacus PD630 includes the following physiological and morphological changes, among others: (1) energetic adjustments with drastic reduction of the metabolic activity (,39% decrease during the first 24 h and about 90% after 190 days under dehydration), (2) endogenous metabolism using intracellular triacylglycerols for generating energy and precursors, (3) biosynthesis of different osmolytes such as trehalose, ectoine and hydroxyectoine, which may achieve a water balance through osmotic adjustment and may explain the overlap between water and osmotic stress, (4) adjustments of the cell-wall through the turnover of mycolic acid species, as preliminary experiments revealed no evident changes in the thickness of the cell envelope, (5) formation of short fragmenting-cells as probable resistance forms, (6) production of an extracellular slime covering the surface of colonies, which probably regulates internal and external c anges in water potential, and (7) formation of compact masses of cells. This contributes to understanding the water stress resistance processes in the soil bacterium R. opacus PD630. [source]


    Pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) contributes to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) mortality in the Rhone valley of Switzerland

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    M. Dobbertin
    Summary In recent years unusual high mortality of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) has been observed in the Swiss Rhone Valley. The exact causes, however, are not known. At a 2-ha monitoring plot, tree mortality and crown condition have been monitored since 1996. Between 1996 and 2004, 59% of the Scots pines died, most of them following the drought periods 1996,1998 and 2003,2004, while only 15% of the deciduous trees died. Crown transparency, needle discolouration, dead branch percentage, mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) rating, Tomicus sp. shoot feeding, male flowering effect, tree stem diameter, crown shading and social tree class assessed in 1998 were used in a logistic regression model to predict tree mortality. Crown transparency, mistletoe rating and percentage of dead branches were found significant in the model and the probability of tree mortality increased with increasing rankings of these parameters. Needle discolouration could be used to substitute ,dead branch percentage' as predictor. While crown transparency increased with mistletoe rating, for trees in the same transparency class, trees with medium and heavy mistletoe infection were two to four times more likely to die than trees with no or only low mistletoe infection. For the surviving trees we found that trees with mistletoes showed a significantly higher increase in transparency in the year following a drought than trees without, while in a drought year the opposite was true. At the beginning of the observations no significant differences in transparency had been found between the trees with and without mistletoe. However, by the end of the observation period trees with mistletoe had significantly higher crown transparency. We conclude that mistletoe infection can be considered as both a predisposing factor for tree death, by increasing needle loss following drought and a contributing factor by increasing water stress during drought. Résumé Une forte mortalité des pins sylvestres (Pinus sylvestris) a été observée ces dernières années dans la vallée du Rhône en Suisse. Les causes exactes n'en sont pas connues. La mortalité des arbres et l'état des houppiers ont été suivis depuis 1996 dans une parcelle de 2 ha. Entre 1996 et 2004, 59% des pins sylvestres sont morts, la plupart après les périodes de sécheresse de 1996,98 et 2003,2004, comparéà 15% pour les feuillus. La transparence des houppiers, le jaunissement des aiguilles, le pourcentage de mortalité de branches, une note d'importance du gui (Viscum album ssp. austriacum), les attaques d'alimentation sur pousses par Tomicus sp., la floraison mâle, le diamètre du tronc, l'ombrage du houppier et le statut social des arbres, mesurés en 1998, ont été utilisés dans un modèle de régression logistique pour prédire la mortalité des arbres. La transparence des houppiers, le taux de gui et le pourcentage de branches mortes sont des variables significatives, dont l'augmentation est associée à une augmentation de la probabilité de mortalité des arbres. Le jaunissement des aiguilles pourrait être substituée à la mortalité des branches comme variable prédictrice. Tandis que la transparence des houppiers augmente avec le taux de gui, au sein de la même classe de transparence, les arbres avec une infestation de gui moyenne à forte ont une probabilité de mortalité 2 à 4 fois plus élevée que les arbres à infestation faible ou nulle. Chez les arbres survivants, on observe que les arbres porteurs de gui ont une augmentation plus forte de la transparence du houppier l'année suivant une sécheresse que les arbres sans gui, l'inverse étant vrai pendant une année sèche. La différence de transparence des houppiers entre arbres porteurs de gui et arbres sans gui n'était pas significative au début des observations, alors qu'à la fin de la période, les arbres avec gui ont une transparence plus forte. Nous concluons que l'infestation par le gui peut être considérée à la fois comme un facteur prédisposant à la mortalité, en augmentant la perte d'aiguilles après sécheresse, et un facteur contribuant, en augmentant le stress hydrique pendant la sécheresse. Zusammenfassung Seit einigen Jahren werden im Schweizer Rhonetal hohe Absterberaten der gemeinen Kiefer (Pinus sylvestris L.) beobachtet. Die genauen Ursachen sind bis jetzt unbekannt. Auf der zwei Hektar grossen langfristigen Waldökosystemfläche (LWF) Visp werden seit 1996 jährlich Absterberaten, Kronenverlichtung, Mistelbefall (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) und andere Symptome aufgenommen. Zwischen 1996 und 2004 sind 59% aller Föhren auf der Fläche abgestorben, die meisten nach den Trockenperioden 1996,98 und 2003,2004. Dagegen starben nur 15% der Laubbäume ab. Kronenverlichtung, Nadelverfärbung, Totast- und Totzweiganteil (als Indikatoren der Vitalität des Baumes), Mistelbefallsklasse, Triebabwurf durch Waldgärtner, männliche Blütenbildung, Stammdurchmesser, Kronenkonkurrenz und soziale Stellung, alle im Jahr 1998 erhoben, wurden in einer logistischen Regression zur Bestimmung der Absterbewahrscheinlichkeit auf Signifikanz getestet. Kronenverlichtung, Mistelbefallsklasse und Totastanteil waren in dem Model signifikant. Die Wahrscheinlichkeit des Absterbens stieg dabei mit ansteigender Kronenverlichtung, ansteigendem Mistelbefall und ansteigendem Totastanteil. Der Totastanteil konnte im Model durch die Nadelverfärbung ersetzt werden. Die Kronenverlichtung stieg mit dem Mistelbefall an. Bei gleicher Verlichtung starben jedoch Bäume mit mittlerem und starkem Mistelbefall zwei- bis viermal häufiger ab als Bäume ohne oder mit leichtem Mistelbefall. Von den überlebenden Bäumen zeigten solche mit Mistelbefall einen deutlichen Anstieg der Transparenz im Jahr nach Beginn der Trockenheit im Vergleich zu den Bäumen ohne Misteln, während im Jahr der Trockenheit das Umgekehrte der Fall war. Zu Beginn der Beobachtung ergaben sich keine signifikanten Unterschiede in der Kronentransparenz der überlebenden Bäume mit und ohne Misteln. Am Ende der Beobachtungsperiode wiesen jedoch die Bäume mit Misteln signifikant höhere Kronenverlichtungen auf. Wir schliessen daraus, dass die Misteln auf der einen Seite den Baum langfristig schwächen, indem sie zur Reduzierung der Nadelmasse führen und sie auf der anderen Seite während Trockenheit durch erhöhten Wasserstress zum vorzeitigen Absterben beitragen. [source]


    Pre- and post-inoculation water stress affects Sphaeropsis sapinea canker length in Pinus halepensis seedlings

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    Paoletti
    In order to assess the influence of water stress on the development of Sphaeropsis sapinea cankers in Pinus halepensis, the stems of 4- to 5-year-old potted seedlings were artificially inoculated with the fungus before and after being kept at controlled water regimes from April 1997 to March 1998. In the pre-water-stress inoculation experiment, the canker length, measured 5 months after inoculation (September 1997), was greater in seedlings predisposed to extreme water deficit (midday needle water potential between ,4.5 and ,5.5 MPa). In the post-water-stress inoculation experiment, the fungus was inoculated in April 1998, after irrigation had enabled the seedlings to resume normal needle water potential. In this case also, at 5 months after inoculation, longer cankers were visible in seedlings that had been subjected to extreme water deficit. These findings suggest that the occurrence of marked water stress, although apparently tolerated by Aleppo pine, can enhance the development of S. sapinea cankers in this species, regardless of whether the stress occurs before or after infection by the fungus. Effet d'un stress pré-ou postinoculation sur la longueur du chancre à Sphaeropsis sapinea chez des semis de Pinus halepensis Pour évaluer l'influence du stress hydrique sur le développement des chancres àSphaeropsis sapinea chez le Pinus halepensis, des semis en pot âgés de 4,5 ans ont été inoculés à la tige avant ou après avoir été soumis à des régimes hydriques contrôlés d'avril 1997 à mars 1998. Chez les plants inoculés avant le stress hydrique, la longueur des chancres mesurée après 5 mois (septembre 1997) était plus grande chez les semis soumis à un stress extrême (potentiel hydrique minimum des aiguilles: ,4,5 à,5,5 MPa). Pour les inoculations après le stress, le champignon a été inoculé en avril 1998 après que l'irrigation ait permis aux semis de retrouver un potentiel hydrique foliaire normal. Dans ce cas aussi, les chancres étaient plus longs, 5 mois après l'inoculation, chez les semis ayant subi un stress hydrique extrême. Ces résultats suggèrent que le développement des chancres àS. sapinea chez le pin d'Alep peut être favorisé par des stress hydriques forts bien qu'ils soient bien tolérés par l'hôte, qu'ils surviennent avant ou après l'infection. Einfluss von Wasserstress vor und nach einer Inokulation mit Sphaeropsis sapinea auf die Grösse der Rindennekrosen bei Pinus halepensis , Sämlingen Um den Einfluss von Wasserstress auf die Entwicklung von Rindennekrosen durch Sphaeropsis sapinea bei Pinus halepensis zu untersuchen, wurde der Haupttrieb von 4,5 Jahre alten, getopften Sämlingen künstlich mit diesem Pilz inokuliert. Die Sämlinge wurden vor und nach der Inokulation von April 1997 bis März 1998 unterschiedlich mit Wasser versorgt. Bei Inokulationen vor der Wasserstressbehandlung war die Länge der Rindennekrosen 5 Monate nach der Inokulation (September 1997) bei den Sämlingen mit starkem Wasserdefizit (mittägliches Nadelwasserpotential zwischen ,4,5 und ,5,5 MPa) grösser. Die Inokulation nach der Wasserstressbehandlung erfolgte im April 1998, nachdem die Sämlinge durch Bewässerung wieder ein normales Wasserpotential in den Nadeln aufwiesen. Hier entwickelten sich 5 Monate nach der Inokulation bei Pflanzen mit starkem Wasserdefizit in der Vorbehandlung ebenfalls längere Rindennekrosen. Somit kann starker Wasserstress, obwohl er von der Aleppo-Kiefer toleriert wird, die Bildung von S. sapinea, Nekrosen begünstigen. Dieser Effekt ist unabhängig davon, ob der Wasserstress vor oder nach der Pilzinfektion auftritt. [source]


    Pathogenicity of fungi isolated from Quercus suber in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
    J. Luque
    Summary Thirty-four fungal species isolated from cork oak (Quercus suber) in Catalonia (NE Spain) during 1992,95 were tested for pathogenicity either in stem, leaf or root inoculations. Eleven species were found to be pathogenic on stem: Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Botryosphaeria stevensii, Diatrype cf. stigma, Endothia gyrosa, Fusarium solani, Graphium sp., Ophiostoma quercus, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sporendocladia bactrospora and an unidentified Coelomycete. Three fungi showed pathogenic effects on leaves: Dendrophoma myriadea, Lembosia quercina and Phomopsis quercella. No clear pathogenic effects were detected in the root inoculation experiment. Trunk pathogens were differentiated into two groups according to the effects induced in the inoculated plants; B. stevensii, Phomopsis sp. and P. cinnamomi caused the death of the inoculated plants and induced the formation of large cankers and vascular necroses. The other pathogenic species also produced severe cankers and vascular lesions, but no significant mortality was detected. Water stress increased the lesions caused by B. mediterranea and Phomopsis sp., but limited those of P. cinnamomi and the rest of the inoculated fungi. However, water stress did not significantly affect the damage caused by B. stevensii, which was the most virulent of the species tested. Leaf pathogens only showed their effects if the leaf cuticle was previously damaged. Lembosia quercina caused small dark lesions whereas D. myriadea and P. quercella produced large necrotic areas in well-watered plants. The lesions caused by the last two fungi were reduced by water stress. Résumé Le pouvoir pathogène de trente-quatre espèces fongiques isolées de chêne liège en Catalogne (nord-est de l'Espagne) de 1992 à 1995 a été testé par inoculation sur tronc, feuilles et racines. Onze espèces se sont montrées pathogènes sur tronc: Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Botryosphaeria stevensii, Diatrype cf. stigma, Endothia gyrosa, Fusarium solani, Graphium sp., Ophiostoma quercus, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sporendocladia bactrospora et un Coelomycète non identifié. Trois champignons ont eu un effet pathogène sur feuilles: Dendrophoma myriadae, Lembosia quercina et Phomopsis quercella. Aucun effet clair n'a été détecté chez les inoculations de racines. Les pathogènes de tronc se répartissaient en deux groupes selon leurs effets en inoculation; B. stevensii, Phomopsis sp. et P. cinnamomi provoquaient la mort des plants et induisaient le formation de grands chancres et des nécroses vasculaires. Les autres espèces pathogènes produisaient aussi des chancres graves et des lésions vasculaires, mais pas de mortalité significative. Un stress hydrique augmentait les lésions provoquées par B. mediterranea et Phomopsis sp. mais limitait ceux de P. cinnamomi et des autres champignons inoculés. Cependant, le stress hydrique n'affectait pas significativement les dégâts par B. stevensii qui était la plus agressive des espèces testées. Les pathogènes foliaires n'avaient d'effet que si la cuticule foliaire était préalablement endommagée. Lembosia quercina provoquait de petites lésions sombres et D. myriadea et P. quercella provoquaient de grandes plages nécrotiques chez les plants bien arrosés; les lésions causées par ces deux derniers champignons étaient réduites par le stress hydrique. Zusammenfassung Die Pathogenität von 34 Pilzarten, die im Zeitraum 1992,1995 von Korkeichen (Quercus suber) in Katalonien (NO-Spanien) isoliert wurden, wurden mit Hilfe von Trieb-, Blatt- oder Wurzelinokulationen untersucht. Am Stamm erwiesen sich 11 Arten als pathogen: Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Botryosphaeria stevensii, Diatrype cf. stigma, Endothia gyrosa, Fusarium solani, Graphium sp., Ophiostoma quercus, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sporendocladia bactrospora und ein nicht identifizierter Coelomycet. Drei Arten verursachten Symptome auf Bla¨ttern: Dendrophoma myriadea, Lembosia quercina und Phomopsis quercella. Bei den Wurzelinokulationen wurden keine pathogenen Effekte beobachtet. Bei den Stammpathogenen wurden nach den von ihnen an den inokulierten Pflanzen verursachten Symptomen zwei Gruppen unterschieden: B. stevensii, Phomopsis sp. und P. cinnamomi verursachten den Tod der Pflanzen und induzierten die Bildung von grossen Rinden- und Xylemnekrosen. Die anderen pathogenen Arten verursachten ebenfalls starke Rindennekrosen und Gefa¨ssla¨sionen, es wurde jedoch keine auffallende Mortalita¨t beobachtet. Unter Wasserstress war die durch B. mediterranea und Phomopsis sp. induzierte Nekrosebildung versta¨rkt, dagegen war sie bei P. cinnamomi und den u¨brigen inokulierten Pilzen reduziert. Wasserstress beeinflusst jedoch das Ausmass der Scha¨digung durch B. stevensii, der virulentesten der untersuchten Arten, nicht. Die Blattpathogene verursachten nur dann Symptome, wenn zuvor die Blattcuticula bescha¨digt worden war. Lembosia quercina verursachte kleine dunkle La¨sionen, wa¨hrend D. myriadea und P. quercella bei gut bewa¨sserten Pflanzen grosse Nekrosen verursachten. Diese Symptome waren unter Wasserstress weniger stark ausgepra¨gt. [source]


    Ecophysiological significance of leaf size variation in Proteaceae from the Cape Floristic Region

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Megan J. Yates
    Summary 1.,Small leaves of species endemic to Mediterranean-type climate areas have been associated with both low rainfall and nutrient availability, but the physiological reasons for this association remain unknown. 2.,We postulated that small leaves have thin boundary layers that facilitate transpiration in winter and sensible heat loss in summer. High transpiration rates when water is available may facilitate nutrient acquisition in winter, whereas efficient sensible heat loss reduces the requirement for transpirational leaf cooling in summer. 3.,The consequences of varying leaf sizes for water and heat loss in Cape Proteaceae were examined at two scales. At the leaf level, gas exchange and thermoregulatory capacities of 15 Proteaceae species with varying leaf size were assessed under controlled conditions using phylogenetically independent contrasts. At an environmental level, leaf attributes of Proteaceae occurring in the winter-rainfall area of the Cape Floristic Region were correlated with climatic environments derived from distribution data for each species. 4.,Leaf temperature was positively correlated with leaf size when wind speed was negligible. However, transpiration decreased significantly with increasing leaf size when measured on individual leaves, detached branches and when expressed on a per stoma basis. 5.,From multiple stepwise regression analysis of climatic variables obtained from distribution data, leaf size was negatively correlated with A-Pan evaporation, mean annual temperatures and water stress in January. We conclude that leaf size is conservative for survival over relatively rare periods of hot dry conditions with low wind speeds. 6.,Narrow leaves enable plants to shed heat through sensible heat loss during summer droughts, without the need for transpirational cooling. Additionally, small leaf dimensions confer a capacity for high transpiration when evaporative demand is low and water is abundant (i.e. winter). This may be a particularly important strategy for driving nutrient mass-flow to the roots of plants that take up most of their nutrients in the wet winter/spring months from nutrient-poor soils. [source]


    Chronic exposure to increasing background ozone impairs stomatal functioning in grassland species

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    GINA MILLS
    Abstract Two species found in temperate calcareous and mesotrophic grasslands (Dactylis glomerata and Leontodon hispidus) were exposed to eight ozone treatments spanning preindustrial to post-2100 regimes, and late-season effects on stomatal functioning were investigated. The plants were grown as a mixed community in 14 L containers and were exposed to ozone in ventilated solardomes (dome-shaped greenhouses) for 20 weeks from early May to late September 2007. Ozone exposures were based on O3 concentrations from a nearby upland area, and provided the following seasonal 24 h means: 21.4, 39.9 (simulated ambient), 50.2, 59.4, 74.9, 83.3, 101.3 and 102.5 ppb. In both species, stomatal conductance of undamaged inner canopy leaves developing since a midseason cutback increased linearly with increasing background ozone concentration. Imposition of severe water stress by leaf excision indicated that increasing background ozone concentration decreased the ability of leaves to limit water loss, implying impaired stomatal control. The threshold ozone concentrations for these effects were 15,40 ppb above current ambient in upland UK, and were within the range of ozone concentrations anticipated for much of Europe by the latter part of this century. The potential mechanism behind the impaired stomatal functioning was investigated using a transpiration assay. Unlike for lower ozone treatments, apparently healthy green leaves of L. hispidus that had developed in the 101.3 ppb treatment did not close their stomata in response to 1.5 ,m abscisic acid (ABA); indeed stomatal opening initially occurred in this treatment. Thus, ozone appears to be disrupting the ABA-induced signal transduction pathway for stomatal control thereby reducing the ability of plants to respond to drought. These results have potentially wide-reaching implications for the functioning of communities under global warming where periods of soil drying and episodes of high vapour pressure deficit are likely to be more severe. [source]


    Increased leaf area dominates carbon flux response to elevated CO2 in stands of Populus deltoides (Bartr.)

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    Ramesh Murthy
    Abstract We examined the effects of atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil moisture stress (SMS) on leaf- and stand-level CO2 exchange in model 3-year-old coppiced cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) plantations using the large-scale, controlled environments of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory. A short-term experiment was imposed on top of continuing, long-term CO2 treatments (43 and 120 Pa), at the end of the growing season. For the experiment, the plantations were exposed for 6,14 days to low and high VPD (0.6 and 2.5 kPa) at low and high volumetric soil moisture contents (25,39%). When system gross CO2 assimilation was corrected for leaf area, system net CO2 exchange (SNCE), integrated daily SNCE, and system respiration increased in response to elevated CO2. The increases were mainly as a result of the larger leaf area developed during growth at high CO2, before the short-term experiment; the observed decline in responses to SMS and high VPD treatments was partly because of leaf area reduction. Elevated CO2 ameliorated the gas exchange consequences of water stress at the stand level, in all treatments. The initial slope of light response curves of stand photosynthesis (efficiency of light use by the stand) increased in response to elevated CO2 under all treatments. Leaf-level net CO2 assimilation rate and apparent quantum efficiency were consistently higher, and stomatal conductance and transpiration were significantly lower, under high CO2 in all soil moisture and VPD combinations (except for conductance and transpiration in high soil moisture, low VPD). Comparisons of leaf- and stand-level gross CO2 exchange indicated that the limitation of assimilation because of canopy light environment (in well-irrigated stands; ratio of leaf : stand=3.2,3.5) switched to a predominantly individual leaf limitation (because of stomatal closure) in response to water stress (leaf : stand=0.8,1.3). These observations enabled a good prediction of whole stand assimilation from leaf-level data under water-stressed conditions; the predictive ability was less under well-watered conditions. The data also demonstrated the need for a better understanding of the relationship between leaf water potential, leaf abscission, and stand LAI. [source]


    Soil arthropods as indicators of water stress in Antarctic terrestrial habitats?

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2003
    Peter Convey
    Abstract Abiotic features of Antarctic terrestrial habitats, particularly low temperatures and limited availability of liquid water, strongly influence the ecophysiology and life histories of resident biota. However, while temperature regimes of a range of land microhabitats are reasonably well characterized, much less is known of patterns of soil water stress, as current technology does not allow measurement at the required scale. An alternative approach is to use the water status of individual organisms as a proxy for habitat water status and to sample over several years from a population to identify seasonal or long-term patterns. This broad generalization for terrestrial invertebrates was tested on arthropods in the maritime Antarctic. We present analyses of a long-term data set of body water content generated by monthly sampling for 8,11 years of seven species of soil arthropods (four species of Acari, two Collembola and one Diptera) on maritime Antarctic Signy Island, South Orkney Islands. In all species, there was considerable within- and between-sample variability. Despite this, clear seasonal patterns were present in five species, particularly the two collembolans and a prostigmatid mite. Analyses of monthly water content trends across the entire study period identified several statistically significant trends of either increase or decrease in body water content, which we interpret in the context of regional climate change. The data further support the separation of the species into two groups as follows: firstly, the soft-bodied Collembola and Prostigmata, with limited cuticular sclerotization, which are sensitive to changes in soil moisture and are potentially rapid sensors of microhabitat water status, secondly, more heavily sclerotized forms such as Cryptostigmata (=Oribatida) and Mesostigmata mites, which are much less sensitive and responsive to short-term fluctuations in soil water availability. The significance of these findings is discussed and it is concluded that annual cycles of water content were driven by temperature, mediated via radiation and precipitation, and constituted reliable indicators of habitat moisture regimes. However, detailed ecophysiological studies are required on particular species before such information can be used to predict over long timescales. [source]


    Simulating climate change impacts on fire frequency and vegetation dynamics in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    Florent Mouillot
    Abstract The impacts of climate change on Mediterranean-type ecosystems may result from complex interactions between direct effects on water stress and subsequent modifications in flammability and fire regime leading to changes in standing biomass and plant species composition. We analysed these interrelations through a simulation approach combining scenarios of climate change developed from GCM results and a multispecies functional model for vegetation dynamics, SIERRA. A fire risk procedure based on weekly estimates of vegetation water stress has been implemented. Using climate data from 1960 to 1997, simulations of a typical maquis woodland community have been performed as baseline and compared with two climate scenarios: a change in the rainfall regime alone, and changes in both rainfall and air temperature. Climate changes are defined by an increase in temperature, particularly in summer, and a change in the rainfall pattern leading to a decrease in low rainfall events, and an increase in intense rainfall events. The results illustrate the lack of drastic changes in the succession process, but highlight modifications in the water budget and in the length of the drought periods. Water stress lower than expected regarding statistics on the current climate is simulated, emphasizing a long-term new equilibrium of vegetation to summer drought but with a higher sensibility to rare events. Regarding fire frequency, climate changes tend to decrease the time interval between two successive fires from 20 to 16 years for the maquis shrubland and from 72 to 62 years in the forested stages. This increase in fire frequency leads to shrub-dominated landscapes, which accentuates the yield of water by additional deep drainage and runoff. [source]


    Reconstructing the demise of Tethyan plants: climate-driven range dynamics of Laurus since the Pliocene

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    Francisco Rodríguez-Sánchez
    ABSTRACT Aim Climate changes are thought to be responsible for the retreat and eventual extinction of subtropical lauroid species that covered much of Europe and North Africa during the Palaeogene and early Neogene; little is known, however, of the spatial and temporal patterns of this demise. Herein we calibrate ecological niche models to assess the climatic requirements of Laurus L. (Lauraceae), an emblematic relic from the Tethyan subtropical flora, subsequently using these models to infer how the range dynamics of Laurus were affected by Plio-Pleistocene climate changes. We also provide predictions of likely range changes resulting from future climatic scenarios. Location The Mediterranean Basin and Macaronesian islands (Canaries, Madeira, Azores). Methods We used a maximum-entropy algorithm (Maxent) to model the relationship between climate and Laurus distribution over time. The models were fitted both to the present and to the middle Pliocene, based on fossil records. We employed climatic reconstructions for the mid-Pliocene (3 Ma), the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka) and a CO2 -doubling future scenario to project putative species distribution in each period. We validated the model projections with Laurus fossil and present occurrences. Results Laurus preferentially occupied warm and moist areas with low seasonality, showing a marked stasis of its climatic niche. Models fitted to Pliocene conditions successfully predicted the current species distribution. Large suitable areas existed during the Pliocene, which were strongly reduced during the Pleistocene, but humid refugia within the Mediterranean Basin and Macaronesian islands enabled long-term persistence. Future climate conditions are likely to re-open areas suitable for colonization north of the current range. Main conclusions The climatic requirements of Laurus remained virtually unchanged over the last 3 Myr. This marked niche conservatism imposed largely deterministic range dynamics driven by climate conditions. This species's relatively high drought tolerance might account for the survival of Laurus in continental Europe throughout the Quaternary whilst other Lauraceae became extinct. Climatic scenarios for the end of this century would favour an expansion of the species's range towards northern latitudes, while severely limiting southern populations due to increased water stress. [source]


    Are more productive varieties of Paspalum dilatatum less tolerant to drought?

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2010
    L. L. Couso
    Abstract Paspalum dilatatum Poir., is a perennial C4 grass widely distributed in the Argentinean Pampas. The response to water availability for materials developed with forage-production purposes is unknown. We hypothesized that genetic differences between commercial varieties are reflected in their regrowth capacity under water stress. The effect of five levels of constant water supply on three plant varieties (two derived from apomictic materials: ,Relincho' and ,Alonso' and one from sexually-derived material: ,Primo') were examined in the greenhouse. Leaf- and plant-response traits were followed during 38 d after a single defoliation event. Seven response variables were measured: three of them were morphogenetic (leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and leaf elongation duration) and four were structural (number of live leaves, lamina length, tiller biomass and tiller production). The sexual material showed higher values for growth variables than the apomictic varieties (leaf elongation rate, leaf length and tiller biomass) across the environmental range. Apomictic varieties showed a proportionally similar drought response to the sexual material for the seven variables. No intra-specific trade-off (statistical interaction) was found between growth under high water availability conditions and drought tolerance. [source]


    Responses of shoot growth and survival to water stress gradient in diploid and tetraploid populations of Lolium multiflorum and L. perenne

    GRASSLAND SCIENCE, Issue 4 2006
    Shu-ichi Sugiyama
    Abstract Drought stress is one of the critical environmental factors in determining growth and survival of herbage grasses. In this study, by using a hydroponic culture system including different amounts of polyethylene glycol (PEG), responses of plant shoots to water stress in four different intensities (0 Mpa, ,0.6 Mpa, ,1.2 Mpa and ,1.8 Mpa) were examined in diploid and tetraploid cultivars of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and perennial ryegrass (L. perenne). Since freezing injury is caused by cell dehydration, freezing tolerance was also examined for six subzero temperatures (,11, ,12, ,14, ,16, ,18 and ,20°C) in both species. L. multiflorum had a larger shoot biomass at all stress intensities and a lower survival rate under severe water stress and freezing stress conditions than L. perenne. Thus, there was a trade-off (negative correlation) between potential growth under a stress-free condition and survival under a severe stress condition in diploid and tetraploid cultivars of both species. This trade-off was mediated by tissue water content. High water content led to a high growth rate through increasing specific leaf area, while low water content resulted in a high tissue osmotic potential that could confer high cell dehydration tolerance. [source]


    Global perspective on hydrology, water balance, and water resources management in arid basins

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 2 2010
    Yanjun Shen
    Abstract Arid and semiarid regions comprise a large part of the world's terrestrial area and are home to hundreds of millions of people. Water resources in arid regions are rare and critical to society and to ecosystems. The hydrologic cycle in arid and semiarid regions has been greatly altered due to long-term human exploitation. Under conditions of global warming, water resources in these regions are expected to be more unstable and ecosystems likely will suffer from severe water stress. In the current special issue contributed to understanding ecohydrologic processes and water-related problems in arid regions of western China, this paper provides a global perspective on the hydrology and water balance of six major arid basins of the world. A number of global datasets, including the state-of-the-art ensemble simulation of land surface models by GSWP2 (Global Soil Wetness Project II, a project by GEWEX), were used to address the water balance terms in the world's major hydroclimatic regions. The common characteristics of hydrologic cycles and water balance in arid basins are as follows: strong evapotranspiration characterizes the hydrological cycle in arid basins; and in water use sectors irrigation consumes a large amount of water, resulting in degradation of native vegetation. From the ecohydrology viewpoint, a comprehensive study of hydrological and ecological processes of water utilization in arid basins is urgently needed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Urban and industrial water use in the Krishna Basin, India,

    IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE, Issue 4 2009
    Daniel J. Van Rooijen
    Bassin Krishna; utilisation urbaine de l'eau; utilisation industrielle de l'eau; modélisation Abstract Regional urbanization and industrial development require water that may put additional pressure on available water resources and threaten water quality in developing countries. In this study we use a combination of census statistics, case studies, and a simple model of demand growth to assess current and future urban and industrial water demand in the Krishna Basin in southern India. Water use in this "closed" basin is dominated by irrigation (61.9 billion cubic metres (BCM) yr,1) compared to a modest domestic and industrial water use (1.6 and 3.2 BCM yr,1). Total water diversion for non-irrigation purposes is estimated at 7,8% of available surface water in the basin in an average year. Thermal power plants use the majority of water used by industries (86% or 2.7 BCM yr,1), though only 6.8% of this is consumed via evaporation. Simple modelling of urban and industrial growth suggests that non-agricultural water demand will range from 10 to 20 BCM by 2030. This is 14,28% of basin water available surface water for an average year and 17,34% for a year with 75% dependable flow. Although water use in the Krishna Basin will continue to be dominated by agriculture, water stress, and the fraction of water supplies at risk of becoming polluted by urban and industrial activity, will become more severe in urbanized regions in dry years. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. L'urbanisation régionale et le développement industriel demandent de l'eau, ce qui peut augmenter la pression sur les ressources en eau disponibles dans les pays en développement. Dans cette étude nous utilisons une combinaison de données de recensement, des études de cas et un modèle simple de croissance de la demande pour évaluer la demande en eau urbaine et industrielle actuelle et future dans le bassin Krishna en Inde du sud. Les usages de l'eau dans ce bassin « fermé » sont dominés par l'irrigation (61.9 milliards de m3/an) alors que les usages domestiques et industriels sont modestes (1.6 et 3.2 milliards de m3/an). L'eau utilisée en dehors de l'irrigation est estimée à 7 ,8% de l'eau de surface disponible dans le bassin en année moyenne. Les centrales thermiques utilisent la plus grosse partie de l'eau allouée aux industries (86% ou 2.7 milliards de m3/an) bien que seulement 6.8% de cette quantité soit consommé par évaporation. Une modélisation simple de la croissance urbaine et industrielle suggère que la demande non-agricole d'eau variera de 10 à 20 milliards de m3/an d'ici à 2030. C'est 14,28% de l'eau de surface disponible du bassin en année moyenne et 17,34% de l'écoulement garanti à 75%. Bien que l'utilisation de l'eau dans le bassin Krishna continue à être dominée par l'agriculture, la tension sur l'eau peut devenir plus sévère en année sèche dans les régions urbanisées avec en outre le risque d'une pollution par l'activité urbaine et industrielle. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]