Water Quality Guidelines (water + quality_guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Toxicity of brominated volatile organics to freshwater biota

Monique T. Binet
Abstract As part of a larger study investigating the fate and effects of brominated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated groundwaters discharging to surface waters, the toxicity of 1,2 dibromoethene (DBE) and 1,1,2-tribromoethene (TriBE) to freshwater aquatic biota was investigated. Their toxicity to bacteria (Microtox®), microalgae (Chlorella sp.), cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia), duckweed (Lemna sp.) and midges (Chironomus tepperi) was determined after careful optimization of the test conditions to minimize chemical losses throughout the tests. In addition, concentrations of DBE and TriBE were carefully monitored throughout the bioassays to ensure accurate calculation of toxicity values. 1,2-Dibromoethene showed low toxicity to most species, with concentrations to cause 50% lethality or effect (LC/EC50 values) ranging from 28 to 420,mg/L, 10% lethality or effect (LC/EC10 values) ranging from 18 to 94,mg/L and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) ranging from 22 to 82,mg/L. 1,1,2-Tribromoethene was more toxic than DBE, with LC/EC50 values of 2.4 to 18,mg/L, LC/EC10 values of 0.94 to 11,mg/L and NOECs of 0.29 to 13,mg/L. Using these limited data, together with data from the only other published study on TriBE, moderate-reliability water quality guidelines (WQGs) were estimated from species sensitivity distributions. The proposed guideline trigger values for 95% species protection with 50% confidence were 2,mg/L for DBE and 0.03,mg/L for TriBE. The maximum concentrations of DBE and TriBE in nearby surface waters (3 and 1,µg /L, respectively) were well below these WQGs, so the risk to the freshwater environment receiving contaminated groundwater inflows was considered to be low, with hazard quotients <1 for both VOCs. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:1984,1993. © 2010 SETAC [source]

Evaluation of criteria used to assess the quality of aquatic toxicity data

Dustin A. Hobbs
Abstract Good quality toxicity data underpins robust hazard and risk assessments in aquatic systems and the derivation of water quality guidelines for ecosystems. Hence, an objective scheme to assess the quality of toxicity data forms an important part of this process. The variation of scores from 2 research papers using the Australasian ecotoxicity database (AED) quality assessment scheme was evaluated by 23 ecotoxicologists. The results showed that the quality class that the assessors gave each paper varied by less than 10% when compared with a quality score agreed a priori between the authors of this study. It was determined that the majority of the variation in each assessment was due to ambiguous or poorly written assessment criteria, information that was difficult to find, or information in the paper that was overlooked by the assessor. This led to refinements of the assessment criteria in the AED, which resulted in a 16% improvement (i.e., reduction) in the mean variation of scores for the 2 papers when compared with the a priori scores. The improvement in consensus among different assessors evaluating the same research papers suggests that the data quality assessment scheme proposed in this article provides a more robust scheme for assessing the quality of aquatic toxicity data than methods currently available. [source]

A Generic QSAR for Assessing the Bioaccumulation Potential of Organic Chemicals in Aquatic Food Webs


Abstract This study presents the development of a quantitative-structure activity relationship (QSAR) for assessing the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals in aquatic food webs. The QSAR is derived by parameterization and calibration of a mechanistic food web bioaccumulation model. Calibration of the QSAR is based on the derivation of a large database of bioconcentration and bioaccumulation factors, which is evaluated for data quality. The QSAR provides estimates of the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals in higher trophic level fish species of aquatic food webs. The QSAR can be adapted to include the effect of metabolic transformation and trophic dilution on the BAF. The BAF-QSAR can be applied to categorize organic chemical substances on their bioaccumulation potential. It identifies chemicals with a log KOW between 4.0 and 12.2 to exhibit BAFs greater than 5,000 in the absence of significant metabolic transformation rates. The BAF-QSAR can also be used in the derivation of water quality guidelines and total maximum daily loadings by relating internal concentrations of organic chemicals in upper trophic fish species to corresponding concentrations in the water. [source]

Microbial and nutrient pollution in the coastal bathing waters of Dar es Salaam

Thomas J. Lyimo
Abstract 1.The objective of the present study was to assess the microbial and nutrient quality of coastal beach waters used for bathing in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Concentrations of traditional and alternative microbial indicators of faecal pollution and nutrients were assessed over a 1 year period (August 2005 to August 2006) using standard methods and the results were compared with the WHO water quality guidelines. 2.Faecal indicator bacteria values varied in a consistent fashion and correlated significantly with eachother, reflecting the presumed human faecal pollution. 3.The maximum counts (MPN per 100,mL) were observed on the site close to the city centre (Ocean Road) throughout the sampling period where values ranged from 1700 to>240 000 total coliform (TC), 200 to 92000 faecal coliform (FC) and 11 to 4900 enterococci (ENT). Other sites showed less predictable results with a range of values from 0,920, 0,540 and 0,46 for TC, FC and ENT, respectively. Furthermore, the faecal indicator bacteria concentration varied significantly with sampling time (P<0.05) and between sampling points (P<0.05). 4.Similarly, nutrients were significantly higher (P<0.05) at Ocean Road where concentration (µmolL,1) ranges were 0.2,54 (NO3), 0.0,20 (NO2) and 0.3,45 (PO4). 5.The levels of faecal indicator bacteria and nutrients were higher during the rainy seasons than the dry seasons, showing the inclusion of rain run-off as a source of contamination. The faecal indicator bacteria correlated positively with nutrients in both 1 year and daily data sets (P<0.01). Positive relationships were also observed among faecal indicators. This strongly suggests that an important role is played by sewage contamination in the extent of microbial pollution at the studied urbanized coastal beaches. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]