Water Elevation (water + elevation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A Wet/Wet Differential Pressure Sensor for Measuring Vertical Hydraulic Gradient

GROUND WATER, Issue 1 2010
Brad G. Fritz
Vertical hydraulic gradient is commonly measured in rivers, lakes, and streams for studies of groundwater,surface water interaction. While a number of methods with subtle differences have been applied, these methods can generally be separated into two categories; measuring surface water elevation and pressure in the subsurface separately or making direct measurements of the head difference with a manometer. Making separate head measurements allows for the use of electronic pressure sensors, providing large datasets that are particularly useful when the vertical hydraulic gradient fluctuates over time. On the other hand, using a manometer-based method provides an easier and more rapid measurement with a simpler computation to calculate the vertical hydraulic gradient. In this study, we evaluated a wet/wet differential pressure sensor for use in measuring vertical hydraulic gradient. This approach combines the advantage of high-temporal frequency measurements obtained with instrumented piezometers with the simplicity and reduced potential for human-induced error obtained with a manometer board method. Our results showed that the wet/wet differential pressure sensor provided results comparable to more traditional methods, making it an acceptable method for future use. [source]

Examination for adjoint boundary conditions in initial water elevation estimation problems

T. KurahashiArticle first published online: 23 JUL 200
Abstract I present here a method of generating a distribution of initial water elevation by employing the adjoint equation and finite element methods. A shallow-water equation is employed to simulate flow behavior. The adjoint equation method is utilized to obtain a distribution of initial water elevation for the observed water elevation. The finite element method, using the stabilized bubble function element, is used for spatial discretization, and the Crank,Nicolson method is used for temporal discretizations. In addition to a method for optimally assimilating water elevation, a method is presented for determining adjoint boundary conditions. An examination using the observation data including noise data is also carried out. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Three-dimensional numerical modelling of free surface flows with non-hydrostatic pressure

Musteyde B. Koçyigit
Abstract A three-dimensional numerical model is developed for incompressible free surface flows. The model is based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier,Stokes equations with a non-hydrostatic pressure distribution being incorporated in the model. The governing equations are solved in the conventional sigma co-ordinate system, with a semi-implicit time discretization. A fractional step method is used to enable the pressure to be decomposed into its hydrostatic and hydrodynamic components. At every time step one five-diagonal system of equations is solved to compute the water elevations and then the hydrodynamic pressure is determined from a pressure Poisson equation. The model is applied to three examples to simulate unsteady free surface flows where non-hydrostatic pressures have a considerable effect on the velocity field. Emphasis is focused on applying the model to wave problems. Two of the examples are about modelling small amplitude waves where the hydrostatic approximation and long wave theory are not valid. The other example is the wind-induced circulation in a closed basin. The numerical solutions are compared with the available analytical solutions for small amplitude wave theory and very good agreement is obtained. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]