Water Dynamics (water + dynamics)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Water Dynamics

  • soil water dynamics

  • Selected Abstracts

    Water Dynamics in Ionomer Membranes by Field-Cycling NMR Relaxometry,

    FUEL CELLS, Issue 1 2006
    J.-C. Perrin
    Abstract The water dynamics of two types of ionomer membranes, the Nafion® and sulfonated polyimides, have been investigated by field-cycling nuclear magnetic relaxation. This technique, applied to samples prepared at different water content, allows to characterize the proton motion at the time scale of the microsecond. The polyimides appear to behave as standard porous materials, whereas in the Nafion®, we have observed two different dynamical regimes related to a complex swelling process. [source]

    Experimental study of rill bank collapse

    Jovan R. Stefanovic
    Abstract Rill bank collapse is an important component in the adjustment of channel morphology to changes in discharge and sediment flux. Sediment inputs from bank collapse cause abrupt changes in flow resistance, flow patterns and downstream sediment concentrations. Generally, bank retreat involves gradual lateral erosion, caused by flow shear stress, and sudden bank collapse, triggered by complex interactions between channel flow and bank and soil water conditions. Collapse occurs when bank height exceeds the critical height where gravitational forces overcome soil shear strength. An experimental study examined conditions for collapse in eroding rill channels. Experiments with and without a deep water table were carried out on a meandering rill channel in a loamy sand and sandy loam in a laboratory flume under simulated rainfall and controlled runon. Different discharges were used to initiate knickpoint and rill incision. Soil water dynamics were monitored using microstandpipes, tensiometers and time domain reflectometer probes (TDR probes). Bank collapse occurred with newly developed or rising pre-existing water tables near rill banks, associated with knickpoint migration. Knickpoint scour increased effective bank height, caused positive pore water pressure in the bank toe and reduced negative pore pressures in the unsaturated zone to near zero. Matric tension in unsaturated parts of the bank and a surface seal on the ,interrill' zone behind the bank enhanced stability, while increased effective bank height and positive pore water pressure at the bank toe caused instability. With soil water contents >35 per cent (sandy loam) and >23 per cent (loamy sand), critical bank heights were 0·11,0·12 m and 0·06,0·07 m, respectively. Bank toe undercutting at the outside of the rill bends also triggered instability. Bank displacement was quite different on the two soils. On the loamy sand, the failed block slid to the channel bed, revealing only the upper half of the failure plane, while on the sandy loam the failed block toppled forwards, exposing the failure plane for the complete bank height. This study has shown that it is possible to predict location, frequency and magnitude of the rill bank collapse, providing a basis for incorporation into predictive models for hillslope soil loss or rill network development. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Soil water dynamics along a tree diversity gradient in a deciduous forest in Central Germany

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Inga Krämer
    Abstract This study aimed to investigate whether soil water dynamics differ along a tree species diversity gradient. The 12 study plots in the Hainich National Park, Germany, were composed of up to 11 tree species. Fagus sylvatica formed the monospecific plots. Mixed forest plots consisted of a variable admixture of other broad-leaved deciduous tree species such as Tilia spp., Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus betulus, and Acer pseudoplatanus. Volumetric soil water content and soil water potential were measured for about two and a half years. Overall patterns of soil water dynamics were similar in all study plots. However, during a desiccation period in summer 2006, significant correlations between soil water in the upper soil and tree species diversity of the 12 study plots were observed. At the beginning of this period, soil water was extracted at higher rates in the species-rich plots than in the beech-dominated plots. However, later during the desiccation period, when atmospheric evaporative demand was higher, only the beech-dominated stands were able to increase soil water extraction. In plots of high tree species diversity, soil water reserves were already low and soil water extraction reduced. Possible explanations for high water extraction rates in mixed species plots at the beginning of the desiccation period include species-specific characteristics such as high maximum water use rate of some species, enhanced exploitation of soil water resources in mixed stands (complementarity effect), and additional water use of the herb layer, which increased along the tree species diversity gradient. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Soil moisture, carbon and nitrogen dynamics following incorporation and surface application of labelled crop residues in soil columns

    F. Coppens
    Summary One way to increase the amount of carbon sequestered in agricultural land is to convert conventional tillage into no-tillage systems. This greatly affects the location of crop residues in soil. To investigate the impact of the location of residues on soil physical and biological properties and how the interactions between those properties influence the fate of carbon and nitrogen in soil, we did a laboratory experiment with repacked soil in columns. Doubly labelled 13C15N oilseed rape residues were incorporated in the 0,10 cm layer or left on the soil surface. The columns were incubated for 9 weeks at 20°C and were submitted to three cycles of drying and wetting, each of them induced by a rain simulator. The location of the residues affected the water dynamics and the distribution of C and N in the soil, which in turn influenced microbial activity and the decomposition rate of the added residues. After 9 weeks of'incubation, 18.4 ± 1.5% of the surface applied residue-C and 54.7 ± 1.3% of the incorporated residue-C was mineralized. We observed a nitrate accumulation of 10.7 mg N kg,1 with residues at the soil surface, 3.6 mg N kg,1 with incorporated residues and 6.3 mg N kg,1 without addition of fresh organic matter, which entailed net N mineralization in soil under mulch and immobilization of N with residue incorporation compared with the control soil. We concluded that application of oilseed rape residues at the soil surface increased the storage of fresh organic C in soil in the short term, compared with the incorporation treatment, but increased the risk of nitrate leaching. [source]

    Visualising Liquid Water in PEM Fuel Cells Using Neutron Imaging,

    FUEL CELLS, Issue 5 2009
    R. Mukundan
    Abstract In this article, we review the neutron imaging techniques that have been used to visualise liquid water in PEM fuel cells. A list of the various facilities engaged in this research is provided and the published literature in this field reviewed. Neutron imaging has been successfully used to visualise water dynamics in the flow channels of operating fuel cells. This technique has also been used to understand water removal mechanisms and the importance of membrane hydration and GDL flooding to optimal fuel cell performance. More recently this technique has been applied to imaging the water in fuel cell cross-sections in order to quantify the water contents in the different components of an operating fuel cell. Finally, this technique has also been utilised to examine ice formation during sub-zero operation of single fuel cells. With ongoing improvements in spatial and temporal resolution, neutron imaging can be expected to play a greater role in any fuel cell development related to water transport. [source]

    Modeled interactive effects of precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones

    Abstract Interactive effects of multiple global change factors on ecosystem processes are complex. It is relatively expensive to explore those interactions in manipulative experiments. We conducted a modeling analysis to identify potentially important interactions and to stimulate hypothesis formulation for experimental research. Four models were used to quantify interactive effects of climate warming (T), altered precipitation amounts [doubled (DP) and halved (HP)] and seasonality (SP, moving precipitation in July and August to January and February to create summer drought), and elevated [CO2] (C) on net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), net ecosystem production (NEP), transpiration, and runoff. We examined those responses in seven ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and heathlands in different climate zones. The modeling analysis showed that none of the three-way interactions among T, C, and altered precipitation was substantial for either carbon or water processes, nor consistent among the seven ecosystems. However, two-way interactive effects on NPP, Rh, and NEP were generally positive (i.e. amplification of one factor's effect by the other factor) between T and C or between T and DP. A negative interaction (i.e. depression of one factor's effect by the other factor) occurred for simulated NPP between T and HP. The interactive effects on runoff were positive between T and HP. Four pairs of two-way interactive effects on plant transpiration were positive and two pairs negative. In addition, wet sites generally had smaller relative changes in NPP, Rh, runoff, and transpiration but larger absolute changes in NEP than dry sites in response to the treatments. The modeling results suggest new hypotheses to be tested in multifactor global change experiments. Likewise, more experimental evidence is needed for the further improvement of ecosystem models in order to adequately simulate complex interactive processes. [source]

    The impact of groundwater,surface water interactions on the water balance of a mesoscale lowland river catchment in northeastern Germany

    Stefan Krause
    Abstract The glacially formed northeastern German lowlands are characterized by extensive floodplains, often interrupted by relatively steep moraine hills. The hydrological cycle of this area is governed by the tight interaction of surface water dynamics and the corresponding directly connected shallow groundwater aquifer. Runoff generation processes, as well as the extent and spatial distribution of the interaction between surface water and groundwater, are controlled by floodplain topography and by surface water dynamics. A modelling approach based on extensive experimental analyses is presented that describes the specific water balance of lowland areas, including the interactions of groundwater and surface water, as well as reflecting the important role of time-variable shallow groundwater stages for runoff generation in floodplains. In the first part, experimental investigations of floodplain hydrological characteristics lead to a qualitative understanding of the water balance processes and to the development of a conceptual model of the water balance and groundwater dynamics of the study area. Thereby model requirements which allow for an adequate simulation of the floodplain hydrology, considering also interactions between groundwater and surface water have been characterized. Based on these analyses, the Integrated Modelling of Water Balance and Nutrient Dynamics (IWAN) approach has been developed. This consists of coupling the surface runoff generation and soil water routines of the deterministic, spatially distributed hydrological model WASIM-ETH-I with the three-dimensional finite-difference-based numerical groundwater model MODFLOW and Processing MODFLOW. The model was applied successfully to a mesoscale subcatchment of the Havel River in northeast Germany. It was calibrated for two small catchments (1·4 and 25 km2), where the importance of the interaction processes between groundwater and surface waters and the sensitivity of several controlling parameters could be quantified. Validation results are satisfying for different years for the entire 198 km2 catchment. The model approach was further successfully tested for specific events. The experimental area is a typical example of a floodplain-dominated landscape. It was demonstrated that the lateral flow processes and the interactions between groundwater and surface water have a major importance for the water balance and periodically superimposed on the vertical runoff generation. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Simulation of groundwater dynamics in the North China Plain by coupled hydrology and agricultural models

    Tadanobu Nakayama
    Abstract We simulated the effects of irrigation on groundwater flow dynamics in the North China Plain by coupling the NIES Integrated Catchment-based Ecohydrology (NICE) model with DSSAT-wheat and DSSAT-maize, two agricultural models. This combined model (NICE-AGR) was applied to the Hai River catchment and the lower reach of the Yellow River (530 km wide by 840 km long) at a resolution of 5 km. It reproduced excellently the soil moisture, evapotranspiration and crop production of summer maize and winter wheat, correctly estimating crop water use. So, the spatial distribution of crop water use was reasonably estimated at daily steps in the simulation area. In particular, NICE-AGR reproduced groundwater levels better than the use of statistical water use data. This indicates that NICE-AGR does not need detailed statistical data on water use, making it very powerful for evaluating and estimating the water dynamics of catchments with little statistical data on seasonal water use. Furthermore, the simulation reproduced the spatial distribution of groundwater level in 1987 and 1988 in the Hebei Plain, showing a major reduction of groundwater level due mainly to overpumping for irrigation. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Relation between macroscopic and microscopic dielectric relaxation times in water dynamics

    Vladimir I. Arkhipov
    A simplified derivation for the ratio of macroscopic to microscopic relaxation times of polar liquids is based on the Mori-Zwanzig projection-operator technique, with added statistical assumptions. We obtain several useful forms for the lifetime ratio, which we apply to the dynamics of liquid water. Our theoretical single-molecule relaxation times agree with the second Debye relaxation times as measured by frequency-domain dielectric spectroscopy of water and alcohols. From the theory, fast relaxation modes couple to the Debye relaxation time, ,d, through very large water clusters, and their temperature dependence is similar to that of ,d. Slower modes are localized to smaller water clusters and exhibit weaker temperature dependence. This is exemplified by the lifetime ratios measured by time-domain dielectric spectroscopy and optical Kerr effect spectroscopy, respectively. [source]

    Spatial variability of O layer thickness and humus forms under different pine beech,forest transformation stages in NE Germany

    Oliver Bens
    Abstract Spatial variability of humus layer (O layer) thicknesses can have important impacts upon soil water dynamics, nutrient storage and availability, as well as plant growth. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the impact of forest-transformation practices on the spatial variability of O layer thicknesses. The study focused on the Kahlenberg forest area (NE Germany) with stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) of different age structures that form a transformation chronosequence from pure Scots pine stands towards pure European beech stands. Topsoil profiles including both, the O layer and the uppermost humic mineral soil horizon were excavated at intervals of 0.4 m along 15,20 m long transects, and spatial variability of O layer thicknesses was quantified by variogram analysis. The correlation lengths of total O layer thickness increased in the sequence consisting of pure pine stand (3.1 m) , older mixed stand (3.7 m) , pure beech stand (4.5 m), with the exception of the younger mixed stand, for which no correlation lengths of total O layer thickness could be determined. The degree of spatial correlation, i.e., the percentage of the total variance which can be described by variograms, was highest for the two monospecies stands, whereas this percentage was distinctly lower for the two mixed stands. A similar minimum for the two mixed stands was observed for the correlation lengths of the Oh horizon. These results suggest that the spatial structures of forest-transformation stands may be interpreted in terms of a disturbance (in the form of the underplanting of beech trees). After this disturbance, the forest ecosystem requires at least 100 y to again reach relative equilibrium. These findings are in line with the results of other soil-related investigations at these sites. Räumliche Variabilität der Humuslagenmächtigkeit und Humusformen in verschiedenen Stadien des Waldumbaus von Kiefer zu Buche in NO-Deutschland Die räumliche Variabilität der Humusauflagenmächtigkeit kann einen bedeutenden Einfluss auf die Bodenwasserdynamik, Nährstoffspeicherung und -verfügbarkeit sowie das Pflanzenwachstum haben. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Auswirkungen von Waldumbaumaßnahmen auf die räumliche Verteilung der Auflagehumusmächtigkeiten zu untersuchen. Im Forstrevier Kahlenberg, mit Beständen von Kiefer (Pinus sylvestris) und Buche (Fagus sylvatica) unterschiedlichen Alters, welche eine Transformations-Chronosequenz von einem Kiefern-Reinbestand hin zu einem reinen Buchenbestand darstellen, wurden Humusprofile entlang von 15,20 m langen Transekten in Abständen von 0,4 m aufgenommen. Die räumliche Variabilität der Mächtigkeiten der Auflagehumushorizonte wurde durch Variogramm-Analysen quantifiziert. Die Korrelationslängen der Mächtigkeiten des gesamten Auflagehumus stiegen in der Reihenfolge reiner Kiefernbestand (3,1 m) , älterer Mischbestand (3,7 m) , reiner Buchenbestand (4,5 m) an. Aus dieser Reihe fällt der jüngere Mischbestand heraus; für ihn konnten keine Korrelationslängen ermittelt werden. Der Grad der räumlichen Korrelation, d. h. der Anteil der gesamten Varianz, der durch Variogramme beschrieben wird, ist für die beiden Reinbestände am höchsten, während er für die beiden Mischbestände deutlich geringer ist. Ein ähnliches Minimum für die beiden Mischbestände ergibt sich, wenn nur die Korrelationslängen der Oh-Mächtigkeiten betrachtet werden. Diese Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die räumlichen Strukturen von Waldumbaubeständen im Sinne einer Störung gedeutet werden können (wobei die Umbaumaßnahme und der Unterbau mit Buchen die Störung darstellt). Diese Störung dauert offenbar mindestens 100 a an. Dieser Befund stimmt mit den Ergebnissen aus Studien zu weiteren relevanten Bodeneigenschaften an Forststandorten im nordostdeutschen Tiefland überein. [source]

    Long-term effects of climate change on vegetation and carbon dynamics in peat bogs

    Monique M.P.D. Heijmans
    Abstract Questions: What are the long-term effects of climate change on the plant species composition and carbon sequestration in peat bogs? Methods: We developed a bog ecosystem model that includes vegetation, carbon, nitrogen and water dynamics. Two groups of vascular plant species and three groups of Sphagnum species compete with each other for light and nitrogen. The model was tested by comparing the outcome with long-term historic vegetation changes in peat cores from Denmark and England. A climate scenario was used to analyse the future effects of atmospheric CO2, temperature and precipitation. Results: The main changes in the species composition since 1766 were simulated by the model. Simulations for a future warmer, and slightly wetter, climate with doubling CO2 concentration suggest that little will change in species composition, due to the contrasting effects of increasing temperatures (favouring vascular plants) and CO2 (favouring Sphagnum). Further analysis of the effects of temperature showed that simulated carbon sequestration is negatively related to vascular plant expansion. Model results show that increasing temperatures may still increase carbon accumulation at cool, low N deposition sites, but decrease carbon accumulation at high N deposition sites. Conclusions: Our results show that the effects of temperature, precipitation, N-deposition and atmospheric CO2 are not straightforward, but interactions between these components of global change exist. These interactions are the result of changes in vegetation composition. When analysing long-term effects of global change, vegetation changes should be taken into account and predictions should not be based on temperature increase alone. [source]

    Effects of soil degradation and management practices on the surface water dynamics in the Talgua River Watershed in Honduras

    D. L. Hanson
    Abstract When tropical forests are felled, subsequent land uses affect surface runoff, soil erosion, and soil compaction. In some cases, they can markedly change the hydrology of a region with disastrous effects on human life. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of rainfall on stream hydrology due to conversion of primary forests to agriculture. Near surface water dynamics were compared for three land uses on the steep hillsides in the Talgua River Watershed in Honduras: degraded grass-covered field; traditional coffee plantation; and primary forest. Infiltration and surface runoff rates were measured using several methods. A clear difference was observed in hydraulic conductivity between the degraded and non-degraded lands. The degraded grass-covered hillslopes developed a surface restrictive layer with a low saturated hydraulic conductivity of 8 to 11,mm/hr, resulting in more frequent overland flow than traditional coffee plantation and primary forest. Soils under the latter two land-use types maintained high infiltration capacities and readily conducted water vertically at rates of 109 and 840,mm/hr, respectively. Dye tests confirmed that the coffee plantation and primary forest both maintained well-connected macropores through which water flowed readily. In contrast, macropores in the degraded soil profile were filled by fine soil particles. Soils in the degraded grass-covered field also showed more compaction than soils in the coffee plantation. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Water spin dynamics during apoptotic cell death in glioma gene therapy probed by T1, and T2,

    A. Sierra
    Abstract Longitudinal and transverse relaxations in the rotating frame, with characteristic time constants T1, and T2,, respectively, have potential to provide unique MRI contrast in vivo. On-resonance spin-lock T1, with different spin-lock field strengths and adiabatic T2, with different radiofrequency-modulation functions were measured in BT4C gliomas treated with Herpes Simplex Virus thymidine kinase (HVS-tk) gene therapy causing apoptotic cell death. These NMR tools were able to discriminate different treatment responses in tumor tissue from day 4 onward. An equilibrium two-site exchange model was used to calculate intrinsic parameters describing changes in water dynamics. Observed changes included increased correlation time of water associated with macromolecules and a decreased fractional population of this pool. These results are consistent with destructive intracellular processes associated with cell death and the increase of extracellular space during the treatment. Furthermore, association between longer exchange correlation time and decreased pH during apoptosis is discussed. In this study, we demonstrated that T1, and T2, MR imaging are useful tools to quantify early changes in water dynamics reflecting treatment response during gene therapy. Magn Reson Med 59:1311,1319, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Morphological variation of Aechmea distichantha (Bromeliaceae) in a Chaco forest: habitat and size-related effects

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    L. Cavallero
    Abstract Plants show different morphologies when growing in different habitats, but they also vary in their morphology with plant size. We examined differences in sun- and shade-grown plants of the bromeliad Aechmea distichantha with respect to relationships between plant size and variables related to plant architecture, biomass allocation and tank water dynamics. We selected vegetative plants from the understorey and from forest edges of a Chaco forest, encompassing the whole size range of this bromeliad. Plant biomass was positively correlated with most architectural variables and negatively correlated with most biomass allocation variables. Understorey plants were taller and had larger diameters, whereas sun plants had more leaves, larger sheath area, sheath biomass and sheath mass fraction. All tank water-related variables were positively correlated with plant biomass. Understorey plants had a greater projected leaf area, whereas sun plants had higher water content and evaporative area. Plasticity indices were higher for water-related than for allocation variables. In conclusion, there were architectural and biomass allocation differences between sun- and shade-grown plants along a size gradient, which, in turn, affected tank water-related variables. [source]

    Stomatal sensitivity to vapour pressure difference over a subambient to elevated CO2 gradient in a C3/C4 grassland

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 8 2003
    ABSTRACT In the present study the response of stomatal conductance (gs) to increasing leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (D) in early season C3 (Bromus japonicus) and late season C4 (Bothriochloa ischaemum) grasses grown in the field across a range of CO2 (200,550 µmol mol,1) was examined. Stomatal sensitivity to D was calculated as the slope of the response of gs to the natural log of externally manipulated D (dgs/dlnD). Increasing D and CO2 significantly reduced gs in both species. Increasing CO2 caused a significant decrease in stomatal sensitivity to D in Br. japonicus, but not in Bo. ischaemum. The decrease in stomatal sensitivity to D at high CO2 for Br. japonicus fit theoretical expectations of a hydraulic model of stomatal regulation, in which gs varies to maintain constant transpiration and leaf water potential. The weaker stomatal sensitivity to D in Bo. ischaemum suggested that stomatal regulation of leaf water potential was poor in this species, or that non-hydraulic signals influenced guard cell behaviour. Photosynthesis (A) declined with increasing D in both species, but analyses of the ratio of intercellular to atmospheric CO2 (Ci/Ca) suggested that stomatal limitation of A occurred only in Br. japonicus. Rising CO2 had the greatest effect on gs and A in Br. japonicus at low D. In contrast, the strength of stomatal and photosynthetic responses to CO2 were not affected by D in Bo. ischaemum. Carbon and water dynamics in this grassland are dominated by a seasonal transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis. Interspecific variation in the response of gs to D therefore has implications for predicting seasonal ecosystem responses to CO2. [source]

    The effect of hydrological patterns and breeding-season flooding on the numbers and distribution of wading birds in Everglades National Park

    Gareth J. Russell
    Field ecologists in Everglades National Park know that the dynamics of water flow affect the breeding success of wading birds. A number of recent studies have suggested foraging success as the primary causal link. Data on the number and location of foraging birds are available from the Systematic Reconnaissance Flights, monthly aerial surveys of wading birds and surface water condition. A set of regression models were developed that predict the number of foraging birds observed in the Park at the beginning of May, a crucial period in the breeding season of almost all wading birds in this area. Predictor variables were obtained by converting the observations of surface water condition into three indexes that describe (1) the amount of surface water in the Park in January (near the beginning of the ,dry' season), (2) the rate at which it dries over the subsequent months, and (3) the amount of disruption to that drying process. An information-theoretic measure, ICOMP(IFIM), was used to choose on the basis of parsimony between the large set of possible models that incorporate these predictors. Most species were best predicted by the same few models, and the fitted model parameters were also similar, indicating that the same pattern of surface water dynamics was optimal for most species. The optimal pattern was: intermediate water levels at the beginning of the dry season, a rapid rate of drying, and no disruption in the drying process. A number of disruptions in drying since 1985 have been the result of releases of water from the flow-control structures at the northern boundary of Everglades National Park. Reducing or eliminating these unnatural hydrological events should help wading bird populations to increase. [source]