Wastewater Treatment (wastewater + treatment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Wastewater Treatment

  • biological wastewater treatment

  • Terms modified by Wastewater Treatment

  • wastewater treatment plant
  • wastewater treatment process
  • wastewater treatment system

  • Selected Abstracts


    Book Review: Fundamentals of Biological Wastewater Treatment.

    ENGINEERING IN LIFE SCIENCES (ELECTRONIC), Issue 4 2007
    By U. Wiesmann, E.-M., I. S. Choi
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Indirect Electrochemical Oxidation of Phenol in the Presence of Chloride for Wastewater Treatment

    CHEMICAL ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (CET), Issue 1 2005
    D. Rajkumar
    Abstract Electrochemical oxidation of phenol using a Ti/TiO2 -RuO2 -IrO2 anode in the presence of chloride as the supporting electrolyte was investigated. The experiments were performed in an undivided batch reactor. Preliminary investigations showed that only a small fraction of phenol was oxidized by direct electrolysis, while complete degradation of phenol was achieved by indirect electrochemical oxidation using chloride as a supporting electrolyte. The effect of operating parameters such as initial pH, supporting electrolyte concentration, phenol concentration, and charge input was studied using Box-Behnken second order composite experimental design. The effect of current density on COD removal was studied separately. TOC removal and AOX formation were studied for selected conditions. It was found that the formation of chlorinated organic compounds was pronounced at the beginning of electrolysis, but it was reduced to lower levels by extended electrolysis. [source]


    In Focus: Wastewater treatment

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    Dionissios Mantzavinos
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Wastewater treatment for production of H2S-free biogas

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 8 2008
    Sk Z Ahammad
    Abstract BACKGROUND: In anaerobic wastewater treatment processes, the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produces H2S. Many techniques are being used to remove H2S from biogas to obtain H2S-free biogas but none of those are cost effective or efficient enough to remove the H2S completely. The objective of the present study was to introduce some changes/modifications to the process parameters of the wastewater treatment operation to eliminate SRB from the system. RESULTS: The growth of SRB was found to be completely suppressed under thermophilic conditions (55 C) but not at 37 C. H2S-free biogas containing 56.5% methane was obtained at 55 C after 180 days of treatment. The effect of higher concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the growth of SRB and methanogens at 37 C and 55 C were also studied. At higher VFA concentrations, SRB outgrew the methanogens at 37 C but at 55 C the situation was found to be reversed. For continuous operation at 55 C and low dilution rate (0.0075 h,1), SRB was suppressed and biogas having 29% methane but free of H2S was obtained. CONCLUSION: Operating the reactor at high temperature (550C) and low hydraulic retention time (HRT) can result in the production of H2S-free biogas, with a high concentration of methane. Copyright 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Role of geometrical dimensions in electrophoresis applications with orthogonal fields

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 15 2005
    Mario A. Oyanader
    Abstract The role of geometrical dimensions in electrophoresis applications with axial and orthogonal (secondary) electric fields is investigated using a rectangular capillary channel. In particular, the role of the applied orthogonal electrical field in controlling key parameters involved in the effective diffusivity and effective (axial) velocity of the solute is identified. Such mathematically friendly relationships are obtained by applying the method of spatial averaging to the solute species continuity equation; this is accomplished after the role of the capillary geometrical dimensions on the applied electrical field equations has been studied. Moreover, explicit analytical expressions are derived for the effective parameters, i.e., diffusivity and convective velocity as functions of the applied (orthogonal) electric field. Previous attempts (see Sauer et al., 1995) have only led to equations for these parameters that require numerical solution and, therefore, limited the use of such results to practical applications. These may include, for example, the design of separation processes as well as environmental applications such as soil reclamation and wastewater treatment. An illustration of how a secondary electrical field can aid in reducing the optimal separation time is included. [source]


    Molecular analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community in intermittent aeration sequencing batch reactors used for animal wastewater treatment

    ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 11 2006
    Kenichi Otawa
    Summary Bacterial communities and betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities were evaluated seasonally in an intermittent-aeration sequencing batch process (SBR, plant A) and in 12 other livestock wastewater treatment plants (WWTP): eight SBRs and four conventional activated-sludge systems. Microbial communities were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the construction of clone libraries for 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes. In plant A, the dominant bacteria were as-yet-uncultured bacteria of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, and the DGGE profiles showed that the bacterial communities were stable during a given treatment cycle, but changed seasonally. In betaproteobacterial AOB communities, two AOB phylotypes (members of the Nitrosomonas ureae,oligotropha,marina cluster) were dominant during the seasons in plant A. Although the dominant AOB phylotypes differed among the 13 WWTPs, dominance by one or two AOB phylotypes was commonly observed in all plants. Sequencing of the DGGE bands indicated that amoA sequences belonging to the Nitrosomonas europaea,eutropha cluster were dominant in 11 plants, where the ammonia-nitrogen concentration was high in the raw wastewater, whereas those belonging to the Nitrosomonas ureae,oligotropha,marina cluster were dominant in two plants where the concentration was relatively low. Even though we detected many minor amoA sequences by means of five clone libraries for the A to D plants, no libraries comprised both amoA sequences belonging to the two clusters, indicating that the dominant AOBs were defined by cluster level in each plant. [source]


    Alkaline leaching of printed circuit board sludge

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 3 2006
    S.H. Hu
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop a treatment procedure for processing aluminum-contaminated sludge produced from the coagulation/flocculation process of wastewater treatment in the manufacture of printed circuit boards (PCBs). In this study, the reagent sodium hydroxide (2 N) was used to leach the heavy metal sludge and the dissolution of sludge's aluminum content was roughly 70%. The weight loss of the heavy metal sludge was caused by the dissolution of aluminum content of nearly 20%. Although dissolution of a small amount of copper occurred simultaneously during this leaching process, the dissolution of copper content was restricted within 0.72% in the leaching operation and the copper content was concentrated in the residue to increase the copper level. The large amounts of sodium hydroxide and Al3+ remaining in the leachate were recycled as neutralization and coagulation agents in wastewater treatment. Synthetic heavy metal wastewater was neutralized with the preceding leachate to estimate the reuse feasibility of recovered coagulant. The heavy metal concentration of the effluent met regulation standards after neutralization and precipitation. The settling rate could be significantly enhanced by the addition of 100 ppm supplemental polyacrylamide (PAM). 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2006 [source]


    Improved methods for carbon adsorption studies for water and wastewater treatment

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 2 2006
    Wei-chi Ying
    Abstract An improved method was developed to rank activated carbon in removing organic water pollutants. The simple and standardized evaluation method uses a set of four adsorptive capacity indicators: phenol, iodine, methylene blue, and tannic acid numbers; those four indicator compounds were selected because they cover the molecular size range of most organic water pollutants. An improved microcolumn rapid breakthrough (MCRB) test method was developed from the existing HPMC (high-pressure minicolumn) and RSSCT (rapid small-scale column test) methods by simplifying the experimental procedure and using readily available low-cost pump, sampler, piping, and fittings. This method can be practiced in an ordinary environmental laboratory to select the best carbon, to verify the treatment effectiveness, and to estimate the adsorption treatment cost based on the observed capacity utilization rate for carbon in the adsorber without the problems often encountered with using small and mini traditional columns. The benefits of the four-parameter carbon selection method and the MCRB method were demonstrated by adsorption isotherm and breakthrough data for several indicator compounds and organic water pollutants. These improved methods will enable efficient carbon adsorption studies necessary for more applications of carbon adsorption technology in water and wastewater treatment. 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2006 [source]


    Industrial wastewater treatment in a membrane bioreactor: A review

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 1 2004
    B. Marrot
    Abstract This paper provides a detailed literature review of wastewater treatment in a membrane bioreactor process (MBR) with special focus on industrial wastewater treatment. MBR systems are compared with conventional wastewater treatment systems. The characteristics of the bioreactor treatment process (biomass concentration and floc size, organic and mass loading rates, etc.) are examined. The membrane separation of microorganisms from the treated wastewater is discussed in detail. Problems of membrane fouling and membrane washing and regeneration, linked to activated sludge characteristics, are examined. 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 23: 59,68, 2004 [source]


    LCC,The economic pillar of sustainability: Methodology and application to wastewater treatment

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 4 2003
    Gerald Rebitzer
    Industrial applications of supply chain cost management, along with life cycle costing of goods and services, are increasing. Several industrial sectors, in particular the automotive, electronics, and primary materials, have engaged in programs to coordinate upstream and downstream activities to reduce environmental burdens. At the same time, there is an increasing need to pass on information on product, material, and energy flows along the supply chain, as well as to provide data on the use and end-of-life phases of goods and services. Therefore, methods to analyze, assess, and manage these flows, from an economic as well as an environmental perspective, are of essential importance, particularly in established large-scale industries where suppliers are increasingly challenged to provide comprehensive cost and environmental information. In this context, a life cycle costing analysis (LCC), conducted as part of life cycle management activities, can provide important opportunities. Therefore, this paper focuses on a life cycle assessment (LCA)-based LCC method, which utilizes an LCA model as a basis for cost estimations in product development and planning. A case study on life cycle costing of wastewater treatment illustrates the practical use and benefits of the method. [source]


    Performance of a full-scale biotrickling filter treating H2S at a gas contact time of 1.6 to 2.2 seconds

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 2 2003
    David Gabriel
    Emission of objectionable odors is a major problem for wastewater treatment and other processing facilities. Biological treatment is a promising alternative to conventional control methods, such as chemical scrubbing, but historically, biotreatment has always required significantly larger reactor volumes than chemical scrubbers. In this paper, we present several aspects of the operation and performance of a chemical scrubber, retrofitted to operate as a biotrickling filter treating 16,000 m3 h,1 of foul air with the original gas contact time of 1.6 to 2.2 seconds. In continuous operation for more than a year, the biotrickling filter has shown stable performance and robust behavior for H2S treatment, with pollutant removal performance comparable to using a chemical scrubber. Reclaimed water was used as a nutrient source for the process, and to maintain the pH in the biotrickling filter between 1.5 and 2.2. At a gas contact time of 1.6 seconds, H2S removal was in excess of 95% for sustained inlet H2S concentrations as high as 30 ppmv. This corresponds to volumetric elimination rates of 95 to 105 g H2S m,3 h,1. Efficiencies of about 90% were observed under transient conditions at 2.2 seconds gas contact time for inlet concentration peaks up to 60 ppmv. The biotrickling filter also removed significant amounts of reduced sulfur compounds, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds present in traces in the air, which is important in practical applications. Selected experiments, such as intermittent trickling operation and a one-month operation period at neutral pH, are also presented. Results indicate that the intermittent trickling operation does not have a significant effect on H2S removal. However, when operated at neutral pH, biotrickling filter performance clearly decreased, probably due to an excessive chlorine supply to the reactor through the make-up water. The study demonstrates that biotrickling filters can replace chemical scrubbers as a safer, more economical technique for odor control. [source]


    Hydrophobic pervaporation for environmental applications: Process optimization and integration

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 4 2002
    Frank Lipnizki
    The focus of this paper is on the design of pervaporation units for wastewater treatment taking into account technical, economic, and environmental aspects. Two different sized industrial wastewater streams of water-chloroform, and of water-methyl-isobutylketone (MIBK) are considered. Based on a wastewater stream of 1,500 kg/d, a semi-batch process combining pervaporation with a decanter recycle loop is developed. Using this process, it is possible to recover over 99% of the organic components at concentrations of more than 98 wt. %. The treatment costs are between 0.11 to 0.16 $/kg wastewater. For the treatment of a wastewater stream of 1,000 kg/h, pervaporation combined with a decanter and recycling loop, as well as integrated in a hybrid process with adsorption, is considered. For MIBK, pervaporation with a decanter is the most attractive option taking economic and environmental aspects into account, while, for chloroform, the hybrid process is the better option. Treatment costs in all cases are about 0.03 $/kg wastewater. The recovery rate of the organic compounds is over 99% at concentrations over 98 wt. %. The authors concluded that pervaporation as a stand-alone unit, or integrated into hybrid processes, offers significant advantages over conventional alternatives. [source]


    CMP wastewater management using the concepts of design for environment

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 1 2002
    Gordon C. C. YangArticle first published online: 20 APR 200
    Application of design for environment (DfE) concepts to management of wastewater from chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) processes are presented in this paper. Today, DfE is a prevailing concept and is widely adopted by advanced nations in lieu of the traditional "command and control" approach to control waste and toxic emissions. Designing environmentally-benign processes and products is a new and challenging frontier for engineering professionals, including those in the semiconductor industry. An insatiable need for water and subsequent wastewater treatment has imposed a chilling effect on semiconductor industry growth. It was estimated that semiconductor producers consumed more than 5.523 108 m3 of water in 2000. Of this amount, CMP processes accounted for 40% of the total. The CMP tool market and CMP slurry market are estimated to have 36% and 29% annual growth rates, respectively between 2000 and 2005. Inevitably, a tremendous amount of waste slurry and post-CMP rinse water will be generated and have to be managed properly. CMP wastewater is characterized by its high content of suspended solids having sub-micron particle sizes, high turbidity, and high conductivity. Traditional wastewater treatment technologies, such as chemical coagulation/precipitation, do not work well for CMP wastewater, because it would generate a large volume of sludge, which might cause disposal problems in many countries, such as Taiwan. Therefore, utilizing pollution prevention principles in the design of CMP tools, development of new CMP slurries, and improved plant operations are necessary to minimize environmental damage. Reclamation of process water is also a common requirement in the semiconductor industry. To this end, several alternatives for source reduction of CMP wastewater and water reclamation are presented in this paper. [source]


    Toxicity tests to assess pollutants removal during wastewater treatment and the quality of receiving waters in Argentina

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Carlos E. Gmez
    Abstract In Argentina, legislation to control adverse impacts of effluent discharges and the quality of receiving waters is scant and relies mainly on the physicochemical characteristics of the effluents and receiving waters. Objectives of this study were to use standardized acute toxicity tests to assess treatment of petrochemical industry effluents and the toxicity of various treated industrial effluents in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area and their receiving waters. Tests for the first objective used Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; those for the second used D. magna, Spirillum volutans, and Scenedesmus spinosus. Chemical analyses demonstrated that the removal of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, styrene, and naphthalene) from the petrochemical effluents ranged between 77 and 93%, but toxicity removal was significantly lower: untreated effluents were very toxic and treated effluents were very toxic to toxic [acute toxicity units (TUa)>3]. Physicochemical parameters measured according to current Argentinian regulations indicated that industrial effluents (e.g., from textile and paper industries) were within established guidelines, but 25% of the samples were moderately to highly toxic (TUa>1.33). However, for the receiving waters, toxicity tests were moderate to very toxic. The results show the need of including tests for toxicity of discharged effluents, and their effects on receiving waters of Argentina, especially for regulatory purposes. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Environ Toxicol 16: 217,224, 2001 [source]


    New concepts of microbial treatment processes for the nitrogen removal in wastewater

    FEMS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS, Issue 4 2003
    Ingo Schmidt
    Abstract Many countries strive to reduce the emissions of nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrate, NOx) to the surface waters and the atmosphere. Since mainstream domestic wastewater treatment systems are usually already overloaded with ammonia, a dedicated nitrogen removal from concentrated secondary or industrial wastewaters is often more cost-effective than the disposal of such wastes to domestic wastewater treatment. The cost-effectiveness of separate treatment has increased dramatically in the past few years, since several processes for the biological removal of ammonia from concentrated waste streams have become available. Here, we review those processes that make use of new concepts in microbiology: partial nitrification, nitrifier denitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (the anammox process). These processes target the removal of ammonia from gases, and ammonium-bicarbonate from concentrated wastewaters (i.e. sludge liquor and landfill leachate). The review addresses the microbiology, its consequences for their application, the current status regarding application, and the future developments. [source]


    Fragrance materials and their environmental impact

    FLAVOUR AND FRAGRANCE JOURNAL, Issue 2 2004
    Daniel T. Salvito
    Abstract A brief discussion on the environmental fate and effects of fragrance materials was recently presented in Cadby et al.1. This paper has been prepared as a more detailed discussion of the environmental effects associated with fragrance materials. Cadby et al.1 presented a detailed discussion of the rigorous science employed to protect the consumer and the environment from adverse effects from these materials. The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) has established a comprehensive environmental research and testing programme to determine the potential environmental risks posed by fragrance materials to the environment. Sponsored research and testing includes ecotoxicological studies, the biotransformation of fragrance materials in wastewater treatment, and their fate in the terrestrial environment. RIFM has published a conservative screening level risk assessment model following established environmental risk assessment paradigms (i.e. the predicted environmental concentration: predicted no effect concentration quotient; the PEC,PNEC ratio).2 In an initial screening of all discrete fragrance materials, using only volume of use and available physical-chemical parameters, 92% of these materials are shown to pose an acceptable environmental risk, i.e. their PEC,PNEC ratio is less than 1. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Decline in the quality of suspended fine particulate matter as a food resource for chironomids downstream of an urban area

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
    Emma J. Rosi-MarshallArticle first published online: 16 APR 200
    Summary 1. Urbanization and its associated contamination could degrade the quality of suspended fine particulate organic matter (SFPM) (20 ,m to 1 mm) as a food resource for aquatic insects. SFPM was collected at four sites along the main stem of the Chattahoochee River, which drains metropolitan Atlanta at base and high flow during four seasons. 2. Composition of SFPM was estimated using measures conventionally associated with food quality: bacteria, N/C ratio, caloric content, % inorganic, and % lipids, and metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentration. In SFPM collected during base flow, % inorganic matter, calories, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations increased with cumulative permitted wastewater treatment discharge (an indicator of extent of urbanization upstream). In SFPM samples collected during high flow, % diatoms, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations increased with urbanization. 3. A growth assay was used as an integrated and direct measure of SFPM quality as a food resource. The instantaneous growth rate (IGR) of chironomids fed SFPM collected during base flow declined downstream of the city. IGRs of chironomids fed SFPM collected at all sites during high flow were as low as the lowest IGR measured during base flow. 4. Insects fed SFPM collected from the Chattahoochee River had IGRs only 20% of those of chironomids fed SFPM collected from the Little Tennessee River, a relatively undisturbed river in North Carolina. The mortality rate of chironomids fed SFPM was not different among sites or rivers. While the decline in SFPM quality in the Chattahoochee River is probably attributable to some aspect of urbanization, the decline was not related to conventional measures of food quality or metal contamination. [source]


    Oligotrophication outweighs effects of global warming in a large, deep, stratified lake ecosystem

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    H. B. STICH
    Abstract Between 1951 and 1979, total phosphorous concentrations in Lake Constance increased from 7 to 87 ,g L,1. Following wastewater treatment, phosphorus levels were brought under control, returning to 7.6 ,g L,1 by spring 2007. The biological and chemical data from 1980 to 2004 were first modelled by seasonal time series analyses and then used to create a general model. Excluding collinear variables allowed the data set to be condensed to six variables that could be fitted into a general linear model that explained ,75% of the observed annual variation in chlorophyll a. A clear seasonal influence was apparent, with chlorophyll a tracking trends in temperature and the progress of spring. A nonseasonal influence was also observed in the interaction of two biological components, the proportion of phytoplankton biomass available to Daphnia (i.e. the percentage of ingestible size <30 ,m) and the grazing intensity. In combination, these biotic variables had a negative impact on chlorophyll a levels. In contrast, the concentration of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) correlated positively with chlorophyll a. The effect of SRP showed a significant seasonal component, as it was more abundant in spring than at other times of year. In general, the model predicts a negative exponential response of chlorophyll a to further depletion of SRP in Lake Constance, while the temperature trends predicted by current global warming scenarios will result in a moderate increase in productivity. Data from 2005 to 2007 were used to verify the model. The modelled chlorophyll a values were nonbiased and showed a close match to the measured values (r2: 75%). Thus the applicability, reliability, and informative value of the model for pelagic Lake Constance was confirmed. The approach might easily be applied to other waters. [source]


    The performance of constructed wetlands for, wastewater treatment: a case study of Splash wetland in Nairobi Kenya

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 17 2001
    Daniel Muasya Nzengy'a
    Abstract The performance of a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment was examined for four months (December 1995 to March 1996). The study area, hereby referred to as the Splash wetland, is approximately 05 ha, and is located in the southern part of Nairobi city. Splash wetland continuously receives domestic sewage from two busy restaurants. Treated wastewater is recycled for re-use for various purposes in the restaurants. Both wet and dry season data were analysed with a view of determining the impact of seasonal variation on the system performance. The physical and chemical properties of water were measured at a common intake and at series of seven other points established along the wetland gradient and at the outlet where the water is collected and pumped for re-use at the restaurants. The physico-chemical characteristics of the wastewater changed significantly as the wastewater flowed through the respective wetland cells. A comparison of wastewater influent versus the effluent from the wetland revealed the system's apparent success in water treatment, especially in pH modification, removal of suspended solids, organic load and nutrients mean influent pH = 57 05, mean effluent pH 77 03; mean influent BOD5 = 16030 3976 mg/l, mean effluent BOD5 = 151 25 mg/l; mean influent COD = 37498 2068 mg/l, mean effluent COD = 956 72 mg/l; mean influent TSS = 1954 587 mg/l, mean effluent TSS = 47 19 mg/l. As the wastewater flowed through the wetland system dissolved free and saline ammonia, NH4+, decreased from 146 41 mg/l to undetectable levels at the outlet. Dissolved oxygen increased progressively through the wetland system. Analysis of the data available did not reveal temporal variation in the system's performance. However, significant spatial variation was evident as the wetland removed most of the common pollutants and considerably improved the quality of the water, making it safe for re-use at the restaurants. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Adaptive recurrent neural network control of biological wastewater treatment

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS, Issue 2 2005
    Ieroham S. Baruch
    Three adaptive neural network control structures to regulate a biological wastewater treatment process are introduced: indirect, inverse model, and direct adaptive neural control. The objective is to keep the concentration of the recycled biomass proportional to the influent flow rate in the presence of periodically acting disturbances, process parameter variations, and measurement noise. This is achieved by the so-called Jordan Canonical Recurrent Trainable Neural Network, which is a completely parallel and parametric neural structure, permitting the use of the obtained parameters, during the learning phase, directly for control system design. Comparative simulation results confirmed the applicability of the proposed control schemes. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Int Syst 20: 173,193, 2005. [source]


    Characterization of enterococci populations collected from a subsurface flow constructed wetland

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    A.K. Graves
    Abstract Aims:, The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the population of Enterococcus sp. in domestic wastewater as it flows through a constructed wetland. Methods and Results:, Four hundred and eighty-four Enterococcus isolates were collected from the inlet, various sites within and from the outlet of a plastic lined constructed wetland in College Station, TX. The wetland treated septic tank effluent that passed sequentially through two 189 m3 septic tanks and a 189 m3 pump tank allowing 48 l doses at a 24 l min,1 rate. The Enterococcus isolates were identified to species using the commercial Biolog system. The 484 Enterococcus isolates were comprised of ten different species, including Enterococcus faecalis (306%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (240%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (128%), Enterococcus faecium (112%), Enterococcus mundtii (79%), Enterococcus gallinarum (62%), Enterococcus dispar (37%), Enterococcus hirae (21%), Enterococcus durans and Enterococcus flavescens both 08%. Of the 88 isolates collected from the inlet, only 91% of the isolates were identified as Ent. faecalis and Ent. pseudoavium (364%) was identified as the predominant species. Whereas of the 74 isolates collected from the outlet, the predominant species were identified as Ent. faecalis (297%). Species identification varied among sites within the wetland, but often Ent. faecalis was the predominant species. Conclusions:, Our data suggest that while Ent. faecalis is the predominant species of Enterococcus found in domestic wastewater, the populations may shift during treatment as the wastewater flows through the constructed wetland. Significance and Impact of the Study:, We found that shifts in Enterococcus species composition occurred during domestic wastewater treatment. This has implications for the identification of faecal pollution based on the presence of specific bacterial types associated with domestic wastewater. [source]


    Decrease of enteric micro-organisms from rural sewage sludge during their composting in straw mixture

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    A.-M. Pourcher
    Abstract Aims:, To study the decrease of enteric micro-organisms including viable nematode eggs, enteroviruses, faecal indicators (Escherichia coli and enterococci) and pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp. and Clostridium perfringens) of a rural sewage sludge when it is composted for 7 months in mixture with straw. Methods and Results:, Numbers of the test organisms and the physico-chemical parameters were measured on a monthly basis on the mixture, on the compost after being turned, and on the pile in three positions representing the part by which air is incoming, the bottom of the pile and the part through which air is outgoing. The lowest temperature in the pile was observed at the bottom, where it did not exceed 50C against 66C in the two other areas. There were no significant differences between the three areas in terms of micro-organism survival. Infectious enteroviruses were inactivated rapidly and were not found after the first turning whereas some genomes were detected until after the third turning. Escherichia coli and enterococci presented a similar survival rate and their number decreased by 4 log10 whereas Salmonella decayed at a greater rate than L. monocytogenes. The numbers of C. perfringens decreased gradually to reach a final concentration in the mature compost of about 102 CFU g,1 dry matter (d.m.), which was similar to that of the faecal indicators. Conclusions:, The hygienic effect of sludge composting in mixture with straw results in a significant reduction of enteric micro-organisms, the concentration of the faecal indicators in the final product being <64 most probable number g,1 d.m. The concentrations of Salmonella, enteroviruses and viable nematode eggs in the final product were not detectable which is in accordance with the French legislation. Significance and Impact of the Study:, The results which pointed out the different behaviour of the test micro-organisms reflect the difficulty to propose a relevant indicator of hygienization. Otherwise, they show that composting is an efficient means for hygienization of sludge of rural wastewater treatment, where the straw is available close to their place of production. [source]


    A hollow fiber membrane photo-bioreactor for CO2 sequestration from combustion gas coupled with wastewater treatment: a process engineering approach

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Amit Kumar
    Abstract BACKGROUND: In the presence of light, micro-algae convert CO2 and nutrients to biomass that can be used as a biofuel. In closed photo-bioreactors, however, light and CO2 availability often limit algae production and can be difficult to control using traditional diffuser systems. In this research, a hollow fiber membrane photo-bioreactor (HFMPB) was investigated to: (1) increase the interfacial contact area available for gas transfer, (2) treat high nutrient strength (412 mg NO3, -N L,1) wastewater, and (3) produce algal biomass that can be used as a biofuel. RESULTS: A bench scale HFMPB was inoculated with Spirulina platensis and operated with a 2-15% CO2 supply. A mass transfer model was developed and found to be a good tool to estimate CO2 mass transfer coefficients at varying liquid velocities. Overall mass transfer coefficients were 1.8 10,6, 2.8 10,6, 5.6 10,6m s,1 at Reynolds numbers of 38, 63, and 138, respectively. A maximum CO2 removal efficiency of 85% was observed at an inlet CO2 concentration of 2% and a gas residence time (membrane-lumen) of 8.6 s. The corresponding algal biomass concentrations and NO3 removal efficiencies were 2131 mg L,1 and 68%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results show that the combination of CO2 sequestration, wastewater treatment and biofuel production in an HFMPB is a promising alternative for greenhouse gas mitigation. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    An overview of the mathematical modelling of liquid membrane separation processes in hollow fibre contactors

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 11 2009
    E Bringas
    Abstract Liquid membranes have traditionally been employed for liquid/liquid mass transfer and have found applications in industrial, biomedical and analytical fields as well as in hydrometallurgical processes, wastewater treatment and remediation of polluted groundwater. However, in spite of the known advantages of liquid membranes, there are few examples of industrial application. The development of reliable mathematical models and design parameters (mass transport coefficients and equilibrium or kinetic parameters associated with the interfacial reactions) is a necessary step for design, cost estimation, process optimisation and scale-up. This work reports an overview of the different approaches that have been proposed in the literature to the mathematical modelling of liquid membrane separation processes in hollow fibre contactors providing, at the same time, a useful guideline to characterise the mass transport phenomena and a tool for the optimal design and intensification of separation processes. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Aerobic granules for low-strength wastewater treatment: formation, structure, and microbial community

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 7 2009
    Shu-Guang Wang
    Abstract BACKGROUND: To validate the possibility of aerobic granulation at a lower organic loading rate (OLR) than 2 kg COD m,3 day,1 (GS 1) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), the formation, structure, and microbial community of granular sludge (GS) were investigated. RESULTS: The overall experimental process involved the following stages: acclimation, granulation, maturation, and stabilization. The optical microscopic showed the structural changes from fluffy activated sludge (AS) to GS and scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination revealed that GS 1 was irregular filamentous aggregates composed mainly of various filamentous species, while the aerobic granules cultivated at OLR 1.68,4.20 kg COD m,3 day,1 (GS 2) was mycelial pellets consisting of fungi and filamentous microorganisms. A Biolog Ecoplate analysis indicated that significant differences existed between the microbial community structure and the substrate's utilization of AS and different GS samples. CONCLUSION: GS 1 was achieved and different from GS 2 in the formation, structure, and microbial community. Aerobic granulation with low strength wastewater is of importance for the full-scale application of this technology. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Effect of loading rate on TOC consumption efficiency in a sulfate reducing process: sulfide effect in batch culture

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    Citlali Garca-Saucedo
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The sulfate reducing process (SRP) was analyzed in order to identify factors that diminish the effectiveness of the SRP during wastewater treatment. The effect of different sulfate loading rates (SLR, 290 to 981 mg SO4 -S L,1d,1) and lactate at a stoichiometric C/S ratio of 0.75 on SRP was studied in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The effect of sulfide concentration (0 to 200 mg sulfide-S L,1) on SRP in batch culture was evaluated. RESULTS: When the SLR was increased, the total organic carbon (TOC) and sulfate consumption efficiencies decreased from 93% 3 to 66% 2 and 60% 5 to 45% 4, respectively. Acetate and propionate were accumulated. Microbial analysis showed the presence of microorganisms related with the SRP, fermentation and methanogenesis. In batch culture, when lactate and sulfate were present, SRP and fermentation were observed. When sulfide was added only SRP was observed. At concentrations higher than 150 mg sulfide-S L,1 the efficiencies, yields and specific consumption rates (q) decreased. CONCLUSION: Based on the sulfide-S/volatile suspended solid ratio, it was found that the decrease in efficiency and accumulation of acetate and propionate in the UASB reactor was not related to sulfide inhibition but to the q of acetate and propionate, which were up to 11 times lower than lactate. Copyright 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Removing pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds from wastewater by photocatalysis

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    Omatoyo K Dalrymple
    Abstract Widespread concerns continue to be raised about the increasing presence of emerging contaminants in the environment. Such compounds include a wide range of persistent organic chemicals, including pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds whose effects are poorly known, often because they have only begun to enter the environment and are showing up in wastewater treatment plants. The occurrence and behavior of these compounds in wastewater are key issues with regard to water reclamation and reuse. Treatment plants are now faced with the challenge of removing the compounds from their effluent before they enter natural waterways. In this regard, photocatalysis is a promising technology for wastewater treatment that offers many advantages over conventional and some advanced treatment options. The application of photocatalysis for the removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds for wastewater is comprehensively surveyed in this paper. This treatment technology is not intended to replace conventional systems but to supplement for higher-quality effluent. The assessment places emphasis on the process fundamentals, advantages, and disadvantages of the technology. It also focuses on the current limitations and future research needs. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    The use of 3,3,,4,,5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide as a chemical uncoupler to reduce activated sludge yield

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Ying Xu Chen
    Abstract To determine whether chemical additions can be used to reduce sludge production in biological wastewater treatment, 3,3,,4,,5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS) was added to activated sludge cultures as a metabolic uncoupler. Batch tests confirmed that TCS is an effective chemical uncoupler in reducing the sludge yield at concentrations greater than 1.0 mg dm,3; a TCS concentration of 1.0 mg dm,3 reduced sludge yield by approximately 50%. Substrate removal capability and effluent nitrogen concentration were not affected adversely by the presence of TCS when dosed every other day in a range of 2.0,3.6 mg dm,3 during the 40-day operation of activated sludge batch cultures. Such sludge growth reduction was associated with the enhancement of microbial activities in terms of the specific oxygen uptake rate and dehydrogenase activity. Sludge settleability of the treated and control samples was qualitatively comparable and not significantly different. Filamentous bacteria continued to grow in sludge flocs only in the control reactor at the end of the 40-day trial. These results suggest that TCS treatment of activated sludge systems may reduce excess sludge yield. Copyright 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Photocatalytic degradation for environmental applications , a review

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    Dhananjay S Bhatkhande
    Abstract Photocatalysis is a rapidly expanding technology for wastewater treatment. In this review the chemical effects of various variables on the rate of degradation of different pollutants are discussed in detail. The effects of adsorption, temperature, intensity of light, pH, and the presence of anions, cations, etc have been specifically covered. A critical analysis of the available literature data has been made and some general conclusions have been drawn concerning the above mentioned effects. The need for more work on specific points has been brought out. 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    A thermodynamic analysis of the activated sludge process: Application to soybean wastewater treatment in a sequencing batch reactor

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 10 2009
    Bing-jie Ni
    Abstract A bioenergetic methodology was integrated with a modified activated sludge model No.1 (ASM1) to analyze the activated sludge process, with the treatment of soybean-processing wastewater as an example. With the bioenergetic methodology established by McCarty and coworkers, the microbial yield was predicted and the overall stoichiometrics for biological reactions involving the key chemical and biological species in activated sludge were established. These obtained parameters were related to the ASM1 model, which was modified after coupling the biological reactions in activated sludge with electron balances. This approach was able to approximately describe the treatment of soybean wastewater by activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor in terms of substrate utilization, biomass growth, and the elector acceptor consumption. Such an attempt provides useful information for accurate modeling of the complex activated sludge process. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]