Wastewater Samples (wastewater + sample)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Can cocaine use be evaluated through analysis of wastewater?

ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
A nation-wide approach conducted in Belgium
ABSTRACT Aims Cocaine is the second most-used illicit drug world-wide and its consumption is increasing significantly, especially in western Europe. Until now, the annual prevalence has been estimated indirectly by means of interviews. A recently introduced and direct nation-wide approach based on measurements of the major urinary excreted metabolite of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, in wastewater is proposed. Design Wastewater samples from 41 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Belgium, covering approximately 3 700 000 residents, were collected. Each WWTP was sampled on Wednesdays and Sundays during two sampling campaigns in 2007,08. Samples were analysed for cocaine (COC) and its metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methylester (EME) by a validated procedure based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of BE were used to calculate cocaine consumption (g/day per 1000 inhabitants) for each WWTP region and for both sampling campaigns (g/year per 1000 inhabitants). Findings Weekend days showed significantly higher cocaine consumption compared with weekdays. The highest cocaine consumption was observed for WWTPs receiving wastewater from large cities, such as Antwerp, Brussels and Charleroi. Results were extrapolated for the total Belgian population and an estimation of a yearly prevalence of cocaine use was made based on various assumptions. An amount of 1.88 tonnes (t) per year [standard error (SE) 0.05 t] cocaine is consumed in Belgium, corresponding to a yearly prevalence of 0.80% (SE 0.02%) for the Belgian population aged 15,64 years. This result is in agreement with an earlier reported estimate of the Belgian prevalence of cocaine use conducted through socio-epidemiological studies (0.9% for people aged 15,64 years). Conclusions Wastewater analysis is a promising tool to evaluate cocaine consumption at both local and national scale. This rapid and direct estimation of the prevalence of cocaine use in Belgium corresponds with socio-epidemiological data. However, the strategy needs to be refined further to allow a more exact calculation of cocaine consumption from concentrations of BE in wastewater. [source]

Treatment of beverage-processing wastewater in a three-phase fluidised bed biological reactor

Samwel Victor Manyele
Summary This paper presents a study on treatment of beverage-processing wastewater (BPWW) in a three-phase fluidised bed bioreactor (TPFBB). Wastewater samples were introduced in the TPFBB and aerated at optimum liquid and gas flow rates while measuring wastewater parameters [pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total Kjehldahl nitrogen (TKN) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3 -N)]. Two different initial pH levels were studied, i.e. 9.0 and 11.5. The pH of the wastewater was observed to level off at 9.3 after 1 day. The TSS dropped by 95% after 5 days, for both initial pH levels. The NH3 -N and TKN dropped to similar final concentration independent of initial pH. The COD removal efficiency was observed to depend on the initial pH level. A highest efficiency of 98% and lowest efficiency of 50% were observed at initial pH of 9.0 and 11.5, respectively. The study results show that TPFBB is capable of treating food-processing wastewater under suitable conditions. [source]

The spatial epidemiology of cocaine, methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use: a demonstration using a population measure of community drug load derived from municipal wastewater

ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
Caleb J. Banta-Green
ABSTRACT Aims To determine the utility of community-wide drug testing with wastewater samples as a population measure of community drug use and to test the hypothesis that the association with urbanicity would vary for three different stimulant drugs of abuse. Design and participants Single-day samples were obtained from a convenience sample of 96 municipalities representing 65% of the population of the State of Oregon. Measurements Chemical analysis of 24-hour composite influent samples for benzoylecgonine (BZE, a cocaine metabolite), methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The distribution of community index drug loads accounting for total wastewater flow (i.e. dilution) and population are reported. Findings The distribution of wastewater-derived drug index loads was found to correspond with expected epidemiological drug patterns. Index loads of BZE were significantly higher in urban areas and below detection in many rural areas. Conversely, methamphetamine was present in all municipalities, with no significant differences in index loads by urbanicity. MDMA was at quantifiable levels in fewer than half the communities, with a significant trend towards higher index loads in more urban areas. Conclusion This demonstration provides the first evidence of the utility of wastewater-derived community drug loads for spatial analyses. Such data have the potential to improve dramatically the measurement of the true level and distribution of a range of drugs. Drug index load data provide information for all people in a community and are potentially applicable to a much larger proportion of the total population than existing measures. [source]

Photoelectro-Synergistic Catalysis at Ti/TiO2/PbO2 Electrode and Its Application on Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand

Jiaqing Li
Abstract In this paper, photoelectro-synergistic catalysis oxidation of organics in water on Ti/TiO2/PbO2 electrode was investigated by the method of electrochemistry. Furthermore, the results were compared with those obtained from photocatalysis and electrocatalysis. The method proposed was applied to determine the chemical oxygen demand (COD) value, Ti/TiO2/PbO2 electrode functioning as the work electrode during the process. It was shown that the method of photoelectro-synergistic catalysis had lower detection limit and wider linear range than the methods of electroassisted photocatalysis and electrocatalysis. The results obtained by the proposed method and conventional one were compared by carrying out the experiment on 8 wastewater samples. The correlation of the results using different methods was satisfactory and the relative bias was below ±6.0%. [source]

Ultra-trace analysis of multiple endocrine-disrupting chemicals in municipal and bleached kraft mill effluents using gas chromatography,high-resolution mass spectrometry

Michael G. Ikonomou
Abstract A comprehensive gas chromatographic,high-resolution mass spectrometric (GC-HRMS),based method was developed that permitted the simultaneous determination of 30 estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and related compounds, including surfactants, biogenic and synthetic steroids, fecal sterols, phytoestrogens, and plasticizers, in wastewater. Features of the method include low sample volume (,40 ml), optimized Florisil® cleanup to minimize matrix interferences and optimized analyte derivatization to improve sensitivity via GC-HRMS. Detection limits were in the low- to mid-ng/L range, and recoveries were greater than 60% for most target analytes. This new method allows for high throughput analysis of many organic wastewater contaminants in a complex matrix with relative standard deviation of less than 15% for most measurable compounds. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by examining wastewater samples from different origins. Compounds such as di(2-ethylhex-yl)phthalate, cholesterol, cholestanol, and other cholesterol derivatives were measured in much higher concentrations in untreated sewage and were reduced substantially in concentration by the treatment process. However, steroidal compounds, particularly estrone (E1), 17,-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3), as well as plant sterols (except stigmastanol), were greater in the treated municipal wastewater versus the untreated effluent. Plant and fungi sterols, stigmastanol and ergosterol, were found largely associated with bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) as compared to the municipal effluents. [source]

Acinetobacter bioreporter assessing heavy metals toxicity

Desouky Abd-El-Haleem Dr.
This work was conducted to employ a whole cell-based biosensor to monitor toxicity of heavy metals in water and wastewater. An isolate of industrial wastewater bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. DF4, was genetically modified with lux reporter gene to create a novel bioluminescent bacterial strain, designated as DF4/PUTK2. This bioreporter can investigate the toxicity through light inhibition due to cell death or metabolic burden and the specific stress effects of the tested soluble materials simultaneously. The use of Acinetobacter DF4/PUTK2 as a bioluminescent reporter for heavy metal toxicity testing and for the application of wastewater treatment influent toxicity screening is presented in this study. Among eight heavy metals tested, the bioluminescence of DF4/PUTK2 was most sensitive to Zn, Cd, Fe, Co, Cr followed by Cu in order of decreasing sensitivity. The same pattern of sensitivity was observed when several contaminated water and wastewater effluents were assayed. This work suggested that luxCDABE -marked Acinetobacter bacterium DF4/PUTK2 can be used to bioassay the ecotoxicity of wastewater and effluent samples contaminated with heavy metals. Using this assay, it is possible to pre-select the more toxic samples for further chemical analysis and to discard wastewater samples with low or no inhibition because they are not toxic to the environment. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

The differentiation of biodegradable and non-biodegradable dissolved organic matter in wastewaters using fluorescence spectroscopy

M Reynolds
Abstract The chemical and biochemical oxygen demand values of a number of synthetic and wastewater samples were determined using fluorescence spectroscopy. Treated and untreated sewage samples were obtained from a local sewage treatment works while synthetic samples were analysed before, during, and after treatment via a rotating biodisc contactor. Fluorescence intensities were normalised using the water Raman signal as an internal standard and corrections applied to take into account the attenuation effects caused by the sample matrix. The fluorescence emission spectra (,exc,=,280,nm) of synthetic and sewage samples were very similar in that two main fluorescence bands centred around 350,nm and 440,nm were observed in all samples. Normalised fluorescence data, centred at 350,nm, correlate well with corresponding BOD, COD and TOC values (R2 values ranging between 0.93 and 0.98). Using BOD, COD and TOC data the fluorescence at 350,nm and 440,nm can be apportioned to biodegradable and non-biodegradable dissolved organic matter respectively. The findings of this research show that fluorescence data can be used to quantify oxygen demand values (chemical and biochemical) and total organic carbon values. Furthermore, the fluorescence spectral response can be apportioned to biodegradable (BOD) and non-biodegradable (COD,,,BOD) dissolved organic matter. The potential of using fluorescence spectroscopy as a possible tool for real-time monitoring of sewage wastes is discussed. © 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid,liquid microextraction coupled with capillary gas chromatography for simultaneous analysis of nine pyrethroids in domestic wastewaters

Hongyuan Yan
Abstract A simple and rapid ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid,liquid microextraction method coupled with GC-flame ionization detection was developed for simultaneous determination of nine pyrethroids in domestic wastewater samples. An ultrasound-assisted process was applied to accelerate the formation of the fine cloudy solution using small volume of disperser solvent, which markedly increased the extraction efficiency and reduced the equilibrium time. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the type and volume of extraction solvent and disperser solvent, extraction and ultrasonic time. Good linearity was obtained for all analytes in the range of 0.8,100,,g/L with the correlation coefficient (r2),0.998. The recoveries at three spiking levels ranged from 75.3 to 101.2% with the RSD less than 8.7% (n=5). Under the optimum condition, the enrichment factors for the nine pyrethroids ranged from 728- to 1725-fold. This method offered a good alternative for routine analysis due to its simplicity and reliability. [source]

Sensitive determination of acidic drugs and triclosan in surface and wastewater by ion-pair reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

José Benito Quintana
A new method is presented for the determination of 12 acidic pharmaceuticals (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bezafibrate), including two metabolites from aqueous samples, together with triclosan as a personal care product. Ion-pair liquid chromatography (IP-LC) with electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in the negative ion mode was employed. The ion-pairing agent (tri- n -butylamine) increased the signal intensity for all acidic analytes and detection limits of 6,200,ng/L were obtained by multiple reaction monitoring. This allows analysis of wastewater samples by direct injection into the LC/MS system without the need for a preceding enrichment step. When combined with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) step, limits of quantification between 0.15 and 11,ng/L were obtained from 100-mL sample volumes, which is adequate for most applications. The occurrence of matrix effects was studied and standard addition was required for reliable quantification after SPE from wastewater. The method was finally applied to surface and wastewaters, with analyte concentrations ranging from below the detection limit up to 5.5,,g/L. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Photocatalytic Oxidation for Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand Using Nano-TiO2 Film

Hong-Chun Ding
Abstract A photocatalytic oxidation method for determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) using nano-TiO2 film, based on the use of a nano-TiO2 -Ce(SO4)2 system and electrochemical detection, was proposed. The technique was originated from the direct determination of the Ce(III) concentration change resulting from photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds. Ce(III), which was produced by photocatalytic reduction of Ce(SO4)2, could be measured at a multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) chemically modified electrode (CME). The COD values by this method were calculated from the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current of Ce(III) at the CME. Under the optimal operation conditions, the detection limit of 0.5 mg·L,1 COD with the linear range of 1,600 mg·L,1 was achieved. This method was also applied to determination of various COD of ground water and wastewater samples. The results were in good agreement with those from the conventional COD methods, i.e., permanganate and dichromate ones. [source]