Wall Interactions (wall + interaction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Full f particle simulation method for solution of transient edge phenomena

J. A. Heikkinen
An electrostatic gyrokinetic guiding-centre particle code is described where electrons and ions are simultaneously followed in the edge region. Full f technique is used for particle sampling and loading to allow efficient treatment of strong time variation in the collisional edge bulk plasma. Both the gyrokinetic ion polarization term and the implicit electron term in the quasi-neutrality condition are determined based on the full-f sampling for both electrons and ions. Issues relevant for the SOL modeling like recycling, heat source, and boundary conditions for plasma/wall interaction are discussed. ( 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Numerical modelling of the pressure wave propagation in the arterial flow

Giuseppe Pontrelli
Abstract A differential model of blood flow through an arterial vessel is presented. It consists of a one-dimensional model describing the non-linear fluid,wall interaction coupled with a simple lumped parameter model which accounts for outlet boundary conditions. The model includes a local stiffening of the vessel and the wave propagation of disturbances due to prosthetic implantations is also studied. The non-linear problem is solved by a finite-difference method on a staggered grid and some numerical simulations are analysed and discussed. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

CE-ESI-MS/MS as a rapid screening tool for the comparison of protein,ligand interactions

Thomas Hoffmann
Abstract In drug development, the combinatorial synthesis of drug libraries is common use, therefore efficient tools for the characterization of drug candidates and the extent of interaction between a drug and its target protein is a central question of analytical interest. While biological activity is tested today by enzyme assays, MS techniques attract more and more attention as an alternative for a rapid comparison of drug,target interactions. CE enables the separation of proteins and drug,enzyme complexes preserving their physiological activity in aqueous media. By hyphenating CE with ESI-MS/MS, the binding strength of enzyme inhibitors can be deduced from MS/MS experiments, which selectively release the inhibitor from the drug,target complex after CID. In this study, ,-chymotrypsin (CT), a serine protease, was chosen as a model compound. Chymostatin is a naturally occurring peptide aldehyde binding to CT through a hemiacetal bond and electrostatic interaction. First, a CE separation was developed, which allows the analysis of ,-CT and a chymotrypsin,chymostatin complex under MS-compatible conditions. The use of neutral-coated CE capillaries was mandatory to reduce analyte,wall interactions. ESI-quadrupole ion trap-MS was worked out to demonstrate the selective drug release after CID. Fragmentation of the drug,enzyme complex was monitored in dependence from the excitation energy in the ion trap, leading to the V50 voltage that enables 50% complex fragmentation as a reference value for chymotrypsin,chymostatin complex. A stable CE-ESI-MS/MS setup was established, which preserves the drug,enzyme complexes during ionization,desolvation processes. With this optimized setup, different CT inhibitors could be investigated and compared. [source]

Double-helix structure in multiwall boron nitride nanotubes

Ayten Celik-Aktas
A new nanotube structural form is reported that resembles a double helix in multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (MW-BNNT) grown by a carbon-free chemical-vapor-deposition process as documented by evidence obtained by transmission electron diffraction and microscopy. The double-helix structure is found in MW-BNNTs exhibiting the same chirality in its different walls. The MW-BNNTs deviate from the structure of ideal nested coaxial cylindrical tubes. Most significantly, bright- and dark-field electron imaging reveals regular zigzag dark and bright spots on the side walls of the nanotubes. The repeating distance between the bright, or dark, spots is related to the chiral angle of the nanotube. Electron diffraction patterns recorded from individual nanotubes show additional diffraction spots belonging to the ,201, zone axes, which are not allowed in a perfectly cylindrical nanotube. These additional diffraction spots become asymmetrical as smaller sections of the nanotube are probed. A series of diffraction patterns recorded along the tube axis showed that the imperfections giving rise to these spots move in a regular fashion around the circumference of the tube. It is shown that all experimental evidence supports the structure model of two helices; one is polygonal in cross section and highly crystalline and the other is circular and less ordered. It is further suggested that the double-helix structure is a result of stronger wall,wall interactions associated with the ionic bonding in boron nitride. [source]

Vocal Fold Paralysis After Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: Incidence, Mechanism, and Prevention of Injury,

Mark D. Kriskovich MD
Abstract Objective Vocal fold paralysis is the most common otolaryngological complication after anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). However, the frequency and etiology of this injury are not clearly defined. This study was performed to establish the incidence and mechanism of vocal fold paralysis in ACSS and to determine whether controlling for endotracheal tube/laryngeal wall interactions induced by the cervical retraction system could decrease the rate of paralysis. Study Design Retrospective review and complementary cadaver dissection. Methods Data gathered on 900 consecutive patients undergoing ACSS were reviewed for complications and procedural risk factors. After the first 250 cases an intervention consisting of monitoring of endotracheal tube cuff pressure and release of pressure after retractor placement or repositioning was employed. This allowed the endotracheal tube to re-center within the larynx. In addition, anterior approaches to the cervical spine were performed on fresh, intubated cadavers and studied with videofluoroscopy following retractor placement. Results Thirty cases of vocal fold paralysis consistent with recurrent laryngeal nerve injury were identified with three patients having permanent paralysis. With this technique temporary paralysis rates decreased from 6.4% to 1.69% (P = .0002). The cadaver studies confirmed that the retractor displaced the larynx against the shaft of the endotracheal tube with impingement on the vulnerable intralaryngeal segment of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Conclusion The study results suggest that the most common cause of vocal fold paralysis after anterior cervical spine surgery is compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve within the endolarynx. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure monitoring and release after retractor placement may prevent injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve during anterior cervical spine surgery. [source]

Review: Condensed tannin and grape cell wall interactions and their impact on tannin extractability into wine

Abstract It has been suggested that tannin extraction from grape berries into wine is limited by tannin binding to cell walls. Here we review the current state of knowledge and identify gaps in research that would enable characterisation of these interactions. Such characterisation could improve tannin extraction management in winemaking. The work identified in this review supports the hypothesis that tannin,cell wall interactions are formed by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions with the binding capacity of the cell walls influenced by tannin and polysaccharide structure and composition. Cell wall changes during berry development may increase the tannin-binding capacity of cell walls, while tannin structure may also influence its affinity for cell wall material. This review also identifies the need to investigate cultural and environmental factors that affect tannin and polysaccharide composition, to characterise the tannin-binding capacity of cell walls and to develop methods for assessing tannin-binding capacity of fruit prior to harvest. It is envisaged that a detailed understanding of tannin interactions with other components in the grape would lead to a predictive model for extractability of condensed tannins into wine. [source]