Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by WG

  • wg patient

  • Selected Abstracts

    Exercise is the primary factor associated with Hsp70 induction in muscle of treadmill running rats

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2006
    E. G. Noble
    Abstract Aim:, The cytoprotective, inducible stress protein, Hsp70, increases in muscles of rodents subjected to strenuous treadmill running. Most treadmill running protocols employ negative reinforcement to encourage animals to exercise. As these stimuli may themselves activate stress responses, the present investigation was conducted to determine their contribution to the exercise-induced expression of Hsp70. Methods:, Twenty-one male Sprague,Dawley rats were randomly divided into three equal groups including an exercise group (EX), which ran on a treadmill at 30 m min,1 for 60 min; a stimulation group (STIM), which was not allowed to run, but was stimulated with compressed air and mild electric shock concurrently with their exercising cohort; and a control group (CON), which was housed in the treadmill room during the exercise period. Animals were killed 24 h post-experiment and hearts (H), soleii (SOL) and white gastrocnemii (WG) were harvested and analysed for Hsp70 content (mean% ± SEM of standard). Results:, Significant increases in Hsp70 (as a % of standard) were noted in H and WG (H = 77.4 ± 8.5; WG = 93.9 ± 18.4) of EX but not in STIM (H = 32.5 ± 4.6; WG = 32.0 ± 3.4) or CON (H = 20.5 ± 3.7; WG = 32.4 ± 7.4). In SOL, Hsp70 expression in EX (126.7 ± 6.2) was different from STIM (98.3 ± 10.9) only. This occurred, despite the fact that all groups were exposed to a stressful environment and exhibited elevated (P < 0.001) temperatures (EX ,41.2 ± 0.1 °C > STIM ,40.5 ± 0.2 °C > CON ,39.0 ± 0.1 °C) indicative of a general stress response. Conclusions:, These data suggest that exercise per se, rather than environmental conditions or noxious stimuli, are responsible for the induction of Hsp70 in rat muscle during treadmill running. [source]

    Prediction of municipal solid waste generation with combination of support vector machine and principal component analysis: A case study of Mashhad

    R. Noori
    Abstract Quantity prediction of municipal solid waste (MSW) is crucial for design and programming municipal solid waste management system (MSWMS). Because effect of various parameters on MSW quantity and its high fluctuation, prediction of generated MSW is a difficult task that can lead to enormous error. The works presented here involve developing an improved support vector machine (SVM) model, which combines the principal component analysis (PCA) technique with the SVM to forecast the weekly generated waste of Mashhad city. In this study, the PCA technique was first used to reduce and orthogonalize the original input variables (data). Then these treated data were used as new input variables in SVM model. This improved model was evaluated by using weekly time series of waste generation (WG) and the number of trucks that carry waste in week of t. These data have been collected from 2005 to 2008. By comparing the predicted WG with the observed data, the effectiveness of the proposed model was verified. Therefore, in authors' opinion, the model presented in this article is a potential tool for predicting WG and has advantages over the traditional SVM model. © 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2009 [source]

    Epidemiology of primary systemic vasculitis in the Australian Capital Territory and south-eastern New South Wales

    A. S. Ormerod
    Abstract Background:, The aim of the study was to determine the epidemiology of primary systemic vasculitis in the Australian Capital Territory and the surrounding rural region between 1995 and 2005. Methods:, Cases were ascertained by a medical record search according to international consensus classification criteria. For antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides, ascertainment was corroborated by a search of all positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody serology during the study period. Denominators were obtained from region-specific census data collected during the study period. Prevalence, incidence and patient characteristics for primary systemic vasculitides were determined for two 5-year periods, 1995,1999 and 2000,2004. Results:, We identified 41 cases of primary systemic vasculitides (Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), Churg,Strauss syndrome or polyarteritis nodosa) between 1995 and 1999 and 67 between 2000 and 2004, giving prevalences of 95/million (95% confidence interval (CI) 76.9,116.1) and 148/million (95%CI 125.1,173.9), respectively. Annual incidence was similar in both periods (approximately 17/year per million adult population). Disease-specific incidences (per million per year) for each of the two periods were 8.8 and 8.4 for WG, 2.3 and 5.0 for MPA, 2.3 and 2.2 for Churg,Strauss syndrome and 2.3 and 1.1 for polyarteritis nodosa. The rural incidence of MPA was 13.9 (95%CI 7.7,23.5) compared with 1.6 (95%CI 0.2,7.2) in the city and there was a trend towards a higher incidence of WG in rural than urban areas. Conclusion:, The overall incidence of primary systemic vasculitides is similar to that reported from other developed countries. WG is more common in south-eastern Australia than in southern Europe, whereas MPA is less common. There was a trend towards higher incidence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides in rural than urban areas. [source]

    Cutaneous Wegener's granulomatosis (malignant pyoderma) in a patient with Crohn's disease

    Sharon E. Jacob MD
    We report a case of an unusual presentation of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) in a patient with Crohn's disease (CD). She presented to our Wound Care Center with 7th cranial nerve palsy and facial pyoderma-like ulcerations. Although WG has a predilection for the lung, kidney, and eyes, cutaneous involvement can be seen in 50% of the cases, and it can be the presenting sign in 9,14%. Because of the lethality of WG if not properly treated, the diagnosis is imperative. [source]

    Physical properties of biopolymers containing natamycin and rosemary extract

    Hasan Türe
    Summary Antifungal biopolymers were prepared by incorporating natamycin (NA) and NA + rosemary extract (RE) into wheat gluten (WG) and methyl cellulose (MC) films. Interaction between antimicrobial agents and biopolymers was determined with mid-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water vapour permeability and mechanical properties of these films were also measured. Mid-infrared spectroscopy did not indicate any interaction. SEM observations showed that NA crystallises at high concentrations in biopolymers. There were no significant changes in water vapour permeabilities of biopolymers containing active agents at P < 0.05. While NA incorporation did not result in any changes in mechanical properties of WG films a reduction in tensile strength was observed for MC films containing high concentration of NA. In general, active agent incorporation into WG and MC films did not result in any considerable changes in their physical properties that could affect their application. [source]

    Simultaneous optimization of response variables in protein mixture formulation: constrained simplex method approach

    I. A. Castro
    Summary The objective of this study was to test a complex constrained simplex, direct search, sequential method for the optimization of a ternary mixture of protein ingredients used in a formulation for the preparation of a milk drink regularly consumed in institutional nutritional programmes. Three proteins [hydrolysed gelatine (HG), wheat gluten (WG) and soybean protein isolate (SPI)] were mixed according to a simplex-centroid design, in order to explore the possible synergies between the sensory, nutritional and economic attributes. Mixtures containing different proportions of the three ingredients were submitted to sensory, nutritional and economic evaluations. All responses were modelled using Scheffé's canonical equations. A microinformatics application was developed in order to permit optimization to be computed. The optimum solution obtained by this non-linear programming was HG = 20%, WG = 27% and SPI = 53%, suggesting that the program is efficient and flexible enough for multiresponse optimization. The optimal point behaviour of the entry variables (HG, WG and SPI) can be monitored with graphs of the trace plot type, in which the proportion of two variables is fixed and the third is allowed to vary in relation to the desired response. [source]

    Association study of Wegener granulomatosis and the functionally relevant A645G polymorphism in the bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI) gene

    P. Jagiello
    Summary In antineutrophil cytoplasmatic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV), bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI) ANCAs are detected. Recent observations suggest that BPI-ANCAs can potentially contribute to a proinflammatory setting in the absence of proteinase 3 (PRTN3) ANCAs during the development of a pulmonary relapse by impeding the elimination of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). However, it is as yet not clear whether the genetic background contributes to the generation of BPI-ANCAs in Wegener granulomatosis (WG) or if BPI polymorphisms are associated with WG. In this study we genotyped the functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) A645 (Glu216Lys) of the BPI gene in 201 WG patients and 608 healthy controls. To investigate whether further SNPs might be associated with WG, we also examined an intragenic microsatellite marker. No significant differences were found between patients and controls. Thus BPI polymorphisms do not appear to contribute to genetic predisposition to WG. Moreover, our data do not suggest a genetic background for the generation of BPI-ANCAs in WG. [source]

    Functional properties of thermoformed wheat gluten/montmorillonite materials with respect to formulation and processing conditions

    Hélène Angellier-Coussy
    Abstract Wheat gluten (WG)/montmorillonite (MMT) films were prepared by a thermomechanical process consisting of first mixing the components in a two-blade, counter-rotating device and second thermoforming the obtained dough. A significant loss in protein solubility due to the formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds was observed upon mixing and thermoforming. In the range of studied glycerol contents (25,42.8 wt %), it was shown that glycerol had no significant effect on the mechanical properties or water sensitivity of WG-based films. Increasing the thermoforming temperature from 60 to 120°C led to considerable improvements of the mechanical properties (increases in both the stress and strain at break) and a significant reduction of the water sensitivity. The introduction of MMT (up to 5 wt %) allowed the achievement of mechanical properties that were not possible by just the variation of the glycerol content and the processing temperature. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Cutaneous manifestations of Wegener's granulomatosis: a clinicopathologic study of 17 patients and correlation to antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status

    Nneka I. Comfere
    Background:, Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), a systemic vasculitis, can be associated with cutaneous signs and symptoms before, during or after the diagnosis of systemic disease. Methods:, We reviewed clinical and histologic features of cutaneous lesions from 17 patients with WG. The temporal relationship between development of cutaneous symptoms and onset of systemic disease was determined, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) status of the patients was also established. Results:, In six patients, systemic and cutaneous disease developed concurrently. In eight patients, cutaneous disease developed after patients received the diagnosis of systemic disease. In three patients, cutaneous disease preceded systemic disease. Cytoplasmic ANCA or proteinase-3-ANCA [c-ANCA/proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA] serologic test results were negative for one patient when cutaneous disease developed, and one patient had c-ANCA/PR3-ANCA seroconversion a year before systemic disease developed. Histopathologic features of cutaneous WG were not limited to leukocytoclastic vasculitis; they also included acneiform perifollicular and dermal granulomatous inflammation and palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous inflammation. Conclusions:, Patients with WG can present initially with cutaneous symptoms. Histopathologic patterns vary, but leukocytoclastic vasculitis is most commonly noted. Patients with WG and skin lesions are likely to have positive c-ANCA/PR3-ANCA serologic test results. [source]


    Allan Curtis
    ABSTRACT: In the last decade, watershed groups (WG) established through government initiatives have become an important part of the natural resource management landscape in developed economies. In this paper, the authors reflect upon their research and experience with Landcare in Victoria, and to a lesser extent with Watershed Councils in Oregon, to identify the principles that appear fundamental to sustaining effective WG. In the first instance, these groups must be established at a local scale using social as well as biophysical boundaries. It is also critical that WG are embedded within a supportive institutional framework that identifies realistic roles for private landowners, local organizations such as WG, and regional planning bodies. Without broad stakeholder representation, the perceived benefits of participation are quickly forfeited. It is simply unrealistic to expect an effective network of WG to be sustained without substantial investment by government to provide for program management, group coordination, and cost sharing for on-ground work. There must also be the commitment and skills within a program to establish processes that build trust and competency amongst citizens and agencies. These principles should also provide a foundation for the critical evaluation of WG programs. [source]

    Cumin seed meal with enzyme and polyethylene glycol as an alternative to wheat bran in broiler diets

    Behzad Mansoori
    Abstract Iran produces about 7000 metric tons of cumin seed meal (CSM) as a by-product of cumin oil extraction factories, annually. To evaluate the nutritional significance of cumin seed meal as a broiler feedstuff, an experiment was conducted using 288 male broiler chicks (14 days old) receiving diets containing 0, 25 and 50 g kg,1 of CSM with and without polyethylene glycol (PEG) and enzyme (GrindazymeÔ GP 15000) for 28 days. Total body weight (BW), body weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), weight of carcass and percentage of legs, breast and edible parts of carcass were measured. The results showed that, inclusion of CSM in broiler diets had no negative influence on parameters evaluated compared to the control diet containing wheat bran (P > 0.05). PEG and enzyme had no influence on the bird performance (P > 0.05). There was an increase in relative weight of gizzard when the amount of CSM in the diet was increased (P < 0.01). An increase in relative weight of gizzard in birds that received the CSM diet was likely to be due to the increase in fibre content of CSM diets. In respect of the low price of CSM, it could be concluded that inclusion of CSM at levels used in this experiment has no negative effect on broiler performance and reduces the overall cost of broiler production. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Effects of Dietary Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin Levels on Growth, Plasma Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin Concentrations, and Body Composition of Juvenile Korean Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli

    Gwangyeol Yoo
    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of the graded recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) levels on growth, plasma rBST concentrations, and body composition of Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli, and to estimate the optimum oral dosage of rBST. Seven experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and to contain 49.0% crude protein and 16.7 kJ available energy/g, with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 50 mg rBST/kg body weight (BW)/wk (rBST0, rBST5, rBST10, rBST15, rBST20, rBST25, and rBST50, respectively). After the feeding trial, fish fed all the diets supplemented with rBST showed higher weight gain (WG), feed efficiency (FE), specific growth rate (SGR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) than those fed the rBST0 diet (P < 0.05). WG of fish fed rBST15, rBST20, rBST25, and rBST50 diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed rBST0 and rBST5 diets (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences among fish fed rBST10, rBST15, rBST20, rBST25, and rBST50 diets. FE of fish fed rBST15 and rBST20 diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed rBST0, rBST5, rBST10, and rBST50 diets, and fish fed rBST10, rBST25, and rBST50 diets had significantly higher FE than those fed rBST0 and rBST5 diets (P < 0.05). SGR of fish fed all the diets supplemented with rBST was significantly higher than that of fish fed rBST0 diet (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences among fish fed all the diets supplemented with rBST. PER of fish fed rBST15 and rBST20 diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed rBST0, rBST5, and rBST50 diets, and fish fed rBST10, rBST25, and rBST50 diets had significantly higher PER than those fed rBST0 and rBST5 diets (P < 0.05). Whole-body protein of fish fed rBST15 diet was significantly higher than that of fish fed rBST0, rBST5, and rBST10 diets (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences among fish fed rBST15, rBST20, rBST25, and rBST50 diets. Plasma rBST concentrations of fish fed all the diets began to rise at 3 h after oral administration of rBST; the maximum plasma rBST concentration peaked at 12 h and returned to the basal level at 24 h. Broken-line model analyses of WG and FE were 12.8 and 13.2 mg rBST/kg BW/wk, respectively. These results indicated that the optimum oral dosage could be greater than 12.8 mg rBST/kg BW/wk but less than 13.2 mg rBST/kg BW/wk in juvenile Korean rockfish. [source]

    Reevaluation of the Dietary Protein Requirement of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Kangwoong Kim
    An experiment was conducted to determine the dietary protein requirement by different analysis methods and to study the effects of dietary protein levels on growth performance and body composition in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed white fish meal and casein-based diets for 8 wk. After a 1-wk conditioning period, one of six isocaloric diets containing 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, and 60% crude protein (CP) was fed to fish at approximately 4,5% of wet body weight on a dry matter basis to triplicate groups of 15 fish averaging 13.3 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SD). After 8 wk of the feeding trial, weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) from fish fed 48% CP diet were similar to those from fish fed 42% and 54% CP diets, and were significantly higher than those from fish fed 30, 36 and 60% CP diets (P < 0.05). Fish fed 48 and 54% CP diets had a significant higher specific growth rate (SGR) than did fish fed 30 and 36% CP diets (P 0.05). Protein efficiency ratio (PER) was inversely related to the dietary protein level. No significant differences existed in hematocrit (PCV) and survival rate among the dietary treatments. Broken-line model analysis indicated that the optimum dietary protein level could be 44.0 ± 3.0% for maximum WG in Japanese flounder. Polynomial regression analysis of the dose-response showed that maximum WG occurred at 50.2% (R2= 0.94) based on WG, and the second-order polynomial regression analysis with 95% confidence limits revealed that the range of minimum protein requirement was between 38.9% and 40.3% based on WG. Therefore, these findings suggest that the optimum dietary protein requirement for maximum growth of Japanese flounder is greater than 40%, but less than 44% CP in the fish meal and casein-based diets containing 17.0 kJ/g of energy. [source]

    Effects of Dietary Chlorella ellipsoidea Supplementation on Growth, Blood Characteristics, and Whole-Body Composition in Juvenile Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Kang-Woong Kim
    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Chlorella powder (C) supplementation on growth performance, blood characteristics, and whole-body composition in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Four experimental diets were supplemented with C at 0, 1, 2 and 4% (C0, C1, C2, and C4) on a dry-weight basis. Three replicate groups of fish averaging 1.13 ± 0.02 g (Mean ± SD) were randomly distributed in each aquarium and fed one of four experimental diets for 12 wk. After 12 wk of the feeding trial, fish fed C2 diet had higher weight gain (WG), feed efficiency (FE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) than did fish fed C0 and C1 diets (P 0.05); however, there was no significant difference among fish fed C1 and C4 diets, and among fish fed C2 and C4 diets (P > 0.05). Fish fed C2 and C4 diets had a lower serum cholesterol level than did fish fed C0 and C1 diets (P 0.05). Fish fed C2 and C4 diets had a lower body fat than did fish fed C0 (P 0.05). These results indicate that dietary supplementation of 2%Chlorella powder in the commercial diets could improve growth, feed utilization, serum cholesterol level, and whole-body fat contents in juvenile Japanese flounder. [source]

    Evaluation of Experimental and Practical Diets for Walleye Stizostedion vitreum

    Anant S. Bharadwaj
    Culture of walleye Sfizostedion vitreum is one of the largest components of public sector aquaculture in the eastern U.S. and there is increasing interest in private sector culture. However, the nutritional requirements of walleye are unknown and experimental diets for use in quantifying nutritional requirements have not been identified. We formulated four experimental and four practical diets and fed those to triplicate groups of walleye with an initial weight of 13 g per fish. The experimental diets contained either casein (CAS), casein + gelatin (CG), casein + arginine (CA), or casein + gelatin + crystalline amino acids (CGAA) as sources of amino acids. The practical diets were formulated to mimic salmon grower (SG) and trout grower (TG) diets, a fish meal-free diet for trout (TFMF), and a walleye grower (WG) diet. Fish were fed twice daily to satiation for 9 wk. Feed consumption, percent weight gain, specific growth rates, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, and protein retention efficiency were not significantly different among fish fed CGAA, SG, and TG, but those values were significantly higher than in fish fed other diets. Weight gain of fish fed CGAA was approximately 80% of that in fish fed SG and 91% of that in fish fed TG. Protein retention efficiency of fish fed CGAA was approximately 69% and 81% of that observed for fish fed SG, and TG, respectively. In general, the carcasses of fish fed diets CGAA, SG and TG had significantly lower moisture and ash concentrations, and higher lipid levels than fish fed other diets. There were no significant differences in carcass protein concentration, muscle proximate composition, or liver lipid concentration among treatments. Livers from fish fed all diets were characterized by microvesicular degeneration and glycogen accumulation in hepatocytes. Results from the study indicate that CGAA can be used as a basal experimental diet in future nutritional research with juvenile walleye and confirms the benefits of trout and salmon grower diets. Fish meal-free diets formulated around the requirements for rainbow trout were consumed at approximately 80% of the values in fish fed TG and SG, but weight gain was approximately 20% of that in fish fed TG and SG. It appears the nutritional requirements for walleye are different than those of rainbow trout. [source]

    Assessment of weight changes during and after pregnancy: practical approaches

    Amanda R. Amorim
    Abstract The usefulness of routine prenatal weight measurements in predicting pregnancy outcomes is still a controversial issue. Comparisons among studies and the interpretation of research findings are complicated due to the variety of indicators applied to express maternal weight changes during and after pregnancy. A review of literature was conducted to clarify the definitions and examine the strengths and limitations of methods for measuring gestational weight gain (WG) and postpartum weight changes. The reasons for weak correlations or non-significant associations between gestational WG and maternal and neonatal outcomes were probably owing to poor quality of obstetrics records and selection of wrong indicators to compute gestational WG. The choice of an indicator depends on clinical and research purpose, availability and reliability of data and cost. Considering the health implication of gestational WG, it is necessary to take into account the measurements used as initial and final weight, accuracy of gestational age estimation and the inclusion of fetal weight as part of maternal WG. Regardless of the indicators used to compute the weight changes after delivery, attention is drawn to the approach for designating prepregnancy weight, the time frame of postpartum weight measurements and the use of overlapping variables, which results in bias (part,whole correlation). It is necessary to address criticisms on the accuracy of prenatal weight measurements and the way of expressing the maternal weight changes during and after pregnancy in order to have reliable results from research. [source]

    The vanG glycopeptide resistance operon from Enterococcus faecalis revisited

    Florence Depardieu
    Summary Acquired VanG-type resistance to vancomycin (MIC = 16 µg ml,1) but susceptibility to teicoplanin in Enterococcus faecalis BM4518 and WCH9 is due to the inducible synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending in d -alanine- d -serine. The vanG cluster, assigned to a chromosomal location, was composed of genes recruited from various van operons. The 3, end encoded VanG, a d -Ala:d -Ser ligase, VanXYG, a putative bifunctional d,d -peptidase and VanTG, a serine racemase: VanG and VanTG were implicated in the synthesis of d -Ala:d -Ser as in VanC- and VanE-type strains. Upstream from the structural genes for these proteins were vanWG with unknown function and vanYG containing a frameshift mutation which resulted in premature termination of the encoded protein and accounted for the lack of UDP-MurNAc-tetrapeptide in the cytoplasm. Without the frameshift mutation, VanYG had homology with Zn2+ dependent d,d -carboxypeptidases. The 5, end of the gene cluster contained three genes vanUG, vanRG and vanSG encoding a putative regulatory system, which were co-transcribed constitutively from the PYG promoter, whereas transcription of vanYG,WG,G,XYG,TG was inducible and initiated from the PYG promoter. Transfer of VanG-type glycopeptide resistance to E. faecalis JH2-2 was associated with the movement, from chromosome to chromosome, of genetic elements of c. 240 kb carrying also ermB -encoded erythromycin resistance. Sequence determination of the flanking regions of the vanG cluster in donor and transconjugants revealed the same 4 bp direct repeats and 22 bp imperfect inverted repeats that delineated the large element. [source]

    Parkinson's disease patients with bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation gain weight

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 2 2004
    Frédéric Macia MD
    Abstract Weight, body mass index (BMI) and energy expenditure/energy intake (EE/EI) was studied in 19 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) versus 14 nonoperated ones. Operated patients had a significant weight gain (WG, + 9.7 ± 7 kg) and BMI increase (+ 4.7 kg/m2). The fat mass was higher after STN-DBS. Resting EE (REE; offdrug/ON stimulation) was significantly decreased in STN-DBS patients, while their daily energy expenditure (DEI) was not significantly different. A significant correlation was found among WG, BMI increase, and pre-operative levodopa-equivalent daily dose, their reduction after STN-DBS, and the differential REE related to stimulation and the REE in the offdrug/OFF stimulation condition. In conclusion, STN-DBS in PD induces a significant WG associated with a reduction in REE without DEI adjustment. © 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Effect of Standardized Skin Care Regimens on Neonatal Skin Barrier Function in Different Body Areas

    Natalie Garcia Bartels M.D.
    In a prospective, randomized clinical study, we compared the influence of three skin care regimens to bathing with water on skin barrier function in newborns at four anatomic sites. A total of 64 healthy, full-term neonates (32 boys and 32 girls) aged <48 hours were randomly assigned to four groups receiving twice-weekly: WG, bathing with wash gel (n = 16); C, bathing and cream (n = 16); WG + C, bathing with wash gel plus cream (n = 16); and B, bathing with water (n = 16). Transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, skin pH, sebum were measured on day 2, week 2, 4, 8 of life on front, abdomen, upper leg, and buttock. Skin condition was scored and microbiologic colonization was documented. After 8 weeks, group WG + C showed significantly lower transepidermal water loss on front, abdomen, and upper leg as well as higher stratum corneum hydration on front and abdomen compared with group B. Similarly, group C showed lower transepidermal water loss and higher stratum corneum hydration on these body regions. Group WG revealed significantly lower pH on all sites compared with group B at week 8. No differences in sebum level, microbiologic colonization and skin condition score were found. Skin care regimens did not harm physiologic neonatal skin barrier adaptation within the first 8 weeks of life. However, significant influence of skin care on barrier function was found in a regional specific fashion. [source]

    Distinguishing Wegener's granulomatosis from necrotizing community acquired pneumonia: A case report and comparison of radiographic findings,

    Steven J Spalding MD
    Abstract Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis, affecting medium to small vessels in the respiratory and renal vasculature. Patients with WG may present with clinical and radiographic features similar to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), which may delay life-saving immunosuppressive therapy. We report a 14-year-old female originally diagnosed with recalcitrant, necrotizing CAP complicated by massive pulmonary cavitations eventually proven to be WG. We also compare the radiographic features of WG and necrotizing CAP. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009; 44:195,197. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Effect of UV irradiation on type I collagen fibril formation in neutral collagen solutions

    Julian M. Menter
    Background: Collagens have the well-known ability to spontaneously self-associate to form fibrils at physiological temperature and neutral pH in vitro and in vivo. Because solar UV may photochemically alter collagen, the kinetics of fibril formation may be modified. Thus, we have begun a systematic study of the effect of various UV wavebands on fibril formation. Methods: Citrate-soluble calf skin collagen (Elastin Products) was dissolved at 0.05% in 0.5 M HOAc, dialyzed over 2 days into two changes of 0.0327 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 4 °C, and centrifuged at 48 000×g. Photolysis was carried out at 4 °C with either (a) UVC (UVG,11 lamp), (b) filtered solar-simulating radiation (SSR) or UVA (SSR or UVL,21 lamp filtered with a 2.0 mm Schott WG 345 filter). Gelation was commenced by rapidly raising the temperature from 8 °C to 33 °C. Nucleation and growth were followed by turbidimetric measurements at 400 nm. Results: UVC radiation (0,17.3 J/cm2) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the rate of fibril growth. Under these conditions, concomitant collagen cross-linking and degradation occurred. Fibril nucleation, a prerequisite for growth, was rapid (threshold , 2 min) and was not affected by UVC, UVA or SSR. SSR (0,1320 J/cm2) caused a small decrease in growth rate and in the degree of fibril formation. UVA radiation (0,1080 J/cm2) had a similar effect. "Direct" photochemical damage thus paralleled absorption via various collagen chromophores, with UVC>SSR,UVA. The presence of riboflavin (RF) resulted in ground-state interactions that markedly altered both nucleation and growth kinetics. Irradiation with 29.6 J/cm2 UVA in the presence of RF photosensitizer caused relatively minor additional changes in fibrillation kinetics. Conclusions: These results collectively indicate that fibril formation is markedly dependent on specific ground state interactions and relatively insensitive to nonspecific UV damage. On the other hand, fibrils thus formed from photochemically altered collagen may have altered structural properties that could have subtle but unfavorable effects on the local dermal milieu in vivo. Notwithstanding, the relative insensitivity of fibrillogenesis to non-specific photochemical damage probably represents a favorable adaptation, overall, which tends to conserve the mechanical integrity of the skin. [source]

    Optical characterization of GaN microcavity fabricated by wet etching

    C.-Y. Lu
    Abstract We report a novel technique to fabricate gallium nitride (GaN) microcavities by combining the methods of photo-enhanced wet chemical oxidation and crystallographic etching. Such GaN microcavities exhibit mirror-like vertical facets composing of {1100}GaN and various gemoetry of hexagonal, trigonal and cylindrical shapes. The emission spectra of the GaN micro-cavities are found in resonance with the whispering gallery (WG) modes when pumped with a 266 nm Nd:YAG laser. The signatures of GaN microcavities were further characterized by an increase of the WG mode spacing with the reduced device size and suppression of the side mode emission intensity with pump intensity. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Effect of 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid, its formulation materials and benzothiadiazole on systemic resistance to alternaria leaf spot in cotton

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    E.S. Colson-Hanks
    A wettable powder (WP) formulation providing 5,25 ,g mL,1 of 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) and 15,75 ,g mL,1 of WP applied to cotton cotyledons significantly increased the resistance of the next two leaves to challenge inoculation by Alternaria macrospora. The wettable powder alone at 15,75 ,g mL,1 had a lesser effect. A wettable granule (WG) formulation supplying 35 ,g mL,1 of benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) and 35 ,g mL,1 of WG, applied as a cotyledonary treatment, significantly reduced the formation of lesions on the subsequent two leaves when challenged with A. macrospora. The WG control had no effect. Each treatment except for the WG control also raised the activities of ,-1,3-glucanase in unchallenged leaf and stem tissue. Each of the components of the wettable powder without INA applied to cotyledons raised enzyme activities in the next leaves. Individual components, as suspensions of silicic acid and kaolin and solutions of the detergent Attisol II, the wetting agent Ultravon W300 and pure INA, applied to cotyledons increased the resistance of the next leaves to A. macrospora. The responsiveness of cotton to BTH and to each of the components of formulated INA is discussed in relation to knowledge of the effects of BTH and INA on other plants and to possible ways in which the other components of the wettable powder may affect the process of signalling for systemic resistance to disease. [source]

    Fetal morbidity and mortality after acute human parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy: prospective evaluation of 1018 cases

    PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 7 2004
    Martin Enders
    Abstract Objective To determine more precisely the incidence of fetal complications following maternal parvovirus B19 infection at various gestational ages. Methods An observational prospective study of 1018 pregnant women whose acute B19 infection was serologically confirmed in our laboratory. Results The observed rate of fetal death throughout pregnancy was 6.3% (64/1018) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9, 8.0). The fetal death rate for those infected within the first 20 weeks of gestation (WG) was 64/579 (11.0%). Fetal death was only observed when maternal B19 infection occurred before the completed 20 WG. The observed stillbirth proportion was 0.6% (6/960). Three of six stillbirth cases presented with fetal hydrops. The overall risk of hydrops fetalis was 3.9% (40/1018) (95% CI: 2.8, 5.3). Three of 17 cases with non-severe hydrops and 13 of 23 cases with severe hydrops received intrauterine transfusion(s). The proportion of fetuses with severe hydrops that survived following fetal transfusions was 11/13 (84.6%). All of the non-transfused fetuses with severe hydrops died. Conclusion Our data demonstrate a relevant B19-associated risk of fetal death, which is largely confined to maternal B19 infection in the first 20 WG. Timely intrauterine transfusion of fetuses with severe hydrops fetalis reduces the risk of fetal death. Parvovirus B19-associated stillbirth without hydropic presentation is not a common finding. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Granuloma formation in ANCA-associated vasculitides

    APMIS, Issue 2009
    Granuloma formation is a key pathologic finding in two of the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides: Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and Churg,Strauss syndrome (CSS). So far, no animal models have been established convincingly reproducing both vasculitic and granulomatous features typical of WG and CSS. In biopsies, granulomatous lesions are found both at distant extravascular sites and in the vicinity of inflamed vessels, e.g. in the lung. Intriguingly, WG-granulomata appear to display features of tertiary lymphoid tissue. Cartilaginous and osseous destruction is caused by granulomatous inflammation invading adjacent tissues. Rhinosinusitis is regularly encountered in WG and CSS. Septal perforation, saddle nose deformity, middle and inner ear symptoms, and granulomatous invasion of the palate, orbita, meninges, or the pituitary gland may complicate WG. Both common (e.g. FCGR3B copy number) and distinct (e.g. HLA-DP, IL-10.2) genetic factors have been identified in AAV potentially favouring inflammation and autoimmunity. The HLA-DPB1/RING1/RXRB region constitutes a quantitative trait locus for ANCA-positive WG with the strongest association to be reported up to now. A profound alteration of the T-cell response including Th1 and Th17 responses, anomalously NK-receptor-expressing ,NK-like' T cells, and dysfunctional regulatory T cells could facilitate and sustain granuloma formation and autoimmunity. [source]

    Epidemiological features of Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis: two diseases or one ,anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies-associated vasculitis' entity?

    APMIS, Issue 2009
    Because of their multiple overlapping clinical characteristics, Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) have increasingly been conceptualized as different expressions of a unique anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) disease spectrum. However, this continuum theory remains hindered by uncertainty surrounding a potentially common etiology. This review sheds light on our current understanding of the epidemiology of WG and MPA with the aim of weighing the evidence supporting whether or not these two vasculitis forms are distinct diseases. At present, some epidemiological evidence exists that WG and MPA might correspond to mere variants of a single AAV entity. [source]

    Influence of dietary lipid/protein ratio on survival, growth, body indices and digestive lipase activity in Snakehead (Channa striatus, Bloch 1793) fry reared in re-circulating water system

    Abstract Nine isoenergetic (18.5 kJ g,1) diets were formulated in a 3 × 3 factorial design to contain three protein levels (350, 400 and 450 g kg,1) for each of three lipid levels (65, 90 and 115 g kg,1), respectively, and fed twice daily for 8 weeks to fish of mean initial weight 3.34 ± 0.02 g reared in a re-circulatory water system. Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) were maintained within the range 28,30 °C, 5.6,6.8 and 4.82,6.65 mg L,1 respectively throughout. Results show that fish survival was better in the groups fed 65 g kg,1 lipid while growth performance (% weight gain, WG; specific growth rate, SGR) and nutrient utilization (feed conversion ratio, FCR; protein efficiency ratio, PER; protein intake, PI) in the 65/450 and 90/450 g kg,1 treatments were similar and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in fish fed the other lipid/protein ratio combinations. The body indices monitored (Hepatosomatic index, HSI and viscerosomatic index, VSI) were similar among the treatments whereas intestinal lipase activity was not significantly (P < 0.05) affected by increase in dietary lipid and protein levels. Carcass composition showed that dietary protein level affected body protein content positively in the 65 and 90 g kg,1 lipid treatments, but dietary lipid level did not affect body lipid content. A lipid/protein ratio of 65/450 g kg,1 is considered adequate for good growth performance and survival of Channa striatus fry. [source]

    Dietary digestible lysine requirement and essential amino acid to lysine ratio for pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Abstract To determine the digestible lysine requirement for pacu juveniles, a dose,response feeding trial was carried out. The fish (8.66 ± 1.13 g) were fed six diets containing the digestible lysine levels: 6.8, 9.1, 11.4, 13.2, 16.1 and 19.6 g kg,1 dry diet. The gradual increase of dietary digestible lysine levels from 6.8 to 13.2 g kg,1 did not influence the average values of the parameters evaluated (P > 0.05). The increase of dietary digestible lysine level to 16.1 g kg,1 significantly improved weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), protein productive value (PPV), protein efficiency rate (PER), and apparent feed conversion rate (FCR), but was not different from fish fed diets containing 19.6 g kg,1 lysine. Fish fed diets containing 16.1 and 19.6 g kg,1 digestible lysine showed lower body lipid contents than fish in the other treatments. The digestible lysine requirement as determined by the broken-line model, based on average WG values, was 16.4 g kg,1. The other essential amino acid requirements were estimated based on the ideal protein concept and the value determined for lysine. [source]

    Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and energy productive value of pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at different salinities

    X.Z. ZHU
    Abstract A 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and energy productive value of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei, at 30 and 2 ppt, respectively. Nine practical diets were formulated to contain three protein levels (380, 410 and 440 g kg,1) and three lipid levels (60, 80 and 100 g kg,1). Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of 30 shrimps per tank (260 L). The effects of salinity and an interaction between dietary protein level and lipid level on growth and energy productive value of shrimp were observed under the experimental conditions of this study. At 30 ppt seawater, shrimp fed with 440 g kg,1protein diets had significantly higher weight gain (WG) than those fed with 380 g kg,1 protein diets at the same dietary lipid level, and the 60 g kg,1 lipid group showed higher growth than 80 g kg,1and 100 g kg,1 lipid groups at the same dietary protein level. At 2 ppt seawater, the growth of shrimp was little affected by dietary protein treatments when shrimp fed the 80 and 100 g kg,1 lipid, shrimp fed the 80 g kg,1 lipid diets had only slightly higher growth than that fed 60and 100 g kg,1 lipid diets when fed 380 and 410 g kg,1 dietary protein diets. A significant effect of salinity on growth of shrimp was detected with the growth responses at 30 ppt > 2ppt (P < 0.05). Final body lipid content, body protein content and energy productive value of shrimp was significantly higher in animals exposed to 30 ppt than in shrimp held at 2 ppt. [source]

    Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance and whole body composition of summerling and winterling spotted barbel (Hemibarbus maculates Bleeker)

    J.-M. CHEN
    Abstract Six test diets with protein levels varying from 250 to 500 g kg,1 were fed to six triplicate groups of summerling (initial weight: 1.56 g) and seven test diets with protein levels varying from 200 to 500 g kg,1 were fed to seven triplicate groups of winterling (initial weight: 9.49 g) for 8 weeks. Weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) of summerling significantly increased with increasing dietary protein levels from 250 to 350 g kg,1 and slightly declined, but without statistical significance at a dietary protein level of 400 g kg,1, then further significantly decreased with increasing protein levels to 450 and 500 g kg,1; WG of winterling increased significantly with increasing dietary protein levels from 200 to 300 g kg,1 (P < 0.05), and above this level, WG had a tendency to decrease with increasing dietary protein levels. Winterling fed diets with 300 and 400 g kg,1 of dietary protein had significantly higher FE than those fed other diets. WG data analysis by quadratic regressions showed that the optimum dietary protein levels required for the maximum growth of summerling and winterling were 374 and 355 g kg,1 of dry diet respectively. Protein efficiency ratio of both summerling and winterling negatively correlated with levels of dietary protein. The whole body moisture, protein, lipid and ash of summerling after being fed various test diets for 8 weeks were significantly different among treatments (P < 0.05). The whole body moisture and fat of winterling were also significantly affected by dietary protein levels (P < 0.05), while the whole body protein and ash of winterling were not (P > 0.05). [source]