Volcanic Rocks (volcanic + rock)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


ARCHAEOMETRIC STUDY OF PROTOHISTORIC GRINDING TOOLS OF VOLCANIC ROCKS FOUND IN THE KARST (ITALY,SLOVENIA) AND ISTRIA (CROATIA),

ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 4 2004
F. ANTONELLI
This paper presents the results of the archaeometric study of 30 grinding tools found in the Karst plateau (an area that spreads from the northeastern border of Italy to Slovenia) and in the Istria peninsula (Croatia). The petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the artefacts indicate that most of them would be made of trachytic volcanites extracted from the Euganean Hills, near Padua (Veneto). It is known that trachytic rocks from this area had been widely exploited in northern Italy during protohistoric times, but these data considerably enlarge the area of diffusion of saddle-querns made of these rocks, extending it to Istria. Additionally, the likely provenance from Mount Etna of few other pieces of mugearites and hawaiites represents a new element, to be fully evaluated in the context of trans-Adriatic exchange/trade connections. Analytical data and possible archaeological inferences are presented in detail in the text. [source]


Compositional Variation of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in Hishikari Gold Epithermal System: A Useful Geochemical Indicator of Gold,Silver Epithermal Mineralization

RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Naotatsu Shikazono
Abstract The hydrothermally altered andesite hosting the Hishikari gold-silver vein deposits in southern Kyushu, Japan, is analyzed with respect to the spatial variation in chemical composition. The (CaO + Na2O) content is found to be inversely correlated with the K2O content as it progresses away from the site of mineralization. It was found that analytical data plotted on a (CaO + Na2O) , K2O diagram cannot be explained only by addition of K+ from the hydrothermal solution to the original rock and release of Ca2+ and Na+ from the original rock (K- alteration). Addition of Ca2+ and Na+ from the hydrothermal solution to the rock and release of K+ from the rock but release of K+, Ca2+, and Na+ to the hydrothermal solution (advanced argillic alteration) is important for causing the wide variations in K2O, CaO, and Na2O contents on the (CaO + Na2O) , K2O diagram. These variations can be explained by superimposed potassic, advanced argillic and calcium alterations. The altered rocks in the Honko-Sanjin area, Yamada area, and Masaki area analyzed by this study are characterized by their intermediate K2O content and variable CaO content, high K2O content and low CaO content, and low K2O content and low CaO content, respectively. The K2O, Na2O and CaO contents and oxygen isotopic composition of altered andesite, in conjunction with the solubility of gold as a thio complex, suggest that both gold deposition and the observed compositional variation of altered andesite are the result of mixing between acidic groundwater and neutral gold-bearing hydrothermal solution. The present results indicate that the compositional variation of hydrothermally altered rocks may represent a useful geochemical indicator of epithermal gold,silver mineralization. [source]


Petrochemistry of Volcanic Rocks in the Hishikari Mining Area of Southern Japan, with Implications for the Relative Contribution of Lower Crust and Mantle-derived Basalt

RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
Takahiro Hosono
Abstract. This study presents the petrographical, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of Late Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks distributed in the Hishikari gold mining area of southern Kyushu, Japan, and discusses their origin and evolution. The Hishikari volcanic rocks (HVR), on the basis of age and chemical compositions, are divided into the Kurosonsan (2.4,1.0 Ma) and Shishimano (1.7,0.5 Ma) Groups, which occur in the northern and southern part of the area, respectively. Each group is composed of three andesites and one rhyodacite. HVR are characterized by high concentrations of incompatible elements compared with other volcanic rocks in southern Kyushu, and have low Sr/Nd and high Th/U, Th/Pb, and U/Pb ratios compared with typical subduction-related arc volcanic rocks. Modal and whole-rock compositions of the HVR change systematically with the age of the rocks. Mafic mineral and augite/hypersthene ratios of the andesites decrease with decreasing age in the Kurosonsan Group, whereas in the Shishimano Group, these ratios are higher in the youngest andesite. Similarly, major and trace element compositions of the younger andesites in the former group are enriched in felsic components, whereas in the latter group the youngest andesite is more mafic than older andesites. Moreover, the crystallization temperature of phenocryst minerals decreases with younger age in the former group, whereas the opposite trend is seen in the latter group. Another significant feature is that rhyodacite in the Shishimano Group is enriched in felsic minerals and incompatible elements, and exhibits higher crystallization temperatures of phenocryst minerals than the rhyodacite of the Kurosonsan Group. Geochemical attributes of the HVR and other volcanic rocks in southern Kyushu indicate that a lower subcontinental crust, characterized by so-called EMI-type Sr-Nd and DUPAL anomaly-like Pb isotopic compositions, is distributed beneath the upper to middle crust of the Shimanto Supergroup. The HVR would be more enriched in felsic materials derived from the lower crust by high-alumina basaltic magma from the mantle than volcanic rocks in other areas of southern Kyushu. The Kurosonsan Group advanced the degree of the lower crust contribution with decreasing age from 51 %, through 61 and 66 % to 77 %. In the Shishimano Group, the younger rhyodacite and andesite are derived from hotter magmas with smaller amounts of lower crust component (58 and 57 %) than the older two andesites (65 % and 68 %). We suggest that the Shishimano rhyodacite, which is considered to be responsible for gold mineralization, was formed by large degree of fractional crystallization of hot basaltic andesite magma with less lower crustal component. [source]


Petrogenesis of Volcanic Rocks in the Khabr-Marvast Tectonized Ophiolite: Evidence for Subduction Processes in the South-Western Margin of Central Iranian Microcontinent

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 5 2009
Azam SOLTANMOHAMMADI
Abstract: The Late Cretaceous Khabr,Marvast tectonized ophiolite is located in the middle part of the Nain,Baft ophiolite belt, at the south-western edge of the central Iranian microcontinent. Although all the volcanic rocks in the study area indicate subduction-related magmatism (e.g. high LILE (large ion lithophile elements) / HFSE (high field strenght elements) ratios and negative anomalies in Nb and Ta), geological and geochemical data clearly distinguish two distinct groups of volcanic rocks in the tectonized association: (1) group 1 is comprised of hyaloclastic breccias, basaltic pillow lavas, and andesite sheet flows. These rocks represent the Nain,Baft oceanic crust; and (2) group 2 is alkaline lavas from the top section of the ophiolite suite. These lavas show shoshonite affinity, but do not support the propensity of ophiolite. [source]


Chronology and Geochemistry of Mesozoic Volcanic Rocks in the Linjiang Area, Jilin Province and their Tectonic Implications

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 2 2009
Yang YU
Abstract: Zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical analytical results are presented for the volcanic rocks of the Naozhigou, Ergulazi, and Sidaogou Formations in the Linjiang area, southeastern Jilin Province to constrain the nature of magma source and their tectonic settings. The Naozhigou Formation is composed mainly of andesite and rhyolite and its weighted mean 206Pb/238U age for 13 zircon grains is 222±1 Ma. The Ergulazi Formation consists of basaltic andesite, basaltic trachyandesite, and andesite, and six grains give a weighted mean 206Pb/Z38U age of 131±4 Ma. The Sidaogou Formation consists mainly of trachyandesite and rhyolite, and six zircon grains yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 113±4 Ma. The volcanic rocks have SiO2= 60.24%,77.46%, MgO = 0.36%,1.29% (Mg#= 0.32,0.40) for the Naozhigou Formation, SiO2= 51.60%,59.32%, MgO = 3.70%,5.54% (Mg#= 0.50,0.60) for the Ergulazi Formation, and SiO2= 58.28%,76.32%, MgO = 0.07%,1.20% (Mg#= 0.14,0.46) for the Sidaogou Formation. The trace element analytical results indicate that these volcanic rocks are characterized by enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), relative depletion in heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and high field strength elements (HFSEs, Nb, Ta, and Ti), and negative Eu anomalies. Compared with the primitive mantle, the Mesozoic volcanic rocks in the Linjiang area have relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7053,0.7083) and low ,Nd(t) values (,8.38 to ,2.43), and display an EMU trend. The late Triassic magma for the Naozhigou Formation could be derived from partial melting of a newly accretional crust with the minor involvement of the North China Craton basement and formed under an extensional environment after the collision of the Yangtze Craton and the North China Craton. The Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks for the Ergulazi and Sidaogou Formations could be formed under the tectonic setting of an active continental margin related to the westward subduction of the Izanagi plate. [source]


Geochemistry of the Cenozoic Potassic Volcanic Rocks in the West Kunlun Mountains and Constraints on Their Sources

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 4 2004
ZHANG Zhaochong
Abstract, The geochemical characteristics of the Cenozoic volcanic rocks from the north Pulu, east Pulu and Dahongliutan regions in the west Kunlun Mountains are somewhat similar as a whole. However, the volcanic rocks from the Dahongliutan region in the south belt are geochemically distinguished from those in the Pulu region; Nd, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb. Their trace elements and isotopic data suggest that they were derived from lithospheric mantle, consisting of biotite- and hornblende-bearing garnet lherzolite, which had undertaken metasomatism and enrichment. On the primitive mantle-normalized patterns, they display remarkably negative Nb and Ta anomalies, indicating the presence of early-stage subducted oceanic crust. The metasomatism and enrichment resulted from the fluid released from the crustal materials enclosed in the source region in response to the uplift of asthenospheric mantle. Based on the previous experiments it can be inferred that the thickness of the lithosphere ranges from 75 to 100 km prior to the generation of the magmas. However, the south belt differs from the north one by its thicker lithosphere and lower degree of partial melting. The different thickness of the lithosphere gives rise to corresponding variation of the degree of crustal contamination. The volcanic rocks in the south belt are much more influenced by crustal contamination. In view of the tectonic setting, the generation of potassic magmas is linked with the uplift of asthenosphere resulted from large-scale thinning of the lithosphere after the collision of Indian and Eurasian plates, whereas the thinning of the lithosphere may result from delamination. The potassic magmas mainly resulted from partial melting of lithosphere mantle caused by the uplift of asthenosphere. [source]


A Petrographic and Mineralogical Study of Volcanic Rocks from the Mayaxueshan Area, North Qilian Fold Belt, NW China

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 1 2002
HSU Ta-Wei
Abstract, The Ordovician volcanic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have been pervasively altered or metamorphosed and contain abundant secondary minerals such as albite, chlorite, epidote, prehnite, pumpellyite, actinolite, titanite, quartz, and/or calcite. They were denoted as spilites or spilitic rocks in terms of their petrographic features and mineral assemblages. The metamorphic grades of the volcanic rocks are equivalent to that of the intercalated metaclastic rocks. This indicates that both the spilitic volcanic rocks and metaclastic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have formed as a result of Caledonian regional metamorphism. We suggest that the previously denoted spilitic rocks or altered volcanic rocks should be re-denoted as metabasalts or metabasaltic rocks. The metamorphic grade of the volcanic rocks increases with their age: prehnite-pumpellyite facies for the upper part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, prehnite-pumpellyite to lower greenschist facies for the lower part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, and lower greenschist facies for the Lower Ordovician volcanic rocks. The P-T conditions are estimated as T = 240 , 290°C and P = 1.5 , 4.5 kbar for the lower part of the Middle Ordovician rocks, and T = , 300°C for the Lower Ordovician rocks. The variations of mineral assemblages occurring at different domains of the volcanic rocks were controlled by the variations of the effective bulk composition in those domains during metamorphism. The geochemical characteristics of Mg-Al chromite in the Mayaxueshan volcanic rocks are consistent with an origin of island arc environment. [source]


Petrogenesis of Cenozoic Potassic Volcanic Rocks in the Nangqęn Basin

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 1 2001
SUN Hongjuan
Abstract The Nangqęn basin is one of the Tertiary pull-apart basins situated in the east of the Qiangtang block. Similar to the adjacent Dengqęn basin and Baxoi basin, there occurred a series of potassic volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks, ranging from basic, intermediate to intermediate-acid in lithology. Based on the study of petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry, including REEs, trace elements, isotopic elements and chronology, the authors concluded that the Cenozoic potassic volcanic rocks in the Nangqęn basin were formed in the post-collisional intraplate tectonic settings. The relations between the basic, intermediate and intermediate-acid rocks are neither differentiation nor evolution, but instead the geochemical variability is mainly attributable to the different partial melting degrees of the mantle sources formed at depths of 50,80 km. The sources of the potassic rocks are enriched metasomatic mantle that has experienced multiple mixing of components mainly derived from the crust. The recycling model can be described as follows: after they had subducted to the mantle wedge, the crust-derived rocks were metasomatized with the mantle materials. In view of the fact that the ratio of crust-derived rocks increases by the age of volcanism, it can be concluded that the sources of the potassic rocks moved upwards progressively with time. The underplating of small scattered magmas upwelling from the asthenosphere may have induced partial melting of the sources of the volcanic rocks in some pull-apart basins in the Hengduanshan area and the intense tectonic movements of large-scale strike-slip belts provided conduits for the ascending melts. [source]


Geologic Characteristics of Volcanic Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Exploration Directions in China

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 1 2010
Caineng ZOU
Abstract: Volcanic rocks are distributed widely in China, which are important exploration targets. By analyzing many discovered volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs all over the world, the authors summarized the geologic characteristics of the formation of volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs in China, and gave further exploration directions and advices. (1) There are mainly Carboniferous-Permian, Jurassic-Cretaceous, Paleogene-Neogene volcanic rocks in oil- and gas-bearing basins in China, which are mainly distributed in the Junggar Basin, Songliao Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, etc. There are mainly intermediate rocks and acidic rocks in east China, and intermediate rocks and basic rocks in west China. They primarily develop in intracontinental rift settings and island are environments. (2) Porefissure reservoirs are distributed widely in basins, which are volcanic rocks mainly in explosive and effusive facies. (3) Volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs are chiefly near-source lithostratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the oil and gas accumulation is predominantly controlled by lithotypes, faults and structural positions. (4) Deep-seated oil and gas reservoirs in the Songliao Basin and Carboniferous volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Junggar Basin are potential giant volcanic gas provinces, the volcanic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Bohai Bay Basin and Santanghu Basin are favorable for oil and gas reserves increase, and volcanic rocks in the Turpan Basin, Sichuan Basin, Tarim Basin have exploration potentiality. (5) The technology series of oil and gas exploration in volcanic rocks have been preliminarily formed. [source]


Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of bimodal volcanism in the Sakoli Mobile Belt, Central Indian shield

ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2009
Talat Ahmad
Abstract The Sakoli Mobile Belt comprises bimodal volcanic rocks that include metabasalt, rhyolite, tuffs, and epiclastic rocks with metapelites, quartzite, arkose, conglomerate, and banded iron formation (BIF). Mafic volcanic rocks are tholeiitic to quartz-tholeiitic with normative quartz and hypersthene. SiO2 shows a large compositional gap between the basic and acidic volcanics, depicting their bimodal nature. Both the volcanics have distinct geochemical trends but display some similarity in terms of enriched light rare earth element,large ion lithophile element characteristics with positive anomalies for U, Pb, and Th and distinct negative anomalies for Nb, P, and Ti. These characteristics are typical of continental rift volcanism. Both the volcanic rocks show strong negative Sr and Eu anomalies indicating fractionation of plagioclases and K-feldspars, respectively. The high Fe/Mg ratios for the basic rocks indicate their evolved nature. Whole rock Sm,Nd isochrons for the acidic volcanic rocks indicate an age of crystallization for these volcanic rocks at about 1675 ± 180 Ma (initial 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51017 ± 0.00017, mean square weighted deviate [MSWD] = 1.6). The ,Ndt (t = 2000 Ma) varies between ,0.19 and +2.22 for the basic volcanic rock and between ,2.85 and ,4.29 for the acidic volcanic rocks. Depleted mantle model ages vary from 2000 to 2275 Ma for the basic and from 2426 to 2777 Ma for the acidic volcanic rocks, respectively. These model ages indicate that protoliths for the acidic volcanic rocks probably had a much longer crustal residence time. Predominantly basaltic magma erupted during the deposition of the Dhabetekri Formation and part of it pooled at crustal or shallower subcrustal levels that probably triggered partial melting to generate the acidic magma. The influence of basic magma on the genesis of acidic magma is indicated by the higher Ni and Cr abundance at the observed silica levels of the acidic magma. A subsequent pulse of basic magma, which became crustally contaminated, erupted as minor component along with the dominantly acidic volcanics during the deposition of the Bhiwapur Formation. [source]


In-situ gamma-ray spectrometric study of weathered volcanic rocks in Hong Kong

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 6 2002
Margie Q. F. Chen
Abstract In-situ gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) measurements were conducted at 35 sites in Hong Kong where volcanic rocks with varying extent of weathering were exposed. Elemental analyses using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma,mass spectrometry were carried out on samples collected from these 35 plus 22 other locations to assess the feasibility of using the GRS method to quantify the extent of weathering. The Parker weathering index, varying within a range of 0·0,0·8 for the samples studied, was used as a geochemically based reference scheme for correlating the gamma-ray spectrometric results with the extent of weathering. For the former 35 sites, the concentrations of the three major radioelements, K, U and Th, determined by in-situ GRS were compared to laboratory-determined values from the samples. The study reveals that no significant change occurs to the contents of the three radioelements during the initial state of weathering. But once the rocks become highly weathered, further progression of weathering is accompanied by a systematic removal of K and an increased dispersion of U and Th. The results show that K content, which is indicative of the extent of weathering, can be retrieved reliably with the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The study has given support to the potential use of the downhole spectral gamma method for evaluation of weathering grade and the detection of subsurface clay-rich levels. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Mineral chemical provenance of Neolithic pitchstone artefacts from Ballygalley, County Antrim, Northern Ireland

GEOARCHAEOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, Issue 3 2002
Jeremy Preston
A large number of pitchstone fragments and artefacts have recently been discovered at a Neolithic settlement site in Ballygalley, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland. They consist predominantly of flakes and un-reworked lumps and cores, with only one complete tool being found. Since no sources of workable pitchstone exist in Ireland, the source must have been the abundant pitchstone volcanic rocks found on the Hebridean Islands of northwest Scotland. The composition of the glass from a number of artefacts is highly siliceous, indicating that they were derived from pitchstones on the Island of Arran; pitchstones from all other Scottish locations are less silica-rich. In addition, analysis of pyroxene and amphibole microcrystallites within the pitchstone suggests that the Corriegills area of Arran is the most likely source of the Ballygalley artefacts, although the precise outcrop has proved elusive. These finds, and others across Ireland, show that raw materials were being transported and probably traded over considerable distances despite there being suitable alternative sources of material for making tools (flint, etc.) available in the local area. This suggests that the pitchstone had a very specialist use. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Geologic sources and geographic distribution of sand tempers in prehistoric potsherds from the Mariana Islands

GEOARCHAEOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, Issue 8 2001
William R. Dickinson
Temper sands in prehistoric potsherds of the Mariana Islands include terrigenous detritus derived from Paleogene volcanic bedrock and calcareous grains derived chiefly from modern fringing reefs, but also in part from uplifted Neogene limestones overlying volcanic bedrock. Calcareous sands are nondiagnostic of island of origin, but volcanic sands and the terrigenous component of hybrid sands composed of mixed terrigenous and calcareous grain types can be traced to geologic sources on Saipan and Guam, the only occupied islands where volcanic bedrock is extensively exposed. Quartzose tempers of several types were derived exclusively from dacitic volcanic rocks on Saipan. Nonquartzose tempers of andesitic parentage derive from both Saipan and Guam, but abundance of orthopyroxene as well as clinopyroxene is diagnostic of Saipan andesitic tempers, the presence of olivine is diagnostic of selected tempers from Guam, and placer temper sands rich in heavy ferromagnesian minerals occur only in sherds on Guam. Temper analysis documents widespread ceramic transfer from Saipan to other islands throughout Mariana prehistory, and more restricted ceramic transfer from Guam to nearby Rota, although the origin of some andesitic temper types is petrographically indeterminate. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]


From the intra-desert ridges to the marine carbonate island chain: middle to late Permian (Upper Rotliegend,Lower Zechstein) of the Wolsztyn,Pogorzela high, west Poland

GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 2-3 2010
Hubert Kiersnowski
Abstract The tectonic Wolsztyn,Pogorzela palaeo-High (WPH) is the south-eastern termination of the Brandenburg,Wolsztyn High (western Poland), which during Late Permian times was an intra-basin ridge surrounded by Upper Rotliegend sedimentary basins within the Southern Permian Basin. The geological history and structural framework of the WPH are complex. The High belongs to the Variscan Externides, consisting at present of strongly folded, faulted and eroded Viséan to Namurian flysch deposits capped by a thick cover of Upper Carboniferous,Lower Permian volcanic rocks. This sedimentary-volcanic complex was strongly fragmented and vertically differentiated by tectonic movements and subsequently eroded, resulting in the deposition of coarse clastics surrounding uplifted tectonic blocks. During late Rotliegend time, arid climatic conditions significantly influenced occurrences of specific facies assemblages: alluvial, fluvial, aeolian and playa. Sedimentological study helped to recognize the interplay of tectonic and palaeoclimatic factors and to understand the phenomenon of aeolian sandstones interbedded with coarse deposits of alluvial cones close to fault scarps. Subsequent tectonic and possible thermal subsidence of the studied area was synchronous with inundation by the Zechstein Sea. The rapid inundation process allowed for the preservation of an almost perfectly protected Uppermost Rotliegend landscape. Based on 3D seismic data from the base Zechstein reflector, a reconstruction of Rotliegend palaeogeomorphology was carried out, which shows examples of tectonic rejuvenation of particular tectonic blocks within the WPH area before inundation by the Zechstein Sea. The inundation led to the deposition of the marine Kupferschiefer Shale followed by the Zechstein Limestone. In the deeper parts of the basin the latter is developed in thin basinal facies: in shallow parts (e.g. uplifted tectonic blocks forming in some cases islands), carbonate buildups were formed. The remarkable thickness of those buildups (bryozoan reefs) is interpreted as due to stable tectonic subsidence together with a rise of sea level. A detailed study of carbonate buildups has showed that their internal structure reflects changes in shallow marine environments and even emersion events, caused by sea-level oscillations and tectonic movements of the reef substrate. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Blue Nile Basin, Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau

GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
N. DS.
Abstract The Blue Nile Basin, situated in the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau, contains ,1400,m thick Mesozoic sedimentary section underlain by Neoproterozoic basement rocks and overlain by Early,Late Oligocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks. This study outlines the stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Blue Nile Basin based on field and remote sensing studies along the Gorge of the Nile. The Blue Nile Basin has evolved in three main phases: (1) pre-sedimentation phase, include pre-rift peneplanation of the Neoproterozoic basement rocks, possibly during Palaeozoic time; (2) sedimentation phase from Triassic to Early Cretaceous, including: (a) Triassic,Early Jurassic fluvial sedimentation (Lower Sandstone, ,300,m thick); (b) Early Jurassic marine transgression (glauconitic sandy mudstone, ,30,m thick); (c) Early,Middle Jurassic deepening of the basin (Lower Limestone, ,450,m thick); (d) desiccation of the basin and deposition of Early,Middle Jurassic gypsum; (e) Middle,Late Jurassic marine transgression (Upper Limestone, ,400,m thick); (f) Late Jurassic,Early Cretaceous basin-uplift and marine regression (alluvial/fluvial Upper Sandstone, ,280,m thick); (3) the post-sedimentation phase, including Early,Late Oligocene eruption of 500,2000,m thick Lower volcanic rocks, related to the Afar Mantle Plume and emplacement of ,300,m thick Quaternary Upper volcanic rocks. The Mesozoic to Cenozoic units were deposited during extension attributed to Triassic,Cretaceous NE,SW-directed extension related to the Mesozoic rifting of Gondwana. The Blue Nile Basin was formed as a NW-trending rift, within which much of the Mesozoic clastic and marine sediments were deposited. This was followed by Late Miocene NW,SE-directed extension related to the Main Ethiopian Rift that formed NE-trending faults, affecting Lower volcanic rocks and the upper part of the Mesozoic section. The region was subsequently affected by Quaternary E,W and NNE,SSW-directed extensions related to oblique opening of the Main Ethiopian Rift and development of E-trending transverse faults, as well as NE,SW-directed extension in southern Afar (related to northeastward separation of the Arabian Plate from the African Plate) and E,W-directed extensions in western Afar (related to the stepping of the Red Sea axis into Afar). These Quaternary stress regimes resulted in the development of N-, ESE- and NW-trending extensional structures within the Blue Nile Basin. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Enigmatic sedimentary,volcanic successions in the central European Variscides: a Cambrian/Early Ordovician age for the Wojcieszów Limestone (Kaczawa Mountains, SW Poland) indicated by SHRIMP dating of volcanic zircons

GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 4 2008
Ryszard Kryza
Abstract Metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary successions in the central European Variscides are, in many areas, poorly biostratigraphically constrained, making palaeotectonic interpretations uncertain. In such instances, geochronological data are crucial. Sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) dating of volcanic zircons from a quartz,white mica schist (interpreted as deformed metavolcaniclastic/epiclastic rock) within the stratigraphically controversial Wojcieszów Limestone of the Kaczawa Mountains (Sudetes, SW Poland), near to the eastern termination of the European Variscides, has yielded an age of 498,±,5,Ma (2, error), corresponding to late Cambrian to early Ordovician magmatism in that area and constraining the depositional age of the limestones. The new SHRIMP data are not consistent with the recent revision of the age of the Wojcieszów Limestone based on Foraminifera findings that ascribed them to a Late Ordovician,Silurian or even younger interval. They are though, consistent with sparse macrofossil data and strongly support earlier interpretations of the lower part of the Kaczawa Mountains succession as a Cambrian,Early Ordovician extensional basin-fill with associated initial rift volcanic rocks, likely emplaced during the breakup of Gondwana. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


An Ordovician age for the Muggort's Bay Lower Palaeozoic inlier, County Waterford, Ireland,the southernmost exposure of the Irish Caledonides

GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 5 2005
P. M. Brück
Abstract The most southerly exposed Lower Palaeozoic strata in Ireland occur on the southwest coast of County Waterford along a 2.5,km long coastal section at Muggort's Bay where they are surrounded by Devonian rocks. Five formations can be distinguished which, in ascending order, are: the Ballycurreen, Carrickbrean, Rathnameenagh, Moanbrack and Killinoorin formations. The total thickness of the succession is over 1800,m. No macrofossils are present, but the lithologies are largely fine-grained turbidites and subordinate volcanic rocks which closely resemble the Ribband Group seen elsewhere in southeast Ireland and have previously therefore been classified with it. Palynological analysis was undertaken on 25 samples collected from Muggort's Bay, of which eight were productive. Diagnostic microfossils, comprising acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, indicate an Early to Middle Ordovician age for both the Rathnameenagh and the Moanbrack formations. These ages confirm that the strata are part of the Ribband Group which elsewhere has been biostratigraphically dated as ranging from Mid-Cambrian to Mid-Ordovician. Reworked mid-Middle Cambrian acritarchs occur in the Moanbrack Formation and reworked late Middle to early Late Cambrian acritarchs in the Rathnameenagh Formation. Despite generally poor preservation of the organic matter, some 20 acritarch species have been distinguished. Among these, three species belong to the herein revised genus Retisphaeridium for which an emended diagnosis is proposed together with two new combinations, Retisphaeridium capsulatum (Jankauskas, 1976) Vanguestaine nov. comb. and Retisphaeridium pusillum (Moczydlowska, 1998) Vanguestaine nov. comb. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Evidence for two episodes of volcanism in the Bigadiç borate basin and tectonic implications for western Turkey

GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 5 2005
Fuat Erkül
Abstract Western Turkey has been dominated by N,S extension since the Early Miocene. The timing and cause of this N,S extension and related basin formation have been the subject of much debate, but new data from the Bigadiç borate basin provide insights that may solve this controversy. The basin is located in the Bornova Flysch Zone, which is thought to have formed as a major NE-trending transform zone during Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene collisional Tethyan orogenesis and later reactivated as a transfer zone of weakness, and which separates two orogenic domains having different structural evolutions. Volcanism in the Bigadiç area is characterized by two rock units that are separated by an angular unconformity. These are: (1) the Kocaiskan volcanites that gives K/Ar ages of 23,Ma, and (2) the Bigadiç volcano-sedimentary succession that yields ages of 20.6 to 17.8,Ma. Both units are unconformably overlain by Upper Miocene-Pliocene continental deposits. The Kocaiskan volcanites are related to the first episode of volcanic activity and comprise thick volcanogenic sedimentary rocks derived from subaerial andesitic intrusions, domes, lava flows and pyroclastic rocks. The second episode of volcanic activity, represented by basaltic to rhyolitic lavas and pyroclastic rocks, accompanied lacustrine,evaporitic sedimentation. Dacitic to rhyolitic volcanic rocks, called the S,nd,rg, volcanites, comprise NE-trending intrusions producing lava flows, ignimbrites, ash-fall deposits and associated volcanogenic sedimentary rocks. Other NE-trending olivine basaltic (Gölcük basalt) and trachyandesitic (Kay,rlar volcanites) intrusions and lava flows were synchronously emplaced into the lacustrine sediments. The intrusions typically display peperitic rocks along their contacts with the sedimentary rocks. It is important to note that the Gölcük basalt described here is the first recorded Early Miocene alkali basalt in western Turkey. The oldest volcanic episode occurred in the NE-trending zone when the region was still experiencing N,S compression. The angular unconformity between the two volcanic episodes marks an abrupt transition from N,S collision-related convergence to N,S extension related to retreat of the Aegean subduction zone to the south along an extensional detachment. Thrust faults with top-to-the-north sense of shear and a series of anticlines and synclines with subvertical NE-striking axial planes observed in the Bigadiç volcano-sedimentary succession suggest that NW,SE compression was reactivated following sedimentation. Geochemical data from the Bigadiç area also support the validity of the extensional regime, which was characterized by a bimodal volcanism related to extrusion of coeval alkaline and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks during the second volcanic episode. The formation of alkaline volcanic rocks dated as 19.7,±,0.4,Ma can be related directly to the onset of the N,S extensional regime in western Turkey. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Palaeointensity and palaeodirectional studies of early Riphaean dyke complexes in the Lake Ladoga region (Northwestern Russia)

GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2008
V. V. Shcherbakova
SUMMARY Results of palaeointensity and palaeomagnetic studies for the volcanic rocks of 1450 Ma, from Early Riphaean Baltic shield dyke complex sampled in Lake Ladoga region (Karelia, Northwestern Russia) are reported. Electron microscope observations, thermomagnetic and hysteresis measurements indicate the presence of single domain (SD) to pseudo-single domain (PSD) titanomagnetite (TM) with low Ti content as the main magnetic mineral. Stepwise alternating field (AF) and/or thermal demagnetization revealed a two-component natural remanent magnetization (NRM) for most of the samples. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) component was isolated between 440 and 590 °C. Note that the ChRM amounts to 95 per cent of the NRM intensity. The geographic position of the ChRM palaeopoles does not contradict the ,key poles' of the [1270; 1580] Myr time interval, testifying anticlockwise rotation of whole East Europe Craton between 1450 and 1500 Ma. Palaeointensity determinations were performed by Coe-modified Thellier procedure. 35 samples passed our palaeointensity selection criteria and show large linear segments on Arai-Nagata plots. The site mean virtual dipole moment (VDM) varies from 2.00 to 3.91 (× 1022 A m2). Based on these and other observations, we suggest that the Palaeo- and MezoProterozoic was dominated by low VDMs. [source]


Palaeomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies of Cretaceous rocks in the Gongju Basin, Korea: implication of clockwise rotation

GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2002
Seong-Jae Doh
Summary Palaeomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies have been carried out for Cretaceous non-marine sedimentary rocks (Gongju Group) and volcanic rocks in the Gongju Basin, located along the northern boundary of the Ogcheon Belt, Korea. K,Ar age dating for the volcanic rocks was also performed. It is found that the Gongju Group was remagnetised during the tilting of the strata with the characteristic remanent magnetisation (ChRM) direction of at 30 per cent untilting of the strata with a maximum value of precision parameter (k), while the volcanic rocks are revealed to acquire primary remanence with the direction of after the tilt-correction. The K,Ar ages of the volcanic rocks range from 81.8 ± 2.4 to 73.5 ± 2.2 Ma, corresponding to the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous. Electron microscope observations of samples from the Gongju Group show authigenic iron-oxide minerals of various sizes distributed along the cleavage of chlorite and in the pore spaces, indicating that the strata acquired the chemical remanent magnetisation due to the formation of secondary magnetic minerals under the influence of fluids. The palaeomagnetic pole positions are at Lat./Long. = 69.6°N/224.3°E (dp= 3.5°, dm= 5.2°) calculated for the 30 per cent tilt-corrected direction of the Gongju Group and at for the volcanic rocks. Based on the results of this study, it is interpreted that the volcanic rocks acquired the primary magnetisation almost at the same time as the remagnetisation of the Gongju Group in the Late Cretaceous. Comparisons of Cretaceous palaeomagnetic poles from the Korean Peninsula with those from Eurasia implies that the Korean Peninsula underwent clockwise rotation of 21.2°± 5.3° for the middle Early Cretaceous, 12.6°± 5.4° for the late Early Cretaceous, and 7.1°± 9.8° for the Late Cretaceous with respect to Eurasia, due to the sinistral motion of the Tan-Lu Fault. [source]


Modified passive capillary samplers for collecting samples of snowmelt infiltration for stable isotope analysis in remote, seasonally inaccessible watersheds 2: field evaluation

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 7 2010
Marty D. Frisbee
Abstract Twelve modified passive capillary samplers (M-PCAPS) were installed in remote locations within a large, alpine watershed located in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado to collect samples of infiltration during the snowmelt and summer rainfall seasons. These samples were collected in order to provide better constraints on the isotopic composition of soil-water endmembers in the watershed. The seasonally integrated stable isotope composition (,18O and ,2H) of soil-meltwater collected with M-PCAPS installed at shallow soil depths < 10 cm was similar to the seasonally integrated isotopic composition of bulk snow taken at the soil surface. However, meltwater which infiltrated to depths > 20 cm evolved along an isotopic enrichment line similar to the trendline described by the evolution of fresh snow to surface runoff from snowmelt in the watershed. Coincident changes in geochemistry were also observed at depth suggesting that the isotopic and geochemical composition of deep infiltration may be very different from that obtained by surface and/or shallow-subsurface measurements. The M-PCAPS design was also used to estimate downward fluxes of meltwater during the snowmelt season. Shallow and deep infiltration averaged 8·4 and 4·7 cm of event water or 54 and 33% of the measured snow water equivalent (SWE), respectively. Finally, dominant shallow-subsurface runoff processes occurring during snowmelt could be identified using geochemical data obtained with the M-PCAPS design. One soil regime was dominated by a combination of slow matrix flow in the shallow soil profile and fast preferential flow at depth through a layer of platy, volcanic rocks. The other soil regime lacked the rock layer and was dominated by slow matrix flow. Based on these results, the M-PCAPS design appears to be a useful, robust methodology to quantify soil-water fluxes during the snowmelt season and to sample the stable isotopic and geochemical composition of soil-meltwater endmembers in remote watersheds. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Water quality and hydrogeochemical characteristics of the River Buyukmelen, Duzce, Turkey

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 20 2005
Rustem Pehlivan
Abstract The River Buyukmelen is located in the province of Duzce in northwest Turkey and its water basin is approximately 470 km2. The Aksu, Kucukmelen and Ugursuyu streams flow into the River Buyukmelen. It flows into the Black Sea with an output of 44 m3 s,1. The geological succession in the basin comprises limestone and dolomitic limestone of the Y,lanl, formation, sandstone, clayey limestone and marls of the Akveren formation, clastics and volcano-clastics of the Caycuma formation, and cover units comprised of river alluvium, lacutrine sediments and beach sands. The River Buyukmelen is expected to be a water source that can supply the drinking water needs of Istanbul until 2040; therefore, it is imperative that its water quality be preserved. The samples of rock, soil, stream water, suspended, bed and stream sediments and beach sand were collected from the Buyukmelen river basin. They were examined using mineralogical and geochemical methods. The chemical constituents most commonly found in the stream waters are Na+, Mg2+, SO2,4, Cl, and HCO3, in the Guz stream water, Ca2+ in the Abaza stream water, and K+ in the Kuplu stream water. The concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO2,4, HCO,3, Cl,, As, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr, Zn, Fe and U in the Kuplu and Guz stream waters were much higher than the world average values. The Dilaver, Gubi, Tepekoy, Maden, Celik and Abaza streams interact with sedimentary rocks, and the Kuplu and Guz streams interact with volcanic rocks. The amount of suspended sediment in the River Buyukmelen in December 2002 was 120 mg l,1. The suspended and bed sediments in the muddy stream waters are formed of quartz, calcite, plagioclase, clay (kaolinite, illite and smectite), muscovite and amphibole minerals. As, Co, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn and U have all accumulated in the Buyukmelen river-bed sediments. The muddy feature of the waters is related to the petrographic features of the rocks in the basin and their mineralogical compositions, as most of the sandstones and volcanic rocks (basalt, tuffite and agglomerate) are decomposed to a clay-rich composition at the surface. Thus, the suspended sediment in stream waters increases by physical weathering of the rocks and water,rock interaction. Owing to the growing population and industrialization, water demand is increasing. The plan is to bring water from the River Buyukmelen to Istanbul's drinking-water reservoirs. According to the Water Pollution Regulations, the River Buyukmelen belongs to quality class 1 based on Hg, Cd, Pb, As, Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, Se, Ba, Na+, Cl,, and SO2,4; and to quality class 3 based on Fe concentration. The concentration of Fe in the River Buyukmelen exceeds the limit values permitted by the World Health Organization and the Turkish Standard. Because water from the River Buyukmelen will be used as drinking water, it will have an adverse effect on water quality and humans if not treated in advance. In addition, the inclusion of Mn and Zn in the Elmali drinking-water reservoir of Istanbul and Fe in the River Buyukmelen water indicates natural inorganic contamination. Mn, Zn and Fe contents in the waters are related to geological origin. Moreover, the River Buyukmelen flow is very muddy in the rainy seasons and it is inevitable that this will pose problems during the purification process. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The geochemical characteristics of the Paraná River suspended sediment load: an initial assessment

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 7 2003
Pedro J. Depetris
Abstract Most water in the Paraná River drainage basin is supplied by the tropical Upper Paraná (over 60% of the total annual water discharge, 550 km3). The total suspended solids (TSS) load (c. 80 × 106 t year,1), however, is essentially furnished (50,70%) by the mountainous, arid and mostly sediment-mantled upper Bermejo River drainage basin. This characteristic suggests that the Paraná River solid load (TSS, 600 km upstream from the mouth) is largely recycled sedimentary material, whose discharge-weighted mean chemical index of alteration is c. 71. The extended UCC-normalized multi-elemental diagrams are similar to those of other world rivers. Nevertheless, the detailed inspection of UCC-normalized rare earth element (REE) ,spidergrams' reveals a lithological source for the Paraná River TSS that might be compatible with either tholeiitic flood basalts (widespread in the upper drainage) or with young Andean intermediate volcanic rocks. In view of the Bermejo River's dominant role as a sediment contributor, we feel that the signature preserved in the Paraná's TSS is the latter. Conversely, the Uruguay River TSS REE signature is certainly determined by the extensive weathering products of Jurassic,Cretaceous tholeiitic basalts. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of bimodal volcanism in the Sakoli Mobile Belt, Central Indian shield

ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2009
Talat Ahmad
Abstract The Sakoli Mobile Belt comprises bimodal volcanic rocks that include metabasalt, rhyolite, tuffs, and epiclastic rocks with metapelites, quartzite, arkose, conglomerate, and banded iron formation (BIF). Mafic volcanic rocks are tholeiitic to quartz-tholeiitic with normative quartz and hypersthene. SiO2 shows a large compositional gap between the basic and acidic volcanics, depicting their bimodal nature. Both the volcanics have distinct geochemical trends but display some similarity in terms of enriched light rare earth element,large ion lithophile element characteristics with positive anomalies for U, Pb, and Th and distinct negative anomalies for Nb, P, and Ti. These characteristics are typical of continental rift volcanism. Both the volcanic rocks show strong negative Sr and Eu anomalies indicating fractionation of plagioclases and K-feldspars, respectively. The high Fe/Mg ratios for the basic rocks indicate their evolved nature. Whole rock Sm,Nd isochrons for the acidic volcanic rocks indicate an age of crystallization for these volcanic rocks at about 1675 ± 180 Ma (initial 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51017 ± 0.00017, mean square weighted deviate [MSWD] = 1.6). The ,Ndt (t = 2000 Ma) varies between ,0.19 and +2.22 for the basic volcanic rock and between ,2.85 and ,4.29 for the acidic volcanic rocks. Depleted mantle model ages vary from 2000 to 2275 Ma for the basic and from 2426 to 2777 Ma for the acidic volcanic rocks, respectively. These model ages indicate that protoliths for the acidic volcanic rocks probably had a much longer crustal residence time. Predominantly basaltic magma erupted during the deposition of the Dhabetekri Formation and part of it pooled at crustal or shallower subcrustal levels that probably triggered partial melting to generate the acidic magma. The influence of basic magma on the genesis of acidic magma is indicated by the higher Ni and Cr abundance at the observed silica levels of the acidic magma. A subsequent pulse of basic magma, which became crustally contaminated, erupted as minor component along with the dominantly acidic volcanics during the deposition of the Bhiwapur Formation. [source]


Crustal thickness and adakite occurrence in the Philippines: Is there a relationship?

ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2008
Carla B. Dimalanta
Abstract Adakites are increasingly being recognized worldwide in a variety of tectonic settings. Models on the formation of this geochemically distinct class of volcanic rocks have evolved from partial melting of subducted young, hot oceanic slabs to magmatism resulting from oblique subduction, low-angle or flat subduction, or even slab-tearing. Some workers have also pointed to the partial melting of thickened crust to explain the generation of adakitic melts. Rare earth element ratios from adakites and adakitic rocks in the Philippines were used in this study to obtain approximations of the levels where they were generated. These were tied to available geophysical data that defines the crustal thickness of the areas where the samples were collected. High Sm/Yb and La/Yb ratios denote the involvement of amphiboles, and in some cases garnet, in the generation of adakites and adakitic magmas. The presence of amphibole and garnet as residual phases suggests high pressures corresponding to thicker crust (,30 to 45 km). Adakites and adakitic rocks formed through processes other than melting of subducted young oceanic crust would need ,30 km to account for the heavy rare earth element signatures. If mantle fractionation is not the process involved, crustal thickness is critical to generate adakites and adakitic rocks. [source]


Major and trace element provenance signatures in stream sediments from the Kando River, San'in district, southwest Japan

ISLAND ARC, Issue 2 2006
Edwin Ortiz
Abstract Basement rocks in the catchment of the Kando River in southwest Japan can be divided into two main groups. Paleogene to Cretaceous felsic granitoids and volcanic rocks dominate in the upstream section, and more mafic, mostly Miocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks occur in the downstream reaches. Geochemically distinctive Mount Sambe adakitic volcanic products also crop out in the west. X-ray fluorescence analyses of major elements and 14 trace elements were made of two size fractions (<180 and 180,2000 µm) from 86 stream sediments collected within the catchment, to examine contrasts in composition between the fractions as a result of sorting and varying source lithotype. The <180 µm fractions are depleted in SiO2 and enriched in most other major and trace elements relative to the 180,2000 µm fractions. Na2O, K2O, Ba, Rb and Sr are either depleted relative to the 180,2000 µm fractions, or show little contrast in abundance. Sediments from granitoid-dominated catchments are distinguished by greater K2O, Th, Rb, Ba and Nb than those derived from the Miocene volcanic rocks. Granitoid-derived <180 µm fractions are also enriched in Zr, Ce and Y. Sediments derived from the Miocene volcanic rocks generally contain greater TiO2, Fe2O3*, Sc, V, MgO and P2O5, reflecting their more mafic source. Sediments containing Sambe volcanic rocks in their source are marked by higher Sr, CaO, Na2O and lower Y, reflecting an adakitic signature that persists into the lower main channel, where compositions become less variable as the bedload is homogenized. Normalization against source averages shows that compositions of the 180,2000 µm fractions are less fractionated from their parents than are the <180 µm fractions, which are enriched for some elements. Contrast between the size fractions is greatest for the granitoid-derived sediments. Weathering indices of the sediments are relatively low, indicating source weathering is moderate, and typical of temperate climates. Some zircon concentration has occurred in granitoid-derived <180 µm fractions relative to 180,2000 µm counterparts, but Th/Sc and Zr/Sc ratios overall closely reflect both provenance and homogenization in the lower reaches. [source]


Long-term changes in distribution and chemistry of middle Miocene to Quaternary volcanism in the Chokai-Kurikoma area across the Northeast Japan Arc

ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2004
Hirofumi Kondo
Abstract To understand the characteristics of long-term spatial and temporal variation in volcanism within a volcanic arc undergoing constant subduction since the cessation of back-arc opening, a detailed investigation of middle Miocene to Quaternary volcanism was carried out within the Chokai-Kurikoma area of the Northeast Japan Arc. This study involved a survey of available literature, with new K,Ar and fission track dating, and chemical analyses. Since 14 Ma, volcanism has occurred within the Chokai-Kurikoma area in specific areas with a ,branch-like' pattern, showing an east,west trend. This is in marked contrast to the widespread distribution of volcanism with a north,south trend in the 20,14 Ma period. The east,west- trending ,branches' are characterized by regular intervals (50,100 km) of magmatism along the arc. These branches since 14 Ma are remarkably discrepant to the general northwest,southeast or north-northeast,south-southwest direction of the crustal structures that have controlled Neogene to Quaternary tectonic movements in northeast Japan. In addition, evidence indicating clustering and focusing of volcanism into smaller regions since 14 Ma was verified. Comparison of the distribution and chemistry of volcanic rocks for three principal volcanic stages (11,8, 6,3 and 2,0 Ma) revealed that widely but sparsely distributed volcanic rocks had almost the same level of alkali and incompatible element concentrations throughout the area (with the exception of Zr) in the 11,8 Ma stage. However, through the 6,3 Ma stage to the 2,0 Ma stage, the concentration level in the back-arc cluster increased, while that in the volcanic front cluster remained almost constant. Therefore, the degree of partial melting has decreased, most likely with a simultaneous increase in the depth of magma segregation within the back-arc zone, whereas within the volcanic front zone, the conditions of magma generation have changed little over the three stages. In conclusion, the evolution of the thermal structure within the mantle wedge across the arc since 14 Ma has reduced the extent of ascending mantle diapirs into smaller fields. This has resulted in the tendency for the distribution of volcanism to become localized and concentrated into more specific areas in the form of clusters from the late Miocene to Quaternary. [source]


Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Miocene basaltic rocks from northeast Hokkaido, Japan: Implications for opening of the Kurile back-arc basin

ISLAND ARC, Issue 2 2000
Yasuo Ikeda
Abstract Late Miocene (7,9 Ma) basaltic rocks from the Monbetsu-Kamishihoro graben in northeast Hokkaido have chemical affinities to certain back-arc basin basalts (referred to herein as Hokkaido BABB). Pb-, Nd- and Sr-isotopic compositions of the Hokkaido BABB and arc-type volcanic rocks (11,13 Ma and 4,4.5 Ma) from the nearby region indicate mixing between the depleted mantle and an EM II-like enriched component (e.g. subducted pelagic sediment) in the magma generation. At a given 87Sr/86Sr, Hokkaido BABB have slightly lower 143Nd/144Nd and slightly less radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb compared with associated arc-type lavas, but both these suites are difficult to distinguish solely on the basis of isotopic compositions. These isotopic data indicate that while generation of the Hokkaido BABB involves smaller amounts of the EM II-like enriched component than do associated arc lavas, Hokkaido BABB are isotopically distinct from basalts produced at normal back-arc basin spreading centers. Instead, northeast Hokkaido BABB are more similar to basalts erupted during the initial rifting stage of back-arc basins. The Monbetsu-Kamishihoro graben may have developed in association with extension that formed the Kurile Basin, suggesting that opening of the basin continued until late Miocene (7,9 Ma). [source]


Provenance of sandstones from the Wakino Subgroup of the Lower Cretaceous Kanmon Group, northern Kyushu, Japan

ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2000
Daniel K. Asiedu
Abstract The Wakino Subgroup is a lower stratigraphic unit of the Lower Cretaceous Kanmon Group. Previous studies on provenance of Wakino sediments have mainly concentrated on either petrography of major framework grains or bulk rock geochemistry of shales. This study addresses the provenance of the Wakino sandstones by integrating the petrographic, bulk rock geochemistry, and mineral chemistry approaches. The proportions of framework grains of the Wakino sandstones suggest derivation from either a single geologically heterogeneous source terrane or multiple source areas. Major source lithologies are granitic rocks and high-grade metamorphic rocks but notable amounts of detritus were also derived from felsic, intermediate and mafic volcanic rocks, older sedimentary rocks, and ophiolitic rocks. The heavy mineral assemblage include, in order of decreasing abundance: opaque minerals (ilmenite and magnetite with minor rutile), zircon, garnet, chromian spinel, aluminum silicate mineral (probably andalusite), rutile, epidote, tourmaline and pyroxene. Zircon morphology suggests its derivation from granitic rocks. Chemistry of chromian spinel indicates that the chromian spinel grains were derived from the ultramafic cumulate member of an ophiolite suite. Garnet and ilmenite chemistry suggests their derivation from metamorphic rocks of the epidote-amphibolite to upper amphibolite facies though other source rocks cannot be discounted entirely. Major and trace element data for the Wakino sediments suggest their derivation from igneous and/or metamorphic rocks of felsic composition. The major element compositions suggest that the type of tectonic environment was of an active continental margin. The trace element data indicate that the sediments were derived from crustal rocks with a minor contribution from mantle-derived rocks. The trace element data further suggest that recycled sedimentary rocks are not major contributors of detritus. It appears that the granitic and metamorphic rocks of the Precambrian Ryongnam Massif in South Korea were the major contributors of detritus to the Wakino basin. A minor but significant amount of detritus was derived from the basement rocks of the Akiyoshi and Sangun Terrane. The chromian spinel appears to have been derived from a missing terrane though the ultramafic rocks in the Ogcheon Belt cannot be discounted. [source]


Geophysical survey of the proposed Tsenkher impact structure, Gobi Altai, Mongolia

METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, Issue 3 2010
Jens ORMÖ
Extensive occurrences of brecciated rocks, mainly in the form of an ejecta blanket outside the elevated rim of the structure, support an explosive origin (e.g., cosmic impact, explosive volcanism). The host rocks in the area are mainly weakly magnetic, silica-rich sandstones, and siltstones. A near absence of surface exposures of volcanic rocks makes any major volcanic structures (e.g., caldera) unlikely. Likewise, the magnetic models exclude any large, subsurface, intrusive body. This is supported by an 8 mGal gravity low over the structure indicating a subsurface low density body. Instead, the best fit is achieved for a bowl-shaped structure with a slight central rise as expected for an impact crater of this size in mainly sedimentary target. The structure can be either root-less (i.e., impact crater) or rooted with a narrow feeder dyke with relatively higher magnetic susceptibility and density (i.e., volcanic maar crater). The geophysical signature, the solitary appearance, the predominantly sedimentary setting, and the comparably large size of the Tsenkher structure favor the impact crater alternative. However, until mineralogical/geochemical evidence for an impact is presented, the maar alternative remains plausible although exceptional as it would make the Tsenkher structure one of the largest in the world in an unusual setting for maar craters. [source]