Voiding Symptoms (voiding + symptom)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A practical guide to the evaluation and treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms in the primary care setting

M. T. Rosenberg
Summary Aims:, Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in both men and women, and are among the most prevalent patient complaints heard by primary care physicians (PCPs). This article aims to provide PCPs with a logical algorithm for the assessment and initiation of treatment for LUTS in the male patient. Results:, Management of LUTS involves a focused history and physical, as well as the assessment of bother. In patients for whom treatment is warranted, a series of decisions regarding therapy should be considered. Male patients commonly suffer from storage and/or voiding symptoms. Treatment of male LUTS is commonly begun with agents that are aimed at remedying the outlet symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). When this intervention is ineffective or when refractory symptoms persist, consideration should be given to treating the storage symptoms characteristic of overactive bladder (OAB). Discussion:, This article is intended to provide the PCP with a logical guide to the treatment of male LUTS. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and OAB predominate among the causes of these symptoms, and the PCP should be comfortable treating each. Recent data detailing the safety of the use of these treatments in the male patient are reviewed and incorporated into the algorithm. Conclusion:, Primary care physicians are in a unique position to successfully identify and treat male patients with LUTS. With this paper, they now have a tool to approach treatment logically and practically. [source]

Prevalence of storage and voiding symptoms among men aged 40 years and older in a US population-based study: results from the Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health study

D. B. Glasser
Summary Aims:, Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are categorised as storage (urgency, frequency, nocturia and incontinence), voiding (sensation of incomplete emptying, hesitancy, weak stream and straining) or mixed symptoms. Methods:, In this US population-based study, we investigated the prevalence of male LUTS and the relative frequency of the LUTS subtypes, and we evaluated associations between LUTS and age, race/ethnicity and erectile dysfunction (ED). The Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health study included a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic men aged , 40 years. Participants completed a questionnaire including items on ED and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). The prevalence and subtypes of LUTS were investigated post hoc by age, race/ethnicity and the presence of ED. Results:, The overall prevalence rates of storage (13%) and mixed (9%) symptoms were higher than that of voiding symptoms (6%). The prevalence of storage symptoms was similar across age groups, whereas voiding and mixed symptoms increased with age. Among men with IPSS , 8, the rates of storage (29%) and mixed (38%) symptoms were also higher than voiding symptoms (23%). Distributions of the LUTS subtypes were comparable among black, white and Hispanic respondents with IPSS , 8. The overall prevalence rate of ED (40%) increased with age among those with IPSS , 8. Isolated storage symptoms were more than twice as common as isolated voiding symptoms among US men , 40 years of age. Conclusion:, Careful attention to individual symptoms may help distinguish storage LUTS from voiding LUTS, a distinction that has important implications for treatment. [source]

Urodynamic findings in children with cerebral palsy

Abstract Aim: More than one-third of children with cerebral palsy are expected to present with dysfunctional voiding symptoms. The voiding dysfunction symptoms of the cerebral palsy patients in the present study were documented. Methods: Of the study group, 16 were girls and 20 were boys (mean age: 8.2 years). Children with cerebral palsy were evaluated with urodynamics consisting of flow rate, filling and voiding cystometry, and electromyography findings of the external urethral sphincter to determine lower urinary tract functions. Treatment protocols were based on the urodynamic findings. Anticholinergic agents to reduce uninhibited contractions and to increase bladder capacity were used as a treatment. Clean intermittent catheterization and behavioral modification were used for incomplete emptying. Results: Of the children, 24 (66.6%) were found to have dysfunctional voiding symptoms. Daytime urinary incontinence (47.2%) and difficulty urinating (44.4%) were the most common symptoms. Urodynamic findings showed that neurogenic detrusor overactivity (involuntary contractions during bladder filling) with a low bladder capacity was present in 17 (47.2%) children, whereas detrusor,sphincter dyssynergia was present in four patients (11%). The mean bladder capacity of patients with a neurogenic bladder was 52.2% of the expected capacity. Conclusions: The present study concluded that voiding dysfunction was seen in more than half of the children with cerebral palsy, which is a similar result to other published studies. We propose that a rational plan of management of these patients depends on the evaluation of the lower urinary tract dysfunction with urodynamic studies. These children benefit from earlier referral for assessment and treatment. [source]

Conversion to Silodosin in Men on Conventional ,1 -Blockers for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

LUTS, Issue 1 2010
Masahiko TANAKA
Objectives:,1 -blockers have commonly been used as first-line medical therapy for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Recently, a highly selective ,1A -adrenoceptor antagonist, silodosin, was developed in Japan. We examined the efficacy and safety of conversion from conventional ,1 -blockers to silodosin in men with BPH. Methods: Conversion to silodosin was proposed to consecutive patients on conventional ,1 -blockers for symptomatic BPH for at least 6 months. The effects of conversion were examined by the International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life index, overactive bladder symptom score, peak flow rate, residual urine volume, and adverse events at 12 weeks. The efficacy of silodosin was also evaluated by patients' impression. Results: Eighty-one men underwent conversion, for the most part because of dissatisfaction with the efficacy of their current treatment in improving nocturia or weak stream. The International Prostate Symptom Score total score significantly improved from 12.7 ± 5.9 at baseline to 10.6 ± 5.4 at 4 weeks (P < 0.001) and 10.9 ± 5.8 at 12 weeks (P < 0.01). The progress was mostly due to improvement in voiding symptoms, although reduction of storage symptoms was also significant. The quality of life index also significantly decreased with conversion to silodosin. Efficacy as judged by patients' impression was 76% (37/49) at 12 weeks of treatment. None of the overactive bladder symptom score, peak flow rate, and residual urine volume exhibited significant change. No serious adverse events were observed during the study period. Conclusion: Conversion to silodosin may be beneficial in men who are dissatisfied with conventional ,1 -blockers for BPH, and be particularly useful in improving voiding symptoms. [source]

Unilateral versus bilateral stage I neuromodulator lead placement for the treatment of refractory voiding dysfunction

Khanh Pham
Abstract Aims To determine if bilateral S3 lead placement during the stage I trial period improves the "success" rate for advancing to stage II (permanent) sacral neuromodulator placement. Methods A retrospective chart review of 124 (20 male and 104 female) patients undergoing stage I sacral neuromodulation (InterStim®, Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota) implantation for the treatment of refractory voiding dysfunction was performed. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on unilateral versus bilateral stage I lead placement in the S3 foramina. Both groups were then evaluated and compared with regards to overall "success", defined as progression from stage I to stage II placement. Results Fifty-five (44%) patients underwent unilateral stage I lead placement and 69 (56%) received bilateral S3 leads. Successful stage I trials were reported in 32/55 (58%) and 53/69 (76%) of unilateral and bilateral cohorts, respectively (P,=,0.03). Five wound infections were reported,2 (3.6%) following unilateral and 3 (4.3%) after bilateral stage I lead placement. No other complications were encountered. Conclusions Bilateral stage I neuromodulation trial provides a significantly higher rate of improvement in refractory voiding symptoms to allow for the progress to stage II implantation. Neurourol. Urodynam. 27:779,781, 2008, © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Improvement of bladder storage function by ,1-blocker depends on the suppression of C-fiber afferent activity in rats,

Osamu Yokoyama
Abstract Aims ,1-blockers improve voiding symptoms through the reduction of prostatic and urethral smooth muscle tone; however, the underlying mechanism of improvement of storage symptoms is not known. Using a rat model of detrusor overactivity caused by cerebral infarction (CI), we undertook the present study to determine whether the effect of an ,1-blocker, naftopidil, is dependent on the suppression of C-fiber afferents. Methods To induce desensitization of C-fiber bladder afferents, we injected resiniferatoxin (0.3 mg/kg, RTX) sub-cutaneously to female Sprague-Dawley rats 2 days prior to left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) (RTX-CI rats). As controls we used rats without RTX treatment (CI rats). MCAO and insertion of a polyethylene catheter through the bladder dome were performed under halothane anesthesia. We investigated the effects on cystometrography (CMG) of intravenous (i.v.), intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.), or intrathecal (i.t.) administration of naftopidil in conscious CI rats. Results Bladder capacity (BC) was markedly reduced after MCAO in both RTX-CI and CI rats. I.v. administration of naftopidil significantly increased BC in CI rats without an increase in residual volume, but it had no effects on BC in RTX-CI rats. I.t. administration of naftopidil significantly increased BC in CI but not in RTX-CI rats. Conclusions These results suggest that naftopidil has an inhibitory effect on C-fiber afferents in the lumbosacral spinal cord, improving BC during the storage phase. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Lower urinary tract dysfunctions in patients with spinal cord tumors

Tomoyuki Uchiyama
Abstract Aims The objective of this study was to elucidate the incidence and pathophysiology of lower urinary tract dysfunctions (LUTS) in patients with spinal cord tumors. Methods Urinary questionnaire and urodynamic studies were done in 76 patients with spinal cord tumors. Results The patients included 56 with cervical-thoracic (C1 to T11) and 20 with lumbosacral tumors. The lumbosacral tumors consisted of 12 epiconus/conus medullaris (below T11) and 8 cauda equina tumors. These tumors were further subdivided into intramedullary, intradural extramedullary, and dumbbell-type. More than 83% of the patients had urinary symptoms. Patients with cervical-thoracic tumors commonly had voiding symptoms (75%). Detrusor hyperreflexia (39%), and detrusor areflexia on voiding (21%) were the main urodynamic features. Patients with epiconus/conus medullaris tumors commonly had voiding symptoms as well (58%), but decreased urge to void (50%), detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (42%), and detrusor areflexia on voiding (32%) were the main features. Patients with cauda equina tumors commonly had storage symptoms (88%), of which sensory urgency was most common (63%). Severe LUTS occurred in the epiconus/conus medullaris tumors and in the intramedullary tumors. These dysfunctions tended to appear late and rarely appeared as the initial symptom in the course of the disease. There was no significant relationship between neurologic abnormalities and LUTS. Urodynamics showed that spinal cord tumors cause a variety of LUTS, depending on the location and the type of the tumor. Conclusion Spinal cord tumors are commonly accompanied by LUTS. Clinical and urodynamic evaluation is crucial to diagnosis and management since there is little relationship between symptoms and findings. Neurourol. Urodynam. 23:68,75, 2004. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Involuntary detrusor contractions: Correlation of urodynamic data to clinical categories

Lauri J. Romanzi
Abstract Data regarding the prevalence and urodynamic characteristics of involuntary detrusor contractions (IDC) in various clinical settings, as well as in neurologically intact vs. neurologically impaired patients, are scarce. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the urodynamic characteristics of IDC differ in various clinical categories. One hundred eleven consecutive neurologically intact patients and 21 consecutive neurologically impaired patients, referred for evaluation of persistent irritative voiding symptoms, were prospectively enrolled. All patients were presumed by history to have IDC, and underwent detailed clinical and urodynamic evaluation. Based on clinical evaluation, patients were placed into one of four categories according to the main presenting symptoms and the existence of neurological insult: 1) frequency/urgency; 2) urge incontinence; 3) mixed stress incontinence and irritative symptoms; and 4) neurogenic bladder. IDC was defined by detrusor pressure of ,,15,cm H2O whether or not the patient perceived the contraction; or <,15,cm H2O if perceived by the patient. Eight urodynamic characteristics of IDC were analyzed and compared between the four groups. IDC were observed in all of the neurologically impaired patients, compared with 76% of the neurologically intact patients (P,<,0.001). No correlation was found between amplitude of IDC and subjective report of urgency. All clinical categories demonstrated IDC at approximately 80% of cystometric capacity. Eighty-one percent of the neurologically impaired patients, compared with 97% of the neurologically intact patients, were aware of the IDC at the time of urodynamics (P,<,0.04). The ability to abort the IDC was significantly higher among continent patients with frequency/urgency (77%) compared with urge incontinent patients (46%) and neurologically impaired patients (38%). In conclusion, when evaluating detrusor overactivity, the characteristics of the IDC are not distinct enough to aid in differential diagnosis. However, the ability to abort IDC and stop incontinent flow may have prognostic implications, especially for the response to behavior modification, biofeedback, and pelvic floor exercise. Neurourol. Urodynam. 20:249,257, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Management of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men

Samantha Pillay
This clinical update, written for the non-urologist, aims to highlight the important concepts behind understanding and treating men with uncomplicated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). In the last five years there have been important changes in the preferred terminology and guidelines for managing men with voiding symptoms. In particular, the assessment of a patient's degree of bother is the most important factor when making management decisions for men with uncomplicated LUTS. Although this clinical update does not attempt to address the management of prostate cancer it does include some brief guidelines on prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. The following information is based on the NH&MRC Clinical Practice Guidelines, published 1996 [1]. It is acknowledged that opinion remains divided among urologists concerning some of these guidelines. [source]

LUTS/BPH in clinical practice: the importance of nocturia and quality of sleep

Various studies indicate that nocturia is one of the most bothersome of lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). Nocturia has a negative impact on quality of sleep (QoS), which might lead to daytime fatigue, reduced performance the next day and might ultimately affect the patient's overall quality of life (QoL). However, the evaluation of a patient with LUTS/BPH and assessment of benefits of LUTS/BPH treatment are mainly focused on voiding symptoms or flow rate, and the impact of nocturia on the patient's QoL is often neglected. At the Sixth International Consultation on Prostate Cancer and Prostate Diseases in 2005, a discussion forum about nocturia and its impact on QoS and QoL was organized, followed by a meeting of an expert consensus panel. Both recognized the importance of assessing nocturia and its impact on QoS and QoL in the initial evaluation of patients with LUTS/BPH, and in assessing the benefits of (new) LUTS/BPH treatments. However, currently used instruments that measure the severity of nocturia and its impact on QoS and QoL were not specifically designed for this purpose and lack sensitivity. At the expert consensus meeting, the expert panel stated that new instruments are required that can fully monitor the impact of nocturia on QoS and QoL. Potential new instruments that address these requirements are nocturia-specific questionnaires such as the Nocturia QoL questionnaire. Furthermore, the expert panel acknowledged the assessment of ,hours of undisturbed sleep' (HUS) as a potential new method to evaluate the impact of nocturia on QoS and QoL. HUS refers to the time from falling asleep to the first awakening to void. Sleep assessment tools such as sleep diaries and actigraphy are potential instruments to measure HUS. [source]

Comparison of tamsulosin and naftopidil for efficacy and safety in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized controlled trial

Momokazu Gotoh
OBJECTIVES To compare the efficacy and safety of two ,1a/,1d adrenoceptor (AR) antagonists with different affinity for the ,1AR subtypes, tamsulosin and naftopidil, in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with BPH were randomized to receive either tamsulosin or naftopidil. The primary efficacy variables were the changes in the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximum flow rate on free uroflowmetry, and residual urine volume. The secondary efficacy variables were average flow rate, changes in the IPSS storage score, IPSS voiding score, and quality-of-life (QoL) Index score, from baseline to endpoint (12 weeks). Data on all randomized patients were included in the safety analyses for adverse effects and changes in blood pressure. RESULTS Of the 185 patients enrolled data for 144 who were eligible for inclusion in the efficacy analysis were analysed (75 from the tamsulosin and 69 from the naftopidil group). There was no significant difference in any variable at baseline between the groups. There were satistically significant improvements for all primary and secondary variables in both groups, except for residual urine in the tamsulosin group. However, there was no significant intergroup difference in the improvement of any efficacy variable between the groups. The adverse effects were comparable, with no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure after treatment in both groups. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that naftopidil is as effective and safe as tamsulosin. Both drugs were effective in improving storage and voiding symptoms. However, there was no difference in clinical efficacy or adverse effects between the ,1 AR antagonists with different affinity to ,1 subtypes, ,1a and ,1d. [source]