Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Voiding

  • bladder voiding
  • dysfunctional voiding

  • Terms modified by Voiding

  • voiding diary
  • voiding difficulty
  • voiding dysfunction
  • voiding efficiency
  • voiding frequency
  • voiding function
  • voiding pattern
  • voiding pressure
  • voiding symptom

  • Selected Abstracts

    Sacral Nerve and Spinal Cord Stimulation for Intractable Neuropathic Pain Caused by Spinal Cord Infarction

    NEUROMODULATION, Issue 4 2007
    Sung Ho Kim MD
    ABSTRACT Central cord pain is very difficult to relieve, even with the many kinds of medical and surgical treatments available. Following spinal cord infarctions, central cord pain can develop. The problems that may arise could include limb pain, pelvic pain, difficulties voiding, and difficulties defecating. We are reporting a case of central cord pain caused by a spinal cord infarction of the conus medullaris. Limb pain was reduced by spinal cord stimulation. Voiding and defecation difficulties and pelvic pain were reduced by sacral nerve stimulation. Thus, in a case involving both intractable limb and pelvic pain, a combination therapy of these two stimulations might be an effective treatment modality. [source]

    Prevalence of storage and voiding symptoms among men aged 40 years and older in a US population-based study: results from the Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health study

    D. B. Glasser
    Summary Aims:, Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are categorised as storage (urgency, frequency, nocturia and incontinence), voiding (sensation of incomplete emptying, hesitancy, weak stream and straining) or mixed symptoms. Methods:, In this US population-based study, we investigated the prevalence of male LUTS and the relative frequency of the LUTS subtypes, and we evaluated associations between LUTS and age, race/ethnicity and erectile dysfunction (ED). The Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health study included a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic men aged , 40 years. Participants completed a questionnaire including items on ED and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). The prevalence and subtypes of LUTS were investigated post hoc by age, race/ethnicity and the presence of ED. Results:, The overall prevalence rates of storage (13%) and mixed (9%) symptoms were higher than that of voiding symptoms (6%). The prevalence of storage symptoms was similar across age groups, whereas voiding and mixed symptoms increased with age. Among men with IPSS , 8, the rates of storage (29%) and mixed (38%) symptoms were also higher than voiding symptoms (23%). Distributions of the LUTS subtypes were comparable among black, white and Hispanic respondents with IPSS , 8. The overall prevalence rate of ED (40%) increased with age among those with IPSS , 8. Isolated storage symptoms were more than twice as common as isolated voiding symptoms among US men , 40 years of age. Conclusion:, Careful attention to individual symptoms may help distinguish storage LUTS from voiding LUTS, a distinction that has important implications for treatment. [source]

    Long-term functional outcomes in patients with various types of orthotopic intestinal neobladder

    Hideaki Miyake
    Objectives: To evaluate the long-term functional outcomes of various types of orthotopic neobladder (NB). Methods: Eighty-nine patients who underwent orthotopic NB reconstruction after radical cystectomy and were followed for at least 60 months after surgery were included in this retrospective study. The types of NB in this series were: modified Studer type, Hautmann type, Mainz type, Goldwasser type and modified Reddy type in 36, 9, 15, 10 and 19 patients, respectively. Results: Sixty-seven (75.3%) patients could void spontaneously, 15 (16.8%) voided with clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) assistance and seven (7.9%) with CIC alone. After excluding the seven voiding with CIC alone, daytime and night-time continence was achieved in 63 and 50 of the remaining 82 patients, respectively. In addition, the proportion of daytime continence in the modified Studer group was significantly greater than that in the Mainz group, whereas there was no significant difference in the proportion of night-time continence among these groups. Uroflow examination indicated that despite the lack of significant differences in the maximal flow rates and the voided volumes, the post-void residual in the modified Reddy group was significantly smaller than that in the modified Studer group. Blood gas analysis in the 82 patients showed that there were no significant differences in the pH, bicarbonate, chloride and base excess among these groups. Conclusions: Orthotopic NB created with intestinal segments generally has acceptable functional outcomes on long term follow up. These outcomes differ according to the type of NB. To define the optimal procedure for NB reconstruction, it is necessary to understand the long-term functional prospects, on which the subjective success of NB creation is based. [source]

    Changing concepts of bladder regeneration

    Akihiro Kanematsu
    Abstract: During the last decade, there has been a dramatic increase in studies aimed at regeneration of the urinary bladder. Many studies employed animal-derived or synthetic materials as grafts for experimental bladder augmentation models, with or without additional measures to promote regeneration, such as autologous cell transplantation or growth factor loading. However, in spite of encouraging results in several reports, few methodologies have shown proven definitive clinical utility. One major problem in these studies is the lack of a clear distinction between native and regenerated bladder in total bladder function after augmentation. Another crucial problem is the absorption and shrinkage of larger grafts, which may result from insufficient vascular supply and smooth muscle regeneration. In contrast, researchers have recently attempted to establish alternative regenerative strategies for treating bladder diseases, and have employed far more diverse approaches according to the various pathological conditions to be treated. For total replacement of the bladder after cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer, urothelium-covered neobladder with non-urinary tract backbone remains a viable choice. In addition, functional bladder diseases such as urinary incontinence, weak detrusor, or non-compliant fibrotic bladder have also been major targets for many leading research groups in this field. These conditions are studied much more from different therapeutic standpoints, aiming at the prevention or reversal of pathological conditions in muscle remodeling or neural control. Such altered research direction would inevitably lead to less surgically based basic biological research, and also would include a far wider spectrum of adult and pediatric bladder diseases, from overactive bladder to dysfunctional voiding. [source]

    Transobturatory tension-free composite sling for urethral support in patients with stress urinary incontinence: Favorable experience after 1 year follow up

    Objective:, Symptomatic, anatomic and urodynamic results of a composite transobturatory tension-free sling with an absorbable middle part, in patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), were studied. Methods:, A prospective study in 40 women with SUI was performed. Symptoms, urodynamics and anatomical improvements were evaluated separately. Surgery was performed with the transobturatory approach. Results:, All patients had both clinically and urodynamically confirmed SUI. Clinical outcome was favorable in 36/40 (90%) patients, after 1 year. Operation improved the position of the bladder neck (2.8 cm and 1.4 cm below the pubic bone, respectively) and significantly decreased mobility of the bladder neck during abdominal straining (3.3 cm and 1.7 cm, respectively). Both symptoms and quality of life were significantly improved 1 month after the surgery. Postoperative maximum flow was lower than the preoperative one but with borderline significance (25.8 and 23.7 mL/s; P = 0.05). Pressure flow study showed unobstructed voiding both preoperatively and postoperatively. Detrusor pressure at the maximum flow was increased (20, 4 and 22, 8 cmH2O, respectively) but not significantly. Conclusion:, Our results confirmed a high objective cure rate, improvement of symptoms and quality of life, and at the same time, corrected position of the bladder neck and unobstructed voiding. [source]

    Transient anuria requiring nephrostomy after intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillations for superficial bladder cancer

    Abstract, A 76-year-old man received intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillations for recurrent superficial bladder cancer. He had undergone right nephroureterectomy for right renal pelvic cancer 9 months previously. He presented with anuria and left hydronephrosis after the fourth instillation, with serum creatinine increasing up to 15.7 mg/dL. Percutaneous nephrostomy was indwelled, and antegrade pyelography showed left vesicoureteral obstruction. There was no sign of recurrent bladder cancer or ureteral cancer. He started spontaneous voiding on day 4 and the nephrostomy was removed on day 8. Most of the side-effects of intravesical BCG therapy are minor, and major adverse reactions are rare. Life-threatening ureteral obstruction would be a rare complication of BCG immunotherapy. Although BCG intravesical instillation after nephroureterectomy is a common practice, special care should be taken of renal function in patients with unilateral kidney during BCG therapy. [source]

    Comparison of the effectiveness and side-effects of tolterodine and oxybutynin in children with detrusor instability

    Background:, Treatment with anticholinergic agents is the mainstay of therapy for detrusor instability (DI), a chronic and morbid condition characterized by urge urinary incontinence. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of tolterodine and oxybutynin in children with DI. Methods:, A total of 60 children with DI were enrolled, 30 (14 male, 16 female, mean age 7.97 ± 2.71 years) in the tolterodine group and 30 (12 male, 18 female, mean age 7.33 ± 2.23 years) in the oxybutynin group. In this prospective study we reviewed data from 60 children followed for at least 6 months. All of the patients in the study population had a history of dysfunctional voiding. Urodynamic investigations were conducted in all of the patients before and after anticholinergic treatment. Episodes of urge urinary incontinence and adverse events were also evaluated. Results:, Improvements in urge incontinence episodes were similar for the children who received tolterodine or oxybutynin. Improvements in the urodynamic parameters were also the same in the two groups. Adverse events were significantly lower in the tolterodine group (13 events in 13 patients) compared to the oxybutynin group (27 events in 20 patients; P = 0.027). Conclusion:, Reductions in urge urinary incontinence episodes were similar with tolterodine and oxybutynin in children with DI. Side-effects were more common with oxybutynin. Treatment of children with DI with tolterodine shows significantly better tolerability and this may enhance children's compliance during long-term treatment. [source]

    Recent trends of genitourinary endoscopy in children

    Abstract Downsizing and refinement of the pediatric endoscope in video-monitoring systems have facilitated genitourinary endoscopy even in small children without any traumatic instrumentation. Indications for endoscopy in children with hematuria or tractable urinary tract infection have been tailored for the rareness of genitourinary malignancy or secondary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) as a result of infravesical obstruction. Most mechanical outlet obstructions can be relieved endoscopically irrespective of sex and age. Endoscopic decompression by puncture or incision of both intravesical and ectopic ureteroceles can be an initial treatment similar to open surgery for an affected upper moiety. Endoscopy is necessary following urodynamic study to exclude minor infravesical obstruction only in children with unexplained dysfunctional voiding. Genitourinary endoscopy is helpful for structural abnormalities before and at the time of repairing congenital urogenital anomalies. Endoscopic injection therapy of VUR has been established as a less invasive surgical treatment. Pediatric endoscopy will play a greater role in the armamentarium for most pediatric urological diseases through the analysis of visual data and discussion on the indications for endoscopy throughout the world. [source]

    Acute urethritis caused by Neisseria meningitidis

    Abstract A 48-year-old heterosexual Japanese man visited the outpatient clinic of Nagoya Urology Hospital, complaining of burning pain at voiding and pus discharge from the urethral orifice. These symptoms appeared the day following oral-genital contact (fellatio) with a commercial sex worker. On the basis of the presumptive clinical diagnosis of gonorrhea because of the microscopic detection of diplococci in the urethral discharge, he was treated with levofloxacin (300 mg per day) for 7 days. His symptoms responded quickly and urinalysis taken 7 days later was normal. Microbiological examinations isolated Neisseria meningitidis in the urethral discharge by culture with the use of enzymatic profiles. Further prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) through oral-genital contact would lead to an increase in meningococcal urethritis. [source]

    Postoperative morbidity, functional results and quality of life of patients following orthotopic neobladder reconstruction

    Tatsuaki Yoneda
    Abstract Aim: To evaluate postoperative morbidity, functional results and health-related quality of life of patients with an orthotopic neobladder. Methods: A total of 37 patients with orthotopic neobladder (modified Studer method: 35 cases; Hautmann method: one case; sigmoid neobladder: one case) were included in the present study. Postoperative morbidity and neobladder function were analyzed. To determine quality of life, the Sickness Impact Profile questionnaire was used. The quality of life of patients who underwent orthotopic neobladder was compared with that of patients who underwent ileal conduit. Results: In 37 consecutive patients with neobladder reconstruction, early complications included 10 cases of pyelonephritis (27.0%) and one of stenosis of ureterointestinal anastomosis (2.7%). Two patients died of ARDS and sepsis following peritonitis and pneumonia in the perioperative period. Late complications included pyelonephritis in three patients (8.6%). In 32 cases, except for an early postoperative case and those that died, complete daytime and night-time continence was achieved in 31 patients (96.9%) and 16 patients (50.0%), respectively. Concerning health-related quality of life, the mean sum scores per category of the Sickness Impact Profile were calculated for 32 patients with orthotopic neobladder and 30 patients with ileal conduit. There were no significant differences in overall satisfaction, however, the scores for patients with orthotopic neobladder reconstruction were significantly higher than those for patients with ileal conduit in the three categories of emotions, feelings and sensation, social interaction and recreation. Conclusion: Orthotopic neobladder reconstruction exhibited good functional results with acceptable complications. Patients who underwent neobladder reconstruction were satisfied with their voiding. Assessment of quality of life using the Sickness Impact Profile questionnaire demonstrated that orthotopic neobladder improved their quality of life better than ileal conduit, especially with regard to mental, physical and social functioning in daily life. [source]

    Functional Incidental Training: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Trial in Veterans Affairs Nursing Homes

    Joseph G. Ouslander MD
    Objectives: To test the effects of a rehabilitative intervention directed at continence, mobility, endurance, and strength (Functional Incidental Training (FIT)) in older patients in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) nursing homes. Design: Randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Setting: Four VA nursing homes. Participants: All 528 patients in the nursing homes were screened; 178 were eligible, and 107 were randomized to an immediate intervention group (Group 1; n=52) and a delayed intervention group (Group 2; n=55). Intervention: Trained research staff provided the FIT intervention, which included prompted voiding combined with individualized, functionally oriented endurance and strength-training exercises offered four times per day, 5 days per week, for 8 weeks. Group 1 received the intervention while Group 2 served as a control group; then Group 2 received the intervention while Group 1 crossed over to no intervention. A total of 64 subjects completed the intervention phase of the trial. Measurements: Timed measures of walking or wheeling a wheelchair (mobility), sit-to-stand exercises, independence in locomotion and toileting as assessed using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), one-repetition maximum weight for several measures of upper and lower body strength, frequency of urine and stool incontinence, and appropriate toileting ratios. Results: There was a significant effect of the FIT intervention on virtually all measures of endurance, strength, and urinary incontinence but not on the FIM for locomotion or toileting. The effects of FIT were observed when Group 1 received the intervention and was compared with the control group and when Group 2 crossed over to the intervention. Group 1 deteriorated in all measures during the 8-week crossover period. Within-person comparisons also demonstrated significant effects on all measures in the 64 participants who completed the intervention; 43 (67%) of these participants were "responders" based on maintenance or improvement in at least one measure of endurance, strength, and urinary incontinence. No adverse events related to FIT occurred during the study period. Conclusion: FIT improves endurance, strength, and urinary incontinence in older patients residing in VA nursing homes. Translating these positive benefits achieved under research conditions into practice will be challenging because of the implications of the intervention for staff workload and thereby the costs of care. [source]

    Intrathecal ropivacaine 5 mg/ml for outpatient knee arthroscopy: a comparison with lidocaine 10 mg/ml

    Purpose: The aim of this prospective, randomised, blind study was to compare the evolution of spinal block produced with 50 mg lidocaine 10 mg/ml and 10 mg ropivacaine 5 mg/ml for outpatient knee arthroscopy. Methods: Thirty outpatients undergoing knee arthroscopy received 50 mg of lidocaine 10 mg/ml (n=15) or 10 mg of ropivacaine 5 mg/ml (n=15) intrathecally. The evolution of spinal block was recorded until home discharge, while the occurrence of transient neurologic symptoms (TNS) was evaluated through phone-call follow-ups. Results: The median onset time was 15 (10,21) min with lidocaine and 24 (11,37) min with ropivacaine (P=0.109). Spinal lidocaine resulted in a faster resolution of sensory block [148 (130,167) min vs. 188 (146,231) (P=0.022)], unassisted ambulation with crutches [176 (144,208) min vs. 240 (179,302) min (P=0.014)], and voiding [208 (163,254) min vs. 293 (242,343) min (P=0.001)] than ropivacaine. Recovery of motor function required 113 (95,131) min with lidocaine and 135 (87,183) with ropivacaine (P=0.219). Six lidocaine patients reported TNS (40%) as compared with no patient receiving ropivacaine (0%) (P=0.005). Conclusions: Spinal block produced with 10 mg ropivacaine 5 mg/ml is as effective as that produced by 50 mg of lidocaine 10 mg/ml. Recovery of unassisted ambulation and spontaneous voiding occurred earlier with lidocaine, but this was associated with a markedly higher incidence of TNS. [source]

    Restoring voluntary urinary voiding using a latissimus dorsi muscle free flap for bladder reconstruction

    MICROSURGERY, Issue 6 2001
    Arnulf Stenzl M.D.
    We present our data using innervated latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) free flaps to assist acontractile bladder function. Twelve dogs were used. In group I (n = 3), the LDM flaps were elevated and wrapped around silicon reservoirs; in group II (n = 4), the LDM flaps were transferred into the pelvis and used to reconstruct bladders that had 50% of their detrusor muscle wall removed; group III (n = 5) was the same setup as group II but the bladder mucosa was also removed with 50% detrusor wall. The LDM flaps were electrically stimulated and electromyography, cystography, urodynamic, and hydrodynamic measurements were performed. In clinical studies, LDM flaps were used in 11 patients (age range, 9,68 years). Our animal studies demonstrated that LDM flaps are capable of generating pressures (190 cm H2O at 15 mL and 35 cm H2O at a 10 mL in group I at 6 months) to void the bladder. In group II, contractions were present after 9 months. Eight of 11 patients who underwent LDM free flap were able to void voluntarily and without catheterization. LDM flap activity was confirmed using ultrasonography/tomography. Our clinical studies indicated that contractile function can be restored using LDM free flaps. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MICROSURGERY 21:235,240 2001 [source]

    Short-term effect of a single levodopa dose on micturition disturbance in Parkinson's disease patients with the wearing-off phenomenon

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 5 2003
    Tomoyuki Uchiyama MD
    Abstract We investigated the short-term effects of a single dose of levodopa (L -dopa) on micturition function in PD patients with wearing-off phenomenon. Eighteen PD patients who had median Hoehn and Yahr scores of 5 during the off phase and 3 during the on phase were recruited. We carried out urodynamic studies before and about 1 hour after the patients had taken 100 mg of L -dopa with dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DCI). After taking the L -dopa/DCI, urinary urgency and urge incontinence aggravated, whereas voiding difficulty was alleviated in all 12 patients. When compared to the baseline assessment, urodynamic study results after taking 100 mg of L -dopa/DCI showed aggravated detrusor hyperreflexia; decreased maximum bladder capacity (P = 0.006); an increased maximum Watts Factor value (P = 0.001), reflecting the detrusor power on voiding; an increased Abrams-Griffiths number (P = 0.042), reflecting urethral obstruction on voiding; decreased residual urine volume (P = 0.025); and increased static urethral closure pressure (P = 0.012). One hundred milligrams of L -dopa/DCI worsened detrusor hyperreflexia, producing worsened urinary urgency and urge incontinence during the storage (bladder-filling) phase. It also increased detrusor contractility much more than it did urethral obstruction in the voiding phase, producing overall lessening of voiding difficulty and improving voiding efficiency in our PD patients with the wearing-off phenomenon. © 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Changes in afferent activity after spinal cord injury,

    William C. de Groat
    Abstract Aims To summarize the changes that occur in the properties of bladder afferent neurons following spinal cord injury. Methods Literature review of anatomical, immunohistochemical, and pharmacologic studies of normal and dysfunctional bladder afferent pathways. Results Studies in animals indicate that the micturition reflex is mediated by a spinobulbospinal pathway passing through coordination centers (periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center) located in the rostral brain stem. This reflex pathway, which is activated by small myelinated (A,) bladder afferent nerves, is in turn modulated by higher centers in the cerebral cortex involved in the voluntary control of micturition. Spinal cord injury at cervical or thoracic levels disrupts voluntary voiding, as well as the normal reflex pathways that coordinate bladder and sphincter function. Following spinal cord injury, the bladder is initially areflexic but then becomes hyperreflexic due to the emergence of a spinal micturition reflex pathway. The recovery of bladder function after spinal cord injury is dependent in part on the plasticity of bladder afferent pathways and the unmasking of reflexes triggered by unmyelinated, capsaicin-sensitive, C-fiber bladder afferent neurons. Plasticity is associated with morphologic, chemical, and electrical changes in bladder afferent neurons and appears to be mediated in part by neurotrophic factors released in the spinal cord and the peripheral target organs. Conclusions Spinal cord injury at sites remote from the lumbosacral spinal cord can indirectly influence properties of bladder afferent neurons by altering the function and chemical environment in the bladder or the spinal cord. Neurourol. Urodynam. 29: 63,76, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Prevalence of nocturia in a Korean population aged 40 to 89 years,,

    Myung-Soo Choo
    Abstract Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of nocturia in Korea, to examine the relationship between nocturia and demographic variables, and to determine the impact of nocturia on daily living. Methods A national telephone survey using quota sampling methods was conducted in Korea. The clinically validated computer-assisted telephone interview approach was used for the survey. Results Of 2005 subjects (1,005 women and 1,000 men) interviewed, 33.5% reported voiding once per night and 48.2% twice or more per night. Nocturia increased with age among both genders and was more common among young women than young men. In all subjects, multivariate analysis indicated that female gender, older age and an overweight condition were independent risk factors. Body mass index was associated with an increased likelihood of nocturia in male but not in female subjects. In female subjects, the likelihood of at least one night-time void was related to delivery number (odds ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04,1.32). An impact of nocturia on daily life was reported by 14.6% of subjects and only 3.8% (4.0% of men and 3.7% of women) sought medical care. Commonly reported reasons for not seeking medical care were the belief that nocturia is a normal consequence of aging or is not a disease (92.8% of subjects reporting an impact of nocturia on daily life). Conclusions Although nocturia is highly prevalent in the Korean population, it has only a minor impact on daily living, and few individuals seek medical care. Our study provides a valuable insight into the need for tailored nocturia education addressed to the population who view the condition as trivial. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Effect of lumbar-epidural administration of tramadol on lower urinary tract function,,

    S.K. Singh
    Abstract Aims Intrathecal and epidural administration of µ-agonist opioids is associated with urinary retention, a potentially serious adverse-event. In animal studies tramadol has been found not to affect voiding function. We evaluated urodynamic effects of epidural tramadol in humans. Methods Fifteen adults planned for cystoscopy under local-anesthesia underwent urodynamics (UDS) at baseline and 30 min after administration of 100 mg tramadol in lumbar-epidural space. UDS consisted of filling cystometry, pressure-flow study and pelvic floor electromyography (EMG). Subsequently, all underwent cystoscopy and were observed for 6 hr. Results After injection of tramadol, a significant rise was observed in bladder capacity (391.8,±,179.6 ml vs. 432.7,±,208.8 ml; P,=,0.019) and compliance (60.1,±,51.5 ml/cm H2O vs. 83.0,±,63.0 ml/cm H2O; P,=,0.011) without a significant change in filling pressure (22.5,±,13.2 cm H2O vs. 24.1,±,15.1 cm H2O; P,=,0.576). Filling sensations were delayed significantly (P,,,0.05). EMG during filling phase showed a significant fall (P,=,0.027). Peak flow-rate (Qmax), average flow-rate, postvoid residue and detrusor pressure-at-Qmax did not show significant change from baseline (P,>,0.05). Three patients had bladder outlet obstruction which did not worsen after the injection. Guarding reflex was inhibited in seven out of 12 patients who had it at baseline (P,=,0.016). Conclusions Epidural tramadol increases the bladder capacity and compliance and delays filling-sensations, without ill effect on voiding. This seems true even for patients with obstructed outflow; however, due to small number of patients a definite conclusion cannot be derived. These results will guide clinician to avoid catheterization in cases where epidural tramadol is used for postoperative pain. The inhibitory effects of tramadol on EMG activity are intriguing and need further studies. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Defining overactive bladder as hypersensitivity,

    Osamu Yamaguchi
    Abstract Overactive bladder (OAB), according to the International Continence Society (ICS) definition, is a symptom syndrome, with urgency as the cornerstone symptom. However, the word ,urgency' and its definition continue to be the subject of much debate and confusion. It is generally difficult for patients to differentiate urgency from normal urge, particularly when the desire to void is strong. To investigate the micturition behavior associated with OAB, we conducted a Patient Trust Study in 21 intelligent (i.e., to be ,trusted') female patients who could clearly and accurately discriminate between urgency and urge. The results showed that in 43% of patients seeking medical care, urgency episodes occurred less than once/day, and some patients had days without urgency. Our patients deferred voiding until bladder sensation was relatively strong, suggesting that coping was not common among these patients. Four of the 21 patients studied experienced spontaneous resolution of several urgency episodes. At volumes exceeding 40% of the maximum bladder volume (MBV), urgency episodes occurred frequently and independently of the bladder volume, indicating that 40% of the MBV may be a threshold of bladder volume to induce urgency. A linear relationship was observed between bladder volume and increasing bladder sensation. However, compared with normal subjects, urge sensation increased markedly at any given bladder volume among patients with OAB in our study. This hypersensitivity was observed in our patients regardless of urgency episodes. We therefore hypothesized that OAB may be more accurately defined as a hypersensitivity disorder rather than a syndrome characterized by urgency. Neurourol. Urodynam. 26:904,907, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Voiding reflex in chronic spinal cord injured cats induced by stimulating and blocking pudendal nerves,,

    Changfeng Tai
    Abstract Aims To induce efficient voiding in chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) cats. Methods Voiding reflexes induced by bladder distension or by electrical stimulation and block of pudendal nerves were investigated in chronic SCI cats under ,-chloralose anesthesia. Results The voiding efficiency in chronic SCI cats induced by bladder distension was very poor compared to that in spinal intact cats (7.3,±,0.9% vs. 93.6,±,2.0%, P,<,0.05). In chronic SCI cats continuous stimulation of the pudendal nerve on one side at 20 Hz induced large amplitude bladder contractions, but failed to induce voiding. However, continuous pudendal nerve stimulation (20 Hz) combined with high-frequency (10 kHz) distal blockade of the ipsilateral pudendal nerve elicited efficient (73.2,±,10.7%) voiding. Blocking the pudendal nerves bilaterally produced voiding efficiency (82.5,±,4.8%) comparable to the efficiency during voidings induced by bladder distension in spinal intact cats, indicating that the external urethral sphincter (EUS) contraction was caused not only by direct activation of the pudendal efferent fibers, but also by spinal reflex activation of the EUS through the contralateral pudendal nerve. The maximal bladder pressure and average flow rate induced by stimulation and bilateral pudendal nerve block in chronic SCI cats were also comparable to those in spinal intact cats. Conclusions This study shows that after the spinal cord is chronically isolated from the pontine micturition center, bladder distension evokes a transient, inefficient voiding reflex, whereas stimulation of somatic afferent fibers evokes a strong, long duration, spinal bladder reflex that elicits efficient voiding when combined with blockade of somatic efferent fibers in the pudendal nerves. Neurourol. Urodynam. 26:879,886, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Comparison between reduction in 24-hour pad weight, International Consultation on Incontinence-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and Post-Operative Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) score in patient evaluation after male perineal sling

    Christian O. Twiss
    Abstract Aims We assessed the utility of three self-assessment instruments: the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), the post-operative Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) score, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) by correlating them with an objective outcome, the change in 24-hr pad weight, after a male perineal sling. Methods Twenty-six men with urodynamically confirmed stress incontinence underwent a male perineal sling. Patients were evaluated pre-operatively and post-operatively with a 24-hr pad test, IPSS and ICIQ-SF. Patients also completed the PGI-I post-operatively. Changes in study parameters were compared via the paired t -test, and correlations were performed using Spearman's rho. Results There were significant reductions in 24-hr pad weight (,274 g, P,<,0.001), percentage 24-hr pad weight (54.2%), ICIQ-SF score (,6.3, P,<,0.001), and the three ICIQ-SF subscores (,1.2, ,1.7, ,3.4 for Questions 3, 4, and 5, respectively, P,<,0.001 for all). The change in total ICIQ-SF score and the post-operative PGI-I score correlated strongly with percentage reduction in 24-hr pad weight (r,=,,0.68, P,<,0.001; r,=,,0.81, P,<,0.001, respectively) and with each other (r,=,0.79, P,<,0.001). The change in all three ICIQ-SF subscores correlated significantly with percentage reduction in 24-hr pad weight and with post-operative PGI-I score. There was no significant change in the IPSS or the voiding or storage subscores, and none correlated with any other study parameter. Conclusions This study validates the construct validity of the ICIQ-SF and PGI-I in the assessment of treatment for male stress incontinence and should make clinicians confident in comparing studies of incontinence treatment utilizing the change ICIQ-SF score, the post-operative PGI-I score, and percentage reduction in 24-hr pad weight as outcome measures. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Transobturator tape (TOT): Two years follow-up,

    Saad Juma
    Abstract Aims The aim of this study is to report the functional results, patient satisfaction, and morbidity of the Transobturator tape procedure (TOT) in the treatment of stress incontinence (SUI). Methods One hundred and thirty patients were prospectively evaluated with history, physical examination, quality of life questionnaire including Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ), urogenital distress inventory (UDI), and analog global satisfaction scale (GSS), and urodynamic studies. Results One hundred and seventeen patients (90%) had history of SUI, and 78 (60%) had urge incontinence. Pads/day (PPD) used was 2.48,±,2.42, and the score of IIQ 16.13,±,7.86, UDI 10.95,±,3.4, and GSS 1.41,±,1.67. All patients underwent TOT using the ObTapeÔ. Hospital stay was 0.84,±,0.76 days and catheter duration was 1.42,±,2.08 days. At a follow-up of 16.85,±, 4.68 months, 13 patients (10%) have recurrent SUI, 21 (16.15%) persistent urge incontinence, and 1 (1.92%) de novo urge incontinence. The mean PPD is 0.15,±,0.56, IIQ 1.47,±,5.14, UDI 3.28,±,3.09, and GSS 8.29,±,1.64. Two patients (1.52%) developed urethral obstruction, five (3.84%) had vaginal extrusion of the tape, and two (1.52%) had intra-operative bladder perforation. Conclusions These results demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the TOT. The short hospitalization and catheterization, low incidence of de novo urge incontinence and obstructive voiding offers a distinct advantage over existing techniques. No significant difference in outcome between patients with VLPP ,60 cm H2O, and patients with VLPP >60 cm H2O was observed. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Non-neurogenic urinary retention (Fowler's syndrome) in two sisters

    Simon Podnar
    Abstract Aims To report for the first time occurrence of obstructed voiding due to excessive activity of the urethral sphincter (US) muscle in two sisters with polycystic ovaries (Fowler's syndrome). Methods In both patients precise micturition history was obtained. In addition, clinical neurological and gynecological examinations, cystometry, urethral pressure profile measurements, gynecological ultrasound, measurement of gonadotropic hormone levels, and concentric needle electromyography (EMG) of the US muscle were performed. Results Both sisters reported symptoms of severely obstructed voiding. Clinical examination, and filling cystometries were normal. Urethral pressures were increased (99,134 cm water). The first sister was not able to void, and the urinary flow was slow and intermittent in the second on voiding studies. Profuse complex repetitive discharges and decelerating burst activity were found on concentric needle EMG of the US in both of them. Both sisters had increased LH/FSH ratio (2.96 and 2.64), and ultrasonographic abnormalities compatible with polycystic ovaries. Conclusions Diagnosis of Fowler's syndrome was made in both sisters. Due to very low incidence rate of this syndrome (0.2/100.000 per year), we think that it is highly unlikely to find it in two sisters just by chance. We suggest that the probable explanation is a genetic predisposition to polycystic ovaries, with which this condition has been shown to be associated. Neurourol. Urodynam. 25:739,741, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Selective activation of the sacral anterior roots for induction of bladder voiding

    Narendra Bhadra
    Abstract Aim We investigated the efficacy of selective activation of the smaller diameter axons in the sacral anterior roots for electrically induced bladder voiding. Materials and Methods Acute experiments were conducted in five adult dogs. The anterior sacral roots S2 and S3 were implanted bilaterally with tripolar electrodes. Pressures were recorded from the bladder and from the proximal urethra and the external urethral sphincter. A detector and flow meter monitored fluid flow. A complete sacral dorsal rhizotomy was carried out. The effects of two types of pulse trains at 20 Hz were compared; quasitrapezoidal pulses (500 µsec with 500 µsec exponential decay) and interrupted rectangular (100 µsec, 2 sec on/2 sec off). Before rhizotomy, rectangular pulse trains (100 µsec) to activate all fibers were also applied. The experimental design was block randomized before and after rhizotomy. Results Quasitrapezoidal pulses showed block of sphincter activation with average minimum current for maximum suppression of 1.37 mA. All pulse types evoked average bladder pressures above the basal sphincter closure pressure. The pressure patterns in the proximal urethra closely followed the bladder pressures. Before dorsal rhizotomy, stimulation evoked a superadded increase in sphincter pressures with slow rise time. After rhizotomy, the sphincter pressure patterns followed the bladder pressures during selective activation and voiding occurred during stimulation with quasitrapezoidal trains and in between bursts with interrupted rectangular stimulation. Conclusions Selective activation of sacral ventral roots combined with dorsal rhizotomy may provide a viable means of low-pressure continuous voiding in neurological impairment. Neurourol. Urdynam. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A new minimally invasive procedure for pudendal nerve stimulation to treat neurogenic bladder: Description of the method and preliminary data

    Michele Spinelli
    Pudendal nerve stimulation has beneficial effects on numerous pelvic floor function impairments such as urinary and/or fecal incontinence, retention, and constipation. In preceding literature the implant technique required a fairly complex and invasive surgery, although recent advances with percutaneous placement of the lead through an introducer have made the procedure much less invasive. We performed staged procedure similar to that of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) to place tined lead near the pudendal nerve, using neurophysiological guidance that allowed accurate pudendal nerve stimulation through either perineal or posterior approach. We have named this approach chronic pudendal nerve stimulation (CPNS). Methods Fifteen neurogenic patients (eight male, seven female) with symptoms of urge incontinence due to neurogenic overactive bladder underwent CPNS. All patients had complete neurophysiological and urodynamic evaluation at baseline and follow-up and were asked to complete voiding and bowel diary for 7 days. Results During screening, average number of incontinent episodes per day decreased from 7,±,3.3 to 2.6,±,3.3 (P,<,0.02, paired t -test). Eight patients became continent, two improved by more than 88% (from 9 to 1 daily incontinence episode) and two patients reduced the number of incontinence episodes by 50%. The implantable pulse generator (IPG) was subsequently implanted in those 12 patients. Three patients without improvement did not continue to second stage. In implanted patients with 6 months follow-up, urodynamic evaluation showed an objective improvement in the maximum cystometric capacity which increased from 153.3,±,49.9 to 331.4,±,110.7 ml (P,<,0.01, paired t -test). The maximum pressure decreased from 66,±,24.3 to 36.8,±,35.9 cmH2O (P,=,0.059, paired t -test). Eight patients reported significant improvement in bowel function. Conclusion Chronic pundedal nerve stimulation is feasible. Neurophysiological guidance is mandatory to place the lead near the pudendal nerve either using perineal or posterior approach. Further studies must be carried out to identify the best stimulation parameters and to verify the long term results. Neurourol. Urodynam. 24:305,309, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Stop test or pressure-flow study?

    Measuring detrusor contractility in older females
    Abstract Aims Impaired detrusor contractility is common in older adults. One aspect, detrusor contraction strength during voiding, can be measured by the isovolumetric detrusor pressure attained if flow is interrupted mechanically (a stop test). Because interruption is awkward in practice, however, simple indices or nomograms based on measurements made during uninterrupted voiding are an appealing alternative. We investigated whether such methods, originally developed for males, might be applicable in female subjects, and attempted to identify a single best method. Methods We compared stop-test isovolumetric pressures with estimates based on pressure-flow studies in a group of elderly women suffering from urge incontinence. Measurements were made pre- and post-treatment with placebo or oxybutynin, allowing investigation of test,retest reliability and responsiveness to small changes of contractility. Results Existing methods of estimating detrusor contraction strength from pressure-flow studies, including the Schäfer contractility nomogram and the projected isovolumetric pressure PIP, greatly overestimate the isovolumetric pressure in these female patients. A simple modification provides a more reliable estimate, PIP1, equal to pdet.Qmax,+,Qmax (with pressure in cmH2O and Qmax in ml/sec). Typically PIP1 ranges from 30 to 75 cmH2O in this population of elderly urge-incontinent women. PIP1, however, is less responsive to a small change in contraction strength than the isovolumetric pressure measured by mechanical interruption. Conclusions The parameter PIP1 is simple to calculate from a standard pressure-flow study and may be useful for clinical assessment of detrusor contraction strength in older females. For research, however, a mechanical stop test still remains the most reliable and responsive method. The Schäfer contractility nomogram and related parameters such as DECO and BCI are not suitable for use in older women. Neurourol. Urodynam. 23:184,189, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Lower urinary tract dysfunctions in patients with spinal cord tumors

    Tomoyuki Uchiyama
    Abstract Aims The objective of this study was to elucidate the incidence and pathophysiology of lower urinary tract dysfunctions (LUTS) in patients with spinal cord tumors. Methods Urinary questionnaire and urodynamic studies were done in 76 patients with spinal cord tumors. Results The patients included 56 with cervical-thoracic (C1 to T11) and 20 with lumbosacral tumors. The lumbosacral tumors consisted of 12 epiconus/conus medullaris (below T11) and 8 cauda equina tumors. These tumors were further subdivided into intramedullary, intradural extramedullary, and dumbbell-type. More than 83% of the patients had urinary symptoms. Patients with cervical-thoracic tumors commonly had voiding symptoms (75%). Detrusor hyperreflexia (39%), and detrusor areflexia on voiding (21%) were the main urodynamic features. Patients with epiconus/conus medullaris tumors commonly had voiding symptoms as well (58%), but decreased urge to void (50%), detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (42%), and detrusor areflexia on voiding (32%) were the main features. Patients with cauda equina tumors commonly had storage symptoms (88%), of which sensory urgency was most common (63%). Severe LUTS occurred in the epiconus/conus medullaris tumors and in the intramedullary tumors. These dysfunctions tended to appear late and rarely appeared as the initial symptom in the course of the disease. There was no significant relationship between neurologic abnormalities and LUTS. Urodynamics showed that spinal cord tumors cause a variety of LUTS, depending on the location and the type of the tumor. Conclusion Spinal cord tumors are commonly accompanied by LUTS. Clinical and urodynamic evaluation is crucial to diagnosis and management since there is little relationship between symptoms and findings. Neurourol. Urodynam. 23:68,75, 2004. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Micturitional disturbance in a patient with a spinal cavernous angioma

    Ryuji Sakakibara
    Abstract A 58-year-old woman had a 3-year history of numbness in the right leg, which developed into thoracic transverse myelopathy and urinary retention. After referral to our department, MRI scans revealed a lesion with a target appearance at the T10,11 spinal cord with multiple silent cerebral lesions, which confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous angioma. Gamma-knife surgery was not indicated, considering the risk of adverse effects. The patient gradually became able to urinate, but had urge urinary incontinence. The first urodynamic studies (conducted 3 months after full clinical manifestations of transverse myelopathy) showed detrusor hyperreflexia (DH), decreased bladder sensation during bladder filling, detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD), and weak detrusor on voiding. However, urinary retention appeared again without change of neurologic signs. The second urodynamic studies (conducted 2 months later) showed less marked DH during bladder filling, and equivocal DSD but marked weak detrusor on voiding. The patient started taking oral prazosin hydrochloride (6 mg/day), which gradually ameliorated her voiding difficulty. Lesions in the lateral and dorsal columns of the spinal cord seem to be responsible for the micturitional disturbance in our patient with spinal cavernous angioma. Neurourol. Urodynam. 22:606,610, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Data from frequency-volume charts versus maximum free flow rate, residual volume, and voiding cystometric estimated urethral obstruction grade and detrusor contractility grade in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Ger E.P.M. van Venrooij
    Abstract Aims To examine associations of data from frequency-volume charts with maximum free flow rate, residual volume, and voiding cystometric estimated urethral obstruction grade and detrusor contractility in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods The 160 men included in the study met the criteria of the International Scientific Committee on BPH, i.e., they voided more than 150 mL during uroflowmetry, their residual volume and prostate size were estimated, and they completed frequency-volume charts correctly. From the frequency-volume charts, voiding habits and fluid intake were evaluated. Pressure-flow studies were performed as well. Results Increasing residual volume was related to a decrease of maximum voided volume and to a decrease of maximum free flow rate. Cystometric capacity was little affected by residual volume. Low contractility did not result in high residual volume. A marked decrease in voided volumes with increasing obstruction grade was observed, due to a decrease of cystometric capacity and an increase of residual volume. Detrusor contractility was little associated with voided volumes. A higher voiding frequency was related to a higher fluid intake. However, increased standardized frequency (number of voidings per 1,000 mL) was associated with a substantial reduction of fluid intake. Conclusions Infravesical obstruction is the most important factor influencing voided volumes, cystometric capacity, and residual urine volume. Frequency of voiding was not influenced significantly because patients with small voided volumes minimized their fluid intake. Neurourol. Urodynam. 21:450,456, 2002. © Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Urination assessment after the removal of bladder catheter using a novel urination chart

    Tomoko Owan rn, phd
    Abstract We investigated the difficulties involved in assessing post prostatectomy voiding according to 20 nurses working in urology and dermatology wards. Problems they encountered included completing a urination (frequency/volume) chart and performing an assessment. We constructed a hourly urination chart for basic nursing education in urinary incontinence. This was used for a 76-year-old male patient with hypertension and diabetes mellitus who underwent a prostatectomy. Urination was recorded for 17 consecutive days after catheter removal. Detailed pathological findings were more distinct in the hourly rather than daily recordings of voluntary micturition. Voluntary micturition appeared 12 h after catheter removal, but it was very scanty. After the onset of urination, frequency and amount of daily voluntary micturition was inversely related to incontinence during the 17 days after catheter removal. We drafted a set of urination recovery stages to enable the analysis of a patient's urination status. Nurses understood its importance and were able to reach a consensus on how to manage patients with postoperative incontinence. We have constructed a practical system for use by specialist urology nurses. [source]

    Ventromedial medulla: Pain modulation and beyond

    Peggy Mason
    Abstract The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and ventromedial medulla (VMM) are generally viewed as the core of an endogenous descending modulatory system. However, available data demonstrate that PAG and VMM do not specifically target nociceptive transmission and that activation of either structure affects numerous homeostatic physiological processes. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a useful tracer that is retrogradely and transynaptically transported. PRV injections into homeostatic effector organs invariably label VMM neurons, both serotonergic and nonserotonergic. Studies in anesthetized rats have implicated two types of nonserotonergic VMM neurons in nociceptive modulation: ON cells are thought to facilitate nociception and OFF cells to inhibit nociception. Yet, in the unanesthetized animal, the discharge of VMM neurons changes in response to innocuous stimuli and during situations unrelated to nociception. In particular, VMM cells appear to modulate the timing of micturition, with ON cells promoting the initiation of voiding and OFF cells promoting urine storage. VMM cells also modulate sensory transmission. During both micturition and sleep, OFF cells discharge and sensory responsiveness is depressed. In sum, the VMM is hypothesized to modulate spinal sensory, autonomic, and motor circuits in order to maintain homeostasis. J. Comp. Neurol. 493:2,8, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]