Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Vocabulary

  • controlled vocabulary
  • receptive vocabulary

  • Terms modified by Vocabulary

  • vocabulary acquisition
  • vocabulary development
  • vocabulary knowledge
  • vocabulary learning
  • vocabulary size
  • vocabulary test

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT Pork patties from M. longissimus dorsi and M. psoas major were used by a sensory panel to develop a descriptive vocabulary to describe warmed-over flavor development. The patties were made from meat from animals supplemented with one of four dietary treatments, (I) control diet, (II) supplemental iron (7 g iron (II) sulfate/kg feed), (III) supplemental vitamin E (200 mg dl-,-tocopherol acetate/kg of feed) and (IV) supplemental vitamin E + supplemental iron. The sample set used for training reflected the variation in muscle type and degree of warmed-over flavor development (day 1 and 5). The sensory terms selected had to be relevant to the samples, discriminate between the samples, have cognitive clarity and be nonredundant. Based on these selection criteria an initial training list of 36 sensory terms consisting of odors, flavors, basic tastes and aftertastes was developed in a pretrial using experts with product knowledge. This list constituted the start of training the panel. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and assessor suggestions were used for reducing the number of terms and after 5 days of training this list was reduced to 21 sensory terms. The discriminative ability of the sensory panel improved over the course of sensory training and was quantified by using the mean assessor signal to noise ratios (S/N) for the sensory terms for each training session. This signal to noise ratio is essentially the total initial variance divided by the residual cross-validated variance. Subsequent detailed multivariate analysis found that the bilinear descriptor leverage was a particularly efficient method for term reduction. [source]

    Employers, Quality and Standards in Higher Education: Shared Values and Vocabularies or Elitism and Inequalities?

    Louise Morley
    This paper is based on a research project funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England which investigated employers' needs for information on higher education quality and standards. A key issue was identifying the type of knowledge that employers utilise in graduate recruitment. A finding of the study was that information on quality and standards was being used by some employers in a way that could undermine equity and widening participation initiatives. Whereas employers reported that, in initial recruitment, they placed least emphasis on information about quality and standards and most emphasis on graduates' interpersonal and communication skills, over a quarter used league tables/Top 20 lists in their decision-making processes and 80 per cent of employers cited the importance of the reputation of the higher education institution in their decision making about marketing and individual recruitment of graduates. Reputation was based on real or imagined league tables, ,grapevine' knowledge, personal, regional and professional networks, performance of past graduates and prejudice against new universities. The hierarchy of opportunity within the labour market often appeared to correspond to a highly stratified higher education sector. [source]

    Vocabularies in practice: Selected papers from DC-2005

    Irene Travis Editor
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Retirement Boomerang: A New Vocabulary of Financial Services

    Andrew Mackenzie CEO
    First page of article [source]

    When There's No Salesperson: The Value of a Consumption Vocabulary

    Stephen J. Hoch
    First page of article [source]

    Learners' Descriptions of German Pronunciation, Vocabulary, and Grammar: A Folk Linguistic Account

    Monika Chavez
    Following a folk linguistic approach, this investigation of first-, second- and fourth-year learners' accounts of German found that (1) few had held pre-conceived notions about German prior to language study; (2) most pre-conceived notions concerned German pronunciation; (3) pre-conceived notions about vocabulary were most likely to influence the decision to study German; and (4) among current perceptions of German, learners (a) believe German to be more "systematic" than English; (b) are virtually exclusively concerned with rules of "accuracy" (not appropriateness); (c) tend to judge the "merits" of German rules in comparison with English but also the Romance languages; (d) consider grammar more different between English and German than vocabulary and pronunciation; and (e) register no observable differences across different years of study or between German and non-German majors. [source]

    Grade-Level Invariance of a Theoretical Causal Structure Predicting Reading Comprehension With Vocabulary and Oral Reading Fluency

    Paul Yovanoff
    This research investigates the relative importance of vocabulary and oral reading fluency as measurement dimensions of reading comprehension as the student passes from elementary to high school. Invariance of this model over grades 4 through 8 is tested using two independent student samples reading grade-level appropriate passages. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that the model is not invariant across grade levels. Vocabulary knowledge is a significant and constant predictor of overall reading comprehension irrespective of grade level. While significant, fluency effects diminish over grades, especially in the later grades. Lack of grade level invariance was obtained with both samples. Results are discussed in light of vertically linked reading assessments, adequate yearly progress, and instruction. [source]

    Bilateral medial temporal lobe damage does not affect lexical or grammatical processing: Evidence from amnesic patient H.M.

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 4 2001
    Elizabeth A. Kensinger
    Abstract In the most extensive investigation to date of language in global amnesia, we acquired data from experimental measures and examined longitudinal data from standardized tests, to determine whether language function was preserved in the amnesic patient H.M. The experimental measures indicated that H.M. performed normally on tests of lexical memory and grammatical function, relative to age- and education-matched control participants. Longitudinal data from four Wechsler subtests (Information, Comprehension, Similarities, and Vocabulary), that H.M. had taken 20 times between 1953 (preoperatively) and 2000, indicated consistent performance across time, and provided no evidence of a lexical memory decrement. We conclude that medial temporal lobe structures are not critical for retention and use of already acquired lexical information or for grammatical processing. They are, however, required for acquisition of lexical information, as evidenced in previous studies revealing H.M.'s profound impairment at learning new words. Hippocampus 2001;11:347,360. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Resilience in relation to personality and intelligence

    Oddgeir Friborg
    Abstract Resilience is a construct of increasing interest, but validated scales measuring resilience factors among adults are scarce. Here, a scale named the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was crossvalidated and compared with measures of personality (Big Five/5PFs), cognitive abilities (Raven's Advanced Matrices, Vocabulary, Number series), and social intelligence (TSIS). All measures were given to 482 applicants for the military college. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the fit of the five-factor model, measuring ,personal strength', ,social competence', ,structured style', ,family cohesion' and ,social resources'. Using Big Five to discriminate between well adjusted and more vulnerable personality profiles, all resilience factors were positively correlated with the well adjusted personality profile. RSA-personal strength was most associated with 5PFs-emotional stability, RSA-social competence with 5PFs-extroversion and 5PFs-agreeableness, as well as TSIS-social skills, RSA-structured style with 5PFs-conscientiousness. Unexpectedly but interestingly, measures of RSA-family cohesion and RSA-social resources were also related to personality. Furthermore, the RSA was unrelated to cognitive abilities. This study supported the convergent and discriminative validity of the scale, and thus the inference that individuals scoring high on this scale are psychologically healthier, better adjusted, and thus more resilient. Copyright © 2005 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Neuropsychological Deficits in Sober Alcoholics: Influences of Chronicity and Recent Alcohol Consumption

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2000
    William W. Beatty
    Background: The relationships between severity of neuropsychological (NP) deficits and quantity and duration of alcoholic drinking remain controversial. Eckardt et al. (1998) proposed that NP deficits can be observed only if chronicity of alcohol abuse equals or exceeds 10 years. In this study we tested the hypothesis of Eckardt et al. and reexamined the relationship of NP performance and alcohol consumption. Methods: One hundred sixty-two alcoholics and 165 controls completed a NP test battery at least 3 weeks after the alcoholics attained sobriety. Chronicity varied from 4 to 9 years for 55 alcoholics and from 10 to 33 years for the remaining 107. Results: Compared to controls, both groups of alcoholics were impaired on the Shipley Vocabulary and Abstraction tests and on two versions of the Digit Symbol test, but there was no difference between the two alcoholic groups on any measure. Regression analyses that controlled for age and education showed that chronicity predicted less than 0.5% of the variance on NP measures. By contrast, a measure of recent alcohol consumption, the Quantity-Frequency Index, contributed significantly (approximately 5% of the variance) to the prediction of alcoholics'NP performance. Conclusions: These data provide weak support for a dose effect relationship between degree of NP impairment and level of alcoholic drinking in the past 6 months but no evidence for an influence of chronicity. [source]

    Delayed neuropsychologic dysfunction after liver transplantation for acute liver failure: A matched, case-controlled study

    Elizabeth W. Jackson
    Although several studies have identified posttransplant neurologic sequelae in patients with acute liver failure (ALF), the effects of these sequelae on neuropsychologic functioning after transplant is unknown. This study compared neuropsychologic functioning of ALF patients with chronic liver disease patients after liver transplantation. After liver transplantation, seven ALF patients were compared with a matched control group of patients who had been transplanted for chronic liver disease. The patients were matched by gender, age (within 5 years), and time since transplantation (within 2 years). Patients completed a 2-hour battery of tests, which included measures of attention, memory, motor performance, abstract conceptualization, and visuospatial perception. There were no significant differences between the groups on measures of socioeconomic status or education. Significant differences were found on three separate tests: WAIS-III Vocabulary, WAIS-III Similarities, and WMS-III Paired Associate Learning II. Although these tests measure distinct functions (vocabulary knowledge, abstract conceptualization, and delayed verbal recall), they may be influenced by broader verbal functions, such as verbal fluency, conceptualization, and the ability to articulate ideas. When patients were asked what functions had noticeably deteriorated since transplantation, nearly all complained of memory difficulties, and there was no difference between groups. However, more ALF than chronic liver disease (CLD) patients complained of concentration difficulties. The results of this study suggest that ALF patients may experience more neuropsychologic dysfunction after transplant. Further studies are required to expand on these initial observations with the potential to improve patient care and referral to appropriate rehabilitative services. [source]

    Spanish Vocabulary: An Etymological Approach,by BRODSKY, DAVID

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Contribution of Collaborative and Individual Tasks to the Acquisition of L2 Vocabulary

    Over the past 2 decades, research has demonstrated that learner collaboration facilitates second language (L2) acquisition (Lapkin, Swain, & Smith, 2002; McDonough, 2004; Storch, 1998, 2004; Swain & Lapkin, 1998). Adopting a sociocultural perspective (e.g., Swain & Lapkin, 1998), the current study compared the effectiveness of collaborative and individual tasks on the acquisition of L2 vocabulary by Korean as a second language (KSL) learners (N= 32). The learners completed a pretest, a dictogloss task, and two posttests over a 3-week period. Half the learners carried out the dictogloss in pairs, but the other half worked individually while thinking aloud. The collaborative dialogue and think-aloud protocols were transcribed, and language-related episodes (LREs) were identified. The results indicated that although the learners who participated in the collaborative task had a similar number of LREs as the learners who worked individually, they performed significantly better on the vocabulary tests. The pedagogical implications for the use of collaborative tasks to promote the acquisition of L2 vocabulary are discussed. [source]

    On Open Space: Explorations Towards a Vocabulary of a More Open Politics

    ANTIPODE, Issue 4 2010
    Jai Sen
    Abstract:, Drawing on my work in and on architecture, urban planning, and socio-political movement including the World Social Forum (WSF), I attempt to critically engage with the increasingly widely used concept of open space as a mode of social and political organising. Arguing that open space, horizontality, autonomous action, and networking are now emerging as general tendencies in the organisation of social relations, and that the WSF is a major historical experiment in this idea, I try to open up the concept to a more critical understanding in relation to the times we live in. In particular, I argue that the practice of open space in the WSF makes manifest three key movement principles: self-organisation, autonomy, and emergence. By exploring its characteristics and contradictions, I also argue that open space cannot be provided and only exists if people make it open, and that in this sense it is related to, but different from, the commons. [source]

    See What We Say: Situational Vocabulary for Adults Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    Yuen Megson
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Toward Vocabulary Control for Chief Complaint

    Stephanie W. Haas PhD
    Abstract The chief complaint (CC) is the data element that documents the patient's reason for visiting the emergency department (ED). The need for a CC vocabulary has been acknowledged at national meetings and in multiple publications, but to our knowledge no groups have specifically focused on the requirements and development plans for a CC vocabulary. The national consensus meeting "Towards Vocabulary Control for Chief Complaint" was convened to identify the potential uses for ED CC and to develop the framework for CC vocabulary control. The 10-point consensus recommendations for action were 1) begin to develop a controlled vocabulary for CC, 2) obtain funding, 3) establish an infrastructure, 4) work with standards organizations, 5) address CC vocabulary characteristics for all user communities, 6) create a collection of CC for research, 7) identify the best candidate vocabulary for ED CCs, 8) conduct vocabulary validation studies, 9) establish beta test sites, and 10) plan publicity and marketing for the vocabulary. [source]

    Rethinking the Black Public Sphere: An Alternative Vocabulary for Multiple Public Spheres

    Catherine R. Squires
    Many theorists propose that there are multiple, coexisting "subaltern" counterpublic spheres. However, most discussions of these subaltern counterpublics rely on group identity markers to differentiate between these spheres and do not provide alternative means for distinguishing between subaltern public spheres. This essay presents an alternative vocabulary for multiple public spheres through an exploration of the history of the African American public sphere. Three types of marginal publics, enclave, counterpublic, and satellite, are defined as examples of how we might incorporate considerations of the kinds of resources different publics have available to them. This vocabulary facilitates more flexible descriptions of publics that are normally defined by identity and allows for more comprehensive comparisons across public spheres. [source]

    Unified Medical Language System Coverage of Emergency-medicine Chief Complaints

    Debbie A. Travers PhD
    Abstract Background Emergency department (ED) chief-complaint (CC) data increasingly are important for clinical-care and secondary uses such as syndromic surveillance. There is no widely used ED CC vocabulary, but experts have suggested evaluation of existing health-care vocabularies for ED CC. Objectives To evaluate the ED CC coverage in existing biomedical vocabularies from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). Methods The study sample included all CC entries for all visits to three EDs over one year. The authors used a special-purpose text processor to clean CC entries, which then were mapped to UMLS concepts. The UMLS match rates then were calculated and analyzed for matching concepts and nonmatching entries. Results A total of 203,509 ED visits was included. After cleaning with the text processor, 82% of the CCs matched a UMLS concept. The authors identified 5,617 unique UMLS concepts in the ED CC data, but many were used for only one or two visits. One thousand one hundred thirty-six CC concepts were used more than ten times and covered 99% of all the ED visits. The largest biomedical vocabulary in the UMLS is the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), which included concepts for 79% of all ED CC entries. However, some common CCs were not found in SNOMED CT. Conclusions The authors found that ED CC concepts are well covered by the UMLS and that the best source of vocabulary coverage is from SNOMED CT. There are some gaps in UMLS and SNOMED CT coverage of ED CCs. Future work on vocabulary control for ED CCs should build upon existing vocabularies. [source]

    Toddlers can adaptively change how they categorize: same objects, same session, two different categorical distinctions

    Jessica S. Horst
    Two experiments demonstrate that 14- to 18-month-old toddlers can adaptively change how they categorize a set of objects within a single session, and that this ability is related to vocabulary size. In both experiments, toddlers were presented with a sequential touching task with objects that could be categorized either according to some perceptually salient dimension corresponding to a taxonomic distinction (e.g. animals vs. vehicles) or to some less obvious dimension (e.g. rigid vs. deformable). In each experiment, children with larger productive vocabularies responded to both dimensions, showing evidence of sensitivity to each way of categorizing the items. Children with smaller productive vocabularies attended only to the taxonomically related categorical grouping. These experiments confirm that toddlers can adaptively shift the basis of their categorization and highlight the dynamic interaction between the child and the current task in early categorization. [source]

    The role of type and token frequency in using past tense morphemes correctly

    Elena Nicoladis
    Type and token frequency have been thought to be important in the acquisition of past tense morphology, particularly in differentiating regular and irregular forms. In this study we tested the role of frequency in two ways: (1) in bilingual children, who typically use and hear either language less often than monolingual children and (2) cross-linguistically: French and English have different patterns of frequency of regular/irregular verbs. Ten French-English bilingual children, 10 French monolingual and 10 English monolingual children between 4 and 6 years watched a cartoon and re-told the story. The results demonstrated that the bilingual children were less accurate than the monolingual children. Their accuracy in both French and English regular and irregular verbs corresponded to frequency in the input language. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that children learn past tense morphemes by analogy with other words in their vocabularies. We propose a developmental sequence based on conservative generalization across a growing set of verbs. [source]

    Marking Difference and Negotiating Belonging: Refugee Women, Volunteering and Employment

    Frances Tomlinson
    Refugee women occupy a position at a neglected point of intersection of many categories of difference. This article draws on a study of pathways from voluntary work into paid employment for refugee women in the UK and reveals how they drew on these markers of difference to express and explain their experiences of exclusion or belonging. Their accounts are considered alongside those of organizational representatives, who drew on vocabularies of equality and diversity to construct refugee women as organizational outsiders or insiders. The article explores the interplay between the active agency of refugee women in negotiating the possibilities of belonging and the effect of discursive practices and structural processes that tend to perpetuate their outsider status. It concludes by briefly considering the relevance of these findings to current controversies concerning the impact of policies of managing diversity and multiculturalism on combating inequality and discrimination. [source]

    ,Erkenntnistheoretische Maschinen': Questions about the Sublime in the Work of Raoul Schrott

    Karen Leeder
    This paper examines a new mode in recent German poetry. Far from the poetry influenced by the recent re-emergence of ,pop' culture, or the ,Alltagssprache' and ,simple Storys' of much recent writing from the former GDR, a number of poets have concerned themselves with modern science, particularly quantum mechanics and optics. These are among some of the most significant young poets of recent years (Thomas Kling, Franz Josef Czernin, Barbara Köhler, Durs Grünbein, Raoul Schrott etc.), figuring something which might be dubbed a contemporary of the ,poeta doctus'. This new discourse is interesting enough in itself, as poetry and science have, in the twentieth century at least, often been thought to be diametrically opposed. However, closer examination of this work, particularly that of Raoul Schrott (b. 1964), an ,emerging' and, paradoxically, already very distinguished writer, reveals that poetry and science can be understood as pro-foundly analogous; particularly in their use of metaphor. Fascinatingly, the contemporary discourse of science is set alongside classical (mythological) models in his work. They are both understood as finally hopeless projects to humanise the vast indifference of the universe: ,ein anderes sich in die leere/sagen'. The poem as ,epistemological machine' is set to interrogate the places where those human maps, models and vocabularies fail. The real territory of Schrott's work is thus revealed , in Hotels (1995), in essays, in four works of recent prose, and especially in Tropen (1998) , to be the boundaries of perception ,sub limes, where the models of human understanding fall away and point beyond themselves to an experience of the ,sublime'. [source]

    Sovereignty, Supremacy and the Origins of the English Civil War

    HISTORY, Issue 288 2002
    D. Alan Orr
    This article integrates the concept of sovereignty with religious perceptions of misrule in the years leading up to the English Civil War. Existing revisionist narratives have emphasized the consensual nature of early Stuart political culture, especially the central role of the ,common law mind' in determining the proper place of potentially rival political vocabularies of natural law, civil law and absolutism. This article argues alternatively that the concept of sovereignty and in particular the contested relationship of sovereignty to ecclesiastical governance stood at the centre of the emerging conflict. The primary mode of ,opposition' to the policies of Charles I's personal rule (1629,40) was erastian: it presumed that control over the doctrine and discipline of the established church was for all intents and purposes a mark or right of sovereignty in the same manner as power of war and peace, power of appointing magistrates, or coinage. Seen in this light the ecclesiastical innovations of the personal rule constituted a treasonable attempt on the part of the Laudian episcopate to erect an ecclesiastical state within a state. The English Civil War was a war of religion in the sense that a significant number of those who waged it operated under the assumption that religion was the rightful provenance of the civil magistracy of king in parliament. [source]

    The Effect of Vocabulary Size on Toddlers' Receptiveness to Unexpected Testimony About Category Membership

    INFANCY, Issue 2 2007
    Vikram K. Jaswal
    Children must be willing to accept some of what they hear "on faith," even when that testimony conflicts with their own expectations. The study reported here investigated the relation among vocabulary size, object recognition, and 24-month-olds' (N = 40) willingness to accept potentially surprising testimony about the category to which an object belongs. Results showed that children with larger vocabularies were better able to recognize atypical exemplars of familiar categories than children with smaller vocabularies. However, they were also most likely to accept unexpected testimony that an object that looked like a member of one familiar category was actually a member of another. These results indicate that 24-month-olds trust classifications provided by adult labeling patterns even when they conflict with the classifications children generate on their own. [source]

    Ontological modelling of e-services to ensure appropriate mobile transactions

    Vagan TerziyanArticle first published online: 21 MAR 200
    The main goal of this paper is to provide simple ontological support to mobile electronic commerce. The description of an ontology-driven Transaction Monitor (TM) for mobile business applications is considered. The approach is based on the assumption that the transaction management tool can be implemented in a mobile terminal, allowing integration of different distributed external e-services. We use the ontology-based framework for transaction management so that the TM will be able to manage transaction across multiple e-services and we consider management of distributed location-based services as an example of such ontology-based TM implementation. The core of the approach is very simple service ontologies. Ontologies should be ,placed' both in mobile terminals and in e-services. They define common multiple clients,multiple services standards and vocabularies for the use of the names, types, schemas, default values for parameters, atomic service actions with appropriate structure of action's input and output. In our implementation ontologies help to the TM to deal with multiple services during transactions and to simplify the appropriate user interface. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An investigation of language used by children to describe discomfort expected and experienced during dental treatment

    Summary., Objectives. A study of dental pulp testing has shown that children's linguistic comprehension and chronological age independently influence their descriptions of pain. The present study sought first to demonstrate this for expectations and experience of routine dental treatment, and secondly, to determine whether the effect of age was the result of previous dental and medical experience. Sample. Forty-six children between 6 and 17 years of age attending two paediatric dental clinics for routine invasive procedures comprised the study sample. Methods. To describe their expectations of forthcoming treatment, each child selected words from a published list, and gave ratings on scales describing the degree of severity as ,sore' or ,tingly'. They also completed the Child Dental Anxiety Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale for Children. After treatment, they described the treatment with the same list and scales, then completed the British Picture Vocabulary Scale and a dental,medical history questionnaire. Results. The children, especially the most anxious ones, chose more words from the list for their expectations than for their experience of treatment, suggesting, as in previous studies, that they expected more discomfort than they experienced. Ratings of ,sore' and ,tingly' did not show this discrepancy. For both expectations and experience of treatment, the children with the largest vocabularies chose the fewest words, thus being more discriminating in their choices. However, vocabulary had no effect on ratings of ,sore' and ,tingly'. There were no significant relationships among age, estimates of discomfort and medical,dental histories. Conclusions. The results suggest that a list of adjectives provides the most discriminating measure of discomfort. They also show that it is necessary to take into account children's linguistic development to evaluate their estimates of pain so as not to entertain the belief of many clinicians that children exaggerate such reports. [source]

    Risk as a Window to Agency: A Case Study of Three Decorators

    Nancy H. Blossom M.A.
    ABSTRACT This paper explores the idea of "risk" by examining the role of three women in interior design in the twentieth century (Elsie de Wolfe, 1865,1950; Dorothy Draper, 1888,1969; and Sister Parish, 1929,1994). Women's roles as arbiters of taste were consistent with the social construction of the female gender at the turn of the century; that these roles involved risk,the perception of possible loss or injury,is, for the most part, overlooked by social historians. Our theoretical framework is built upon three keywords from the vocabularies of postmodern social history and women's history: discourse, experience, and agency. These three terms represent the important recognition that the collective understanding of history is not static, but is dependent on the social constructs of the period, as well as (1) how individuals experienced, interpreted, and acted within these constructs and (2) how historians understand and interpret the individual actions in the context of the same constructs. These concepts suggest that individual characters have agency (i.e., power or choice) in framing or reframing an event, based on their unique view of the world. It is through agency that we explore unique qualities of de Wolfe, Draper, and Parish. The stories of de Wolfe, Draper, and Parish demonstrate that risk of traditional values, risk of public persona, and risk of financial security all influenced the ways that they navigated the social and economic circumstances that surrounded them. Each risk, whether imposed on or undertaken by our protagonists, was a seed of change that ultimately affected the social and professional construct of the field of interior design. [source]

    Concepts and semantic relations in information science

    Wolfgang G. Stock
    Concept-based information retrieval and knowledge representation are in need of a theory of concepts and semantic relations. Guidelines for the construction and maintenance of knowledge organization systems (KOS) (such as ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 in the U.S.A. or DIN 2331:1980 in Germany) do not consider results of concept theory and theory of relations to the full extent. They are not able to unify the currently different worlds of traditional controlled vocabularies, of the social web (tagging and folksonomies) and of the semantic web (ontologies). Concept definitions as well as semantic relations are based on epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, hermeneutics, pragmatism, and critical theory). A concept is determined via its intension and extension as well as by definition. We will meet the problem of vagueness by introducing prototypes. Some important definitions are concept explanations (after Aristotle) and the definition of family resemblances (in the sense of Wittgenstein). We will model concepts as frames (according to Barsalou). The most important paradigmatic relation in KOS is hierarchy, which must be arranged into different classes: Hyponymy consists of taxonomy and simple hyponymy, meronymy consists of many different part-whole-relations. For practical application purposes, the transitivity of the given relation is very important. Unspecific associative relations are of little help to our focused applications and should be replaced by generalizable and domain-specific relations. We will discuss the reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity of paradigmatic relations as well as the appearance of specific semantic relations in the different kinds of KOS (folksonomies, nomenclatures, classification systems, thesauri, and ontologies). Finally, we will pick out KOS as a central theme of the Semantic Web. [source]

    A multi-ontology framework to guide agriculture and food towards diet and health

    Matthew C Lange
    Abstract Global increases in metabolic diseases that can be influenced by diet have re-emphasized the importance of considering how different foods can improve human health. The entire agricultural enterprise has an unprecedented opportunity to increase its value by producing foods that improve the health of consumers. Research efforts in agriculture/food science/nutrition are endeavoring to do so, although little tangible success has been achieved. At the core of the problem is a failure to define the goal itself: health. Health, as a scientifically measurable concept, is poorly defined relative to disease, and yet consensus-based, curated vocabularies that describe the multiple variations in human health in useful terms are critical to unifying the scientific fields related to agriculture and nutrition. Each of the life-science disciplines relating to health has developed databases, thesauri, and/or ontologies to capture such knowledge. High-throughput and -omic technologies are expanding both the amount and heterogeneity of available information. Unfortunately, the language used to describe substantially similar (even logically equivalent) concepts is often different between information systems. Increasing the future value of agriculture, therefore, will depend on creating a process for generating common ontologies of the concept of health, and guiding the development of a common language. This paper illustrates a framework for integrating heterogeneous ontologies into interdisciplinary, foods-for-health knowledge systems. A common system of language that describes health and is shared by all the life-science disciplines will provide immediate benefits in terms of increased health-claim regulatory efficiencies and predictive functions for individualized diets. Ultimately, these vocabularies will guide agriculture to its next goal of producing health-enhancing foods. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    A network analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in acute allergic diseases

    ALLERGY, Issue 1 2010
    J. Renkonen
    Abstract Background:, Genetics of acute allergies has focused on identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes relevant in the pathogenesis. In this study, we begin a systems biology analysis of the interconnectivity and biological functions of these genes, their transcripts and their corresponding proteins. Methods:, The literature (Pubmed) was searched for SNPs within genes relevant in acute allergic diseases. The SNP-modified genes were converted to corresponding proteins and their protein,protein interactions were searched from six different databases. This interaction network was analysed with annotated vocabularies (ontologies), such as Gene Ontology, Reactome and Nature pathway interaction database. Time-series transcriptomics was performed with nasal epithelial cells obtained from allergic patients and their healthy control subjects. Results:, A total of 39 genes with SNPs related to acute allergic diseases were found from a literature search. The corresponding proteins were then hooked into a large protein,protein interaction network with the help of various databases. Twenty-five SNP-related proteins had more than one interacting protein and a network contained 95 proteins, and 182 connections could be generated. This network was 10-fold enriched with protein kinases and proteins involved in the host,virus interaction compared with background human proteome. Finally, eight of the 95 nodes on our network displayed nasal epithelial transcriptomal regulation in a time-series analysis collected from birch allergic patients during the spring pollen season. Conclusions:, Signal transduction with special reference to host,virus interactions dominated in the allergy-related protein interaction network. Systems level analysis of allergy-related mutation can provide new insights into pathogenetic mechanisms of the diseases. [source]