Violent Offences (violent + offence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Relating psychiatric disorders, offender and offence characteristics in a sample of adolescent sex offenders and non-sex offenders

A.Ph. Van Wijk
Introduction,Several studies have paid attention to the relationship between psychiatric disorders and adolescent offending but few have distinguished different types of offenders, especially within the category of youngsters who have committed sex offences. Aim,To test for relationships between psychiatric disorder and specific offence category among young male offenders. Method,Nationwide data were extracted from Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Services (FPD) files for five groups of offenders, as defined by their index offence: 308 violent sex offenders; 134 non-violent sex-offenders; 270 sex offenders against children; 3148 violent offenders and 1620 offenders charged with any crime other than interpersonal body contact crimes. They were compared on individual characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM-IV criteria. Having a diagnosis of a paraphilia alone was exclusively associated with sex offending, therefore all such youths were excluded from further analyses. The OVERALS technique was used to explore possible relationships between offence, psychiatric diagnoses, sociodemographic and individual characteristics among the remaining young men for whom all pertinent data were available (n = 1894). Results,Sex offenders constituted a distinct group of juvenile delinquents. Developmental disorders were more common among non-violent sex offenders and child molesters. Violent offences were more typical of delinquents from immigrant backgrounds. Conclusion,Group differences in types of psychiatric diagnoses may reflect differences in aetiological factors for the various types of sexual and other delinquent behaviour, and this would be worthy of further study. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Evaluation of a treatment programme for alcohol-related aggression

Anna McCulloch
Background,The development of effective treatments for alcohol-related aggression and violence is important in binge drinking cultures, as in parts of the UK. Aim,The aim was to evaluate the progress and experience of 10 participants in Control of Violence for Angry Impulsive Drinkers (COVAID) using a single case methodology. Method,Participants completed 10 individual weekly sessions with trained facilitators following the COVAID manual. Change scores on psychometric questionnaires were examined by calculating clinical significance and reliability of change. Self-reports of alcohol consumption and aggression were examined. Follow-up data on convictions were collected. Participants were asked their opinions about COVAID. Results,Scores on the Alcohol-Related Aggression Questionnaire (ARAQ) improved for nine participants; change was both clinically significant and reliable in five cases. Nine participants improved on the Controlled Drinking Self-Efficacy Scale (CDSES), with seven showing clinically significant improvement. Six participants reported a reduction in alcohol consumption from the first to the second half of the programme. At a mean of 29 weeks post-treatment, none of the participants had been reconvicted for a violent offence. Participants reported finding COVAID useful and interesting. Conclusion,Overall, our findings support the possibility that COVAID may assist in reducing alcohol-related violence and violent offending. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The probabilities of sex offender re-arrest

Roderic Broadhurst Associate Professor
Background Estimates of the probabilities of re-arrest for sex offenders apprehended in Western Australia between April 1984 and December 1994 are reported. Population and method Of the 116,151 distinct male persons arrested for the first time from 1984,94, 2785 were identified with at least one sex offence. Subjects on average were followed up for 5.7 years and assessed by criminal record, Aboriginality, bail status, age, occupation and penal intervention. Three criteria, rearrest for any, repeat sex or a violent offence are used to summarize the ,careers' of sex offenders. Results Overall ultimate probabilities of rearrest for any offence were 0.61, for a repeat sex offence 0.33 and for a violent offence 0.51. Probabilities of re-arrest for non-Aboriginal offenders were lower for all definitions. Younger offenders, Aborigines and those with prior arrest for non-sex offences had higher probabilities for any or violent rearrest but older offenders tended to have higher probabilities of repeat sex offending. Community supervision and imprisonment significantly reduced the ,rate' or speed of re-arrest. Discussion Actuarial risk assessments for low-probability high-consequence events such as dangerous recidivism are useful for identifying groups with a high probability of rearrest, assisting management of these groups and evaluating penal interventions. Copyright 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Revisiting the overcontrolled,undercontrolled typology of violent offenders

Karen D'Silva
Background,In 1966, Megargee separated individuals with violent behaviour into those who either overcontrolled or undercontrolled their hostility and suggested that this typology might be helpful when considering their treatment. Method,We compared the criminological and psychopathological features of those with a single violent offence (SV) and with those who were repeatedly violent (RV). Results,Fifty-one violent personality disordered offenders detained in medium- or high- secure care were examined (19 in the SV group and 32 in the RV group). In comparison to the RV group, the SV group were less antisocial and psychopathic and showed greater anger and behavioural control. However, these differences appeared to be due to the undercontrolled nature of the RV group, rather than the overcontrolled nature of the SV group. Conclusion,There was little evidence to support an overcontrolled hostility pattern in the SV group in this sample. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Violent recidivism among mentally disordered offenders in Japan

Kazuo Yoshikawa
Background,A new forensic mental health law was enacted in Japan in 2003, enabling development of specialist services. Before their establishment, it is important to determine the nature, frequency and correlates of the problems they are designed to ameliorate. Aims,To establish rates of violent recidivism among mentally disordered offenders before the new legislation, and examine associated risk factors. Method,Data were extracted from one complete annual (1980) national cohort of people judged by the Court or prosecutor to be without responsibility for a criminal offence, or of sufficiently diminished responsibility for it to be diverted for psychiatric treatment. The outcome measure was violent recidivism after community discharge and before 1991. Results,Fifty-two (10%) of 489 in the cohort were arrested or convicted of further violent offences. Violent recidivism was most strongly associated with a substance-related disorder, but histories of violence, homelessness and short index admissions were independently related. Conclusions,Violent recidivism was so unusual that, on this outcome, it could take many years to show any effect of the new service. Desistance from substance use, compliance with treatment and maintenance of stable housing may be better indicators of success, and their achievement a good preventive strategy. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Delinquency and the profile of offences among depressed and non-depressed adolescents

Background,Depression has previously been found to be closely connected to adolescent delinquency, but little is known about how depression is related to different types of delinquency. Aim,To investigate patterns of criminal behaviour according to depression among repeatedly delinquent adolescents. Method,The sample was 14- to 16-year-old repeatedly delinquent adolescents (n 3679) taking part in the Finnish School Health Promotion Study, surveyed for versatility and specialization of delinquency in relation to depression. Results,Patterns of criminal behaviour differed between depressed and non-depressed delinquent adolescents. The delinquent behaviour of depressed adolescents was more versatile than that of non-depressed adolescents who mainly specialized in one offence type. Non-depressed delinquent boys had most often specialized in violence. Most depressed delinquent boys had committed a variety of offences, but among those who did specialize the specialist category was violent offences. Non-depressed delinquent girls had specialized in shoplifting. Among depressed delinquent girls vandalism was the most typical offence. Conclusion,Differences in the delinquent behaviour of depressed and non-depressed delinquent adolescents suggest the value of including clinical assessment, and treatment for some, in an appropriately comprehensive pattern of management. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Liverpool Violence Assessment: an investigator-based measure of serious violence

Rajan Nathan
Background Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) identifies adults with persistent offending behaviour and social dysfunction. However, it lacks discrimination within high-risk and criminal populations and gives little indication of an individual's history of violence. Existing measures of violence have significant limitations. The Liverpool Violence Assessment (LiVA) is an investigator-based standardized interview for measuring patterns of violence. Method A total of 61 male prisoners who had been sentenced for serious violent offences were interviewed using the LiVA and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV antisocial personality disorder and alcohol and drug dependence. Official records of offending were examined. Results The inter-rater reliability for the LiVA was high. There were significant correlations between histories of violence assessed by the LiVA and official records, but the frequency of self-reported violence was much higher than in the official records. Antisocial personality disorder was associated with increased violence. However, analyses revealed marked variability of the levels of violence among those with antisocial personality disorder and contrasting patterns of association of violence with antisocial personality disorder depending on the context. Conclusion The LiVA is a reliable and valid measure of the patterns and characteristics of violence. The findings suggest that the causes of violence should be studied in their own right and not only as a feature of ASPD. Copyright 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Psychosis and offending in British Columbia: characteristics of a secure hospital population

Nicola Hodelet Specialist Registrar
Introduction There is an increased likelihood of violence in the mentally ill although the risk is small. Aims The study aimed to ascertain the features in a secure hospital population that linked offending and mental illness. Method A survey of patients in the high security hospital serving the province of British Columbia in Canada was carried out. Information on 175 mentally disordered offenders was extracted and included demographic data and specific characteristics of their offences, diagnoses and psychotic symptoms. Results The most prevalent offences were crimes of violence, but 39% of patients were not primarily violent offenders. Almost two-thirds (61%) had two or more diagnoses. A large majority of the patients were psychotic, schizophrenia being the most common diagnosis. There was a highly significant association between psychosis and violence, but the strength of the association was not increased by the presence of imperative hallucinations or delusions. The sample comprised various ethnic groups, one of which, Native Americans, was over-represented. However, no association was found between violent offending and ethnicity, or age or years of illness. Discussion The study replicates previous findings of the link between violent offending and psychosis, but not a specific link between violent offending and psychotic drive. A surprising finding was a lack of association between violent offences and substance misuse. Copyright 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
The aim of this paper is to describe the development of criminal behavior from early adolescence to late adulthood based on conviction data for a sample of Dutch offenders. Measuring over an age span of 12 to 72, we ask whether there is evidence for (1) criminal trajectories that are distinct in terms of time path, (2) a small group of persistent offenders, (3) criminal trajectories that are distinct in the mix of crimes committed, or, more specifically, persistent offenders disproportionately engaging in violent offences, and (4) different offender groups having different social profiles in life domains other than crime. The analysis is based on the conviction histories of the Dutch offenders in the Criminal Career and Life Course Study. Four trajectory groups were identified using a semi-parametric, group-based model: sporadic offenders, low-rate desisters, moderate-rate desisters and high-rate persisters. Analyses show that high-rate persisters engage in crime at a very substantial rate, even after age 50. Compared to other trajectory groups the high-rate persistent trajectory group disproportionately engages in property crimes rather than violent crimes. Also, these distinct trajectories are found to be remarkably similar across age cohorts. [source]

Study: The Lack of Significant Association of the Catechol- O -Methyl Transferase (COMT) Gene Polymorphism in Violent Offenders with Mental Retardation

Aysun Baransel Isir M.D.
Abstract:, Little is known about criminality of cognitively impaired people and also there have been no reports on the relationship between catechol- O -methyl transferase (COMT) and committed Mental Retardation (MR) subjects. In the present study, the association between committed (violent offences) MR subjects and genetic variants of COMT were investigated by using polymerase chain reaction and based restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. During 6 years of follow-up, 36 violent offenders with mild MR were investigated. Thirty-six control volunteers were included in the study as a control group. H/L polymorphism of the COMT gene was investigated in these two groups. In conclusion, the COMT gene genotype distribution and allele frequency is not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05). This result suggests that the H/L polymorphism of the COMT gene does not show an association with the potential of "commits-violent offense" of Turkish subjects with mental retardation, compared with control group. [source]

Kidnapping: a criminal profile of persons convicted 1979,2001

Keith Soothill Ph.D.
Kidnapping has been a neglected crime in criminological research. In fact, there has been a dramatic increase in the yearly numbers of police recorded kidnapping offences in England and Wales in the last 25 years, but this has not been matched by a similar increase in convictions. This study focuses on the official criminal histories of the 7042 males and 545 females who were convicted at least once for kidnapping between 1979 and 2001. Of these, 3.9% of the males and 2.6% of the females had convictions for kidnapping on more than one occasion. We examined two subgroups to ensure long observation periods for prior and subsequent convictions. Of those convicted of kidnapping in 2001, around one-half (51.1%) of the males and around one-third (36.6%) of the females had previous convictions. The previous convictions consist of a wide range of offences, with the most common being theft and violent offences. A 20-year follow-up of those convicted in 1979,81 showed that three in five males and one in three females are subsequently convicted on at least one more occasion for a standard-list offence. An examination of convictions for other offences brought to court at the same time as the kidnap offence enabled a typology of kidnaps to be proposed. Those kidnaps with co-convictions of an acquisitive nature declined over the period, whereas other types, including sexual and violent, showed rises. Changing shifts in the nature of kidnaps have important policy implications. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]