Violent Incidents (violent + incident)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Violent incidents and the use of antipsychotic medication within a specialist challenging behaviour unit: an evaluation of the Poole approach to challenging behaviour

BRITISH JOURNAL OF LEARNING DISABILITIES, Issue 3 2000
George Rowland
Summary The present paper documents a retrospective evaluation of a specialist challenging behaviour unit for individuals with severe learning disabilities according to two criteria: (1) its efficacy at reducing the frequency and severity of violent incidents; and (2) the level of reliance upon antipsychotic medication for behavioural purposes. The results were placed within the perspective of the specific approach to challenging behaviour adopted by the unit, which emphasizes communication as the fundamental tenet within the management and reduction of challenging behaviour. The results demonstrate a 92% reduction in incidents of violence towards others over the 6 years since the unit opened, alongside a 95% reduction in violence towards property. During the same period, the levels of antipsychotic medication used for behavioural purposes fell in the cases of three out of the four clients under examination. An attempt is made to highlight the predominant factors underlying this success as potential indicators for the development of services for those who exhibit challenging and violent behaviours. [source]


Violence in the care of adult persons with intellectual disabilities

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 4 2004
MarieLouise Strand MSc
Background., Violence, for example physical, psychological, financial and sexual abuse and neglect, exists and is an under-reported problem in caring situations involving adult persons with intellectual disabilities and their caregivers, where both parties can be seen as victims and perpetrators. Aims and objectives., To investigate violent situations involving Swedish adult persons with intellectual disabilities and their caregivers in group-dwellings. Design., A total population-based survey. Methods., A questionnaire, including violence towards adults with intellectual disabilities and violence towards staff members during 1 year, was sent to all staff members (n = 164) from 17 care settings for adults with intellectual disabilities with a response rate of 74%. Results., Thirty-five per cent of 122 respondents admitted they had been implicated in or witnessed a violent incident towards an adult person with intellectual disabilities and 14% of the staff members admitted they themselves had been the perpetrators. Sixty-one per cent of the staff members described various situations when they were exposed to violence from an adult person with intellectual disabilities. Physical violence was most frequently reported. Most of the aggression occurred in helping situations when persons with intellectual disabilities did not co-operate or when both actors reacted with violence. The violent situations led the staff members to feel powerless and inadequate. In order to cope they discussed with each other or with the manager. Conclusions., Violence seems to be accepted as a natural part of the daily care for adult persons with intellectual disabilities. Most of the violence is physical and psychological and occurs in close helping situations. Relevance to clinical practice., Supportive interventions, i.e. supervision for the staff members and training of communication skills individually or in group for the adults with intellectual disabilities. [source]


Intergroup attribution bias in the context of extreme intergroup conflict

ASIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Amarina Ariyanto
Limited research has examined attributional biases in the context of extreme intergroup conflict, and the research that does exist contains methodological shortcomings. To remedy this, 282 Indonesians read a newspaper article describing a violent incident in Ambon. Christians (but not Muslims) used stronger situational attributions for violent ingroup acts than for violent outgroup acts. In contrast, both Muslims and Christians used stronger dispositional attributions for violent outgroup acts than for violent ingroup acts. This latter tendency emerged independently of who was described in the article as the perpetrators of the violence. Implications for our understanding of intergroup conflict are discussed. [source]


Facets on the psychopathy checklist screening version and instrumental violence in forensic psychiatric patients

CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2010
Jenny Laurell
Background,There is a recognised relationship between psychopathy and instrumental violence, but not all violence by people who meet the criteria for psychopathy is instrumental. Aims,Our aims were to compare offence types among forensic psychiatric patients with and without the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) criteria for psychopathy. Our specific questions were whether factor 1 , the interpersonal affective dimension , was related to instrumentality and on severity of the violent crime. Our hypothesis was that the relationship between psychopathy and instrumental violence would be dependent on the severity of the violent crime. Methods,Sixty-five male patients at the forensic psychiatric hospital in Sundsvall, all with a violent criminal history, were assessed for psychopathy through interview and records using the PCL: SV. Severity and the instrumentality of their previous violence were coded using the Cornell coding guide for violent incidents. Results,The interpersonal features of psychopathy (the interpersonal facet), and only the interpersonal features were significantly associated with instrumentality and severity of violence. Instrumentality was also significantly related to the severity of the violence, independent of psychopathy score. Conclusions,The results indicated that, at least among forensic psychiatric patients, planning is more likely than not with respect to serious crimes. The specific link between interpersonal features of psychopathy and instrumental and severe violence suggests potential clinical value in recognising subtypes of psychopathy. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Factors associated with seclusion in a statewide forensic psychiatric service in Australia over a 2-year period

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 1 2009
Stuart D.M. Thomas
ABSTRACT Despite seclusion being described as one of the most ethically- and legally-controversial management options available, it remains a widely-used clinical strategy for managing disruptive, aggressive, and violent behaviour. This study sought to determine how frequently seclusion was used, the common characteristics of those secluded and not secluded, and the degree to which the Level of Service Inventory , Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R: SV) could predict seclusion. The study was retrospective, covering the first 2 years of operation of a statewide forensic psychiatry hospital in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected from individual case files, electronic databases, and paper copies of records pertaining to violent incidents and episodes of seclusion. Eighty five (44%) of the 193 patients admitted during this period were secluded. Those secluded were significantly younger and had a more established psychiatric history. LSI-R: SV scores were significantly and positively associated with being secluded. A statistical model containing three LSI-R: SV items, along with age on admission and psychiatric history, achieved an area under the curve of 0.74. Seclusion is used on a regular basis in response to a range of different forms of aggressive behaviour of different severity. The LSI-R: SV demonstrated moderate-to-good accuracy in predicting seclusion and warrants further research using detailed prospective methodologies. [source]


Analysis of recent incidents of on-field violence in sport: legal decisions and additional considerations from psychology

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2009
John H. Kerr
Abstract This article focuses on two recent incidents of serious on-field violence in sports and the legal consequences for those involved. The two incidents occurred in Dutch football (soccer) and became infamous owing to the nature of the violent incidents and widespread media coverage. The legal outcomes of these two incidents are described, and some of the difficulties that legal authorities face in considering assaults on the sports field are discussed. A new way of categorizing such violent incidents and the motivation behind them, based on an established psychological theory [reversal theory, Apter, 1982, 2001] is proposed. Taken along with the other points made in this article, being aware of when and how individuals cross the boundaries between play and anger, power or thrill violence may provide an additional perspective to making informed decisions about illegal violent acts on the sports field. Aggr. Behav. 35:41,48. 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Integrating DSM-IV Factors to Predict Violence in High-Risk Psychiatric Patients

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 1 2010
Donna M. Lynch M.S.N.
Abstract:, This study incorporated Axis-II and Axis-IV factors in DSM-IV to test the relationship between predicted risk for violence assessed in the psychiatric emergency room and actual violence during hospitalization. Psychiatric nurses lack an objective instrument to use during the acute psychiatric assessment. The retrospective study comprised consecutive psychiatric admissions (n = 161) in one tertiary veterans' hospital. Statistical testing for the predictive power of risk factors, relationships between variables, and violent events included nonparametric tests, factor analysis, and logistic regression. Of the 32 patients who committed violence during hospitalization, 12 had committed violence in the psychiatric emergency room. Statistical significance was shown for violent incidents and dementia, court-ordered admission, mood disorder, and for three or more risk factors. The 13-item Risk of Violence Assessment (ROVA) scale suggests validity and sensitivity for rating DSM-IV factors and psychosocial stressors to predict risk for violence during hospitalization. Replication studies are recommended to strengthen validity of the ROVA scale. [source]


HOVIS , The Hertfordshire/Oxfordshire Violent Incident Study

JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC & MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 2 2002
K. Spokes msc bsc(hons)
Violence in psychiatric inpatient units is a major and growing problem. Research interest has primarily focussed on patient characteristics. The role of staff factors and the antecedents of violent incidents has been neglected, despite the fact that staff factors and behaviour may be more readily amenable to change than patient characteristics. The HOVIS study sought to obtain the views of a sample of mental health nurses in current clinical practice about staff-related factors, which they perceive to contribute to, or protect against, the occurrence of violent incidents. A total of 108 nurses working in psychiatric acute admission, intensive care and low secure units, in two NHS Trusts were interviewed using a specially designed semistructured interview schedule. These nurses identified a variety of behaviours, clinical skills, personal characteristics and interpersonal skills that they believe impact on the occurrence of violent incidents. These findings are discussed in relation to their possible training and managerial implications. [source]


Magistrates' Attitudes to Domestic Violence and Sentencing Options

THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 4 2002
Elizabeth Gilchrist
This study explored the sentencing decisions made by magistrates for perpetrators of domestic violence versus perpetrators of stranger violence. Sixty,seven magistrates considered six vignettes involving violent incidents and suggested a sentence. More magistrates suggested prison for cases where the victim of the assault was a stranger rather than the perpetrator's partner, but this was not statistically significant. Significant differences in sentencing were found where the vignettes featured alcohol, or the necessity of medical attention. Magistrates' reasoning reflected the themes of denying, minimising, justifying and victim blaming. The article discusses the need for training to dispel myths about domestic violence. [source]


Making Sense of Violence in the "Badlands" of Kenya

ANTHROPOLOGY & HUMANISM, Issue 1 2009
Bilinda Straight
SUMMARY In this article, I situate violent conflict affecting pastoralists in northern Kenya in the context of media representations of violent incidents and the relationship that many Kenyans perceive between such incidents and election politics. I argue that media representations are implicated in cycles of violent conflict through erasure and misrecognition. Most crucially, media representations tend to focus on cultural stereotypes that tacitly legitimate ongoing violence by explaining it away as timeless and cultural. These unidimensional representations can distract from the culpability of political elites and from the role of economic and political disenfranchisement in sustaining violence. They can also mask the ways in which some elites benefit from the propagation of cultural stereotypes even while deliberately engaging in manipulation of ethnic fault lines. Finally, I argue that these already ubiquitous representations hinging on cultural stereotypes contribute to a global politics of marginalization, within which so-called indigenous violence is simultaneously politically expedient, routine, and forgettable. [source]


A political ecology of violence and territory in West Kalimantan

ASIA PACIFIC VIEWPOINT, Issue 1 2008
Nancy Lee Peluso
Abstract: This paper uses a political ecology perspective to examine relationships between violence and territory in West Kalimantan, focusing on the violent incidents of 1996,1997 and 1967,1968. Besides a regional account, the paper examines some of the ways residents of one village were drawn into and chose to participate in violence. The author concludes that while regional analyses can identify broad patterns, local analyses enable a greater understanding of both variation and the processes by which ethnic categories are constructed through violence. [source]


Violent incidents and the use of antipsychotic medication within a specialist challenging behaviour unit: an evaluation of the Poole approach to challenging behaviour

BRITISH JOURNAL OF LEARNING DISABILITIES, Issue 3 2000
George Rowland
Summary The present paper documents a retrospective evaluation of a specialist challenging behaviour unit for individuals with severe learning disabilities according to two criteria: (1) its efficacy at reducing the frequency and severity of violent incidents; and (2) the level of reliance upon antipsychotic medication for behavioural purposes. The results were placed within the perspective of the specific approach to challenging behaviour adopted by the unit, which emphasizes communication as the fundamental tenet within the management and reduction of challenging behaviour. The results demonstrate a 92% reduction in incidents of violence towards others over the 6 years since the unit opened, alongside a 95% reduction in violence towards property. During the same period, the levels of antipsychotic medication used for behavioural purposes fell in the cases of three out of the four clients under examination. An attempt is made to highlight the predominant factors underlying this success as potential indicators for the development of services for those who exhibit challenging and violent behaviours. [source]