Violent Events (violent + event)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Community-based Participatory Research: Development of an Emergency Department,based Youth Violence Intervention Using Concept Mapping

Carolyn E. Snider MD, FRCPC
ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:1,9 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Objectives:, Emergency departments (EDs) see a high number of youths injured by violence. In Ontario, the most common cause of injury for youths visiting EDs is assault. Secondary prevention strategies using the teachable moment (i.e., events that can lead individuals to make positive changes in their lives) are ideal for use by clinicians. An opportunity exists to take advantage of the teachable moment in the ED in an effort to prevent future occurrences of injury in at-risk youths. However, little is known about perceptions of youths, parents, and community organizations about such interventions in EDs. The aims of this study were to engage youths, parents, and frontline community workers in conceptualizing a hospital-based violence prevention intervention and to identify outcomes relevant to the community. Methods:, Concept mapping is an innovative, mixed-method research approach. It combines structured qualitative processes such as brainstorming and group sorting, with various statistical analyses such as multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering, to develop a conceptual framework, and allows for an objective presentation of qualitative data. Concept mapping involves multiple structured steps: 1) brainstorming, 2) sorting, 3) rating, and 4) interpretation. For this study, the first three steps occurred online, and the fourth step occurred during a community meeting. Results:, Over 90 participants were involved, including youths, parents, and community youth workers. A two-dimensional point map was created and clusters formed to create a visual display of participant ideas on an ED-based youth violence prevention intervention. Issues related to youth violence prevention that were rated of highest importance and most realistic for hospital involvement included mentorship, the development of youth support groups in the hospital, training doctors and nurses to ask questions about the violent event, and treating youth with respect. Small-group discussions on the various clusters developed job descriptions, a list of essential services, and suggestions on ways to create a more youth-friendly environment in the hospital. A large-group discussion revealed outcomes that participants felt should be measured to determine the success of an intervention program. Conclusions:, This study has been the springboard for the development of an ED-based youth violence intervention that is supported by the community and affected youth. Using information generated by youth that is grounded in their experience through participatory research methods is feasible for the development of successful and meaningful youth violence prevention interventions. [source]

Links between Community Violence and the Family System: Evidence from Children's Feelings of Relatedness and Perceptions of Parent Behavior,

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 3 2002
Michael Lynch Ph.D.
In this study, we examined some of the ways in which broader ecological systems may influence the organization of behavior within the family system. Specifically, links between exposure to community violence and children's relationships with maternal caregivers were investigated in a sample of 127 urban children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. Children were asked to indicate whether they had been exposed to a wide variety of violent events. In addition, their feelings of relatedness and separation anxiety, and their perceptions of maternal behavior were assessed. It was expected that exposure to community violence would be associated with feeling less secure with caregivers. Consistent with predictions from ecological-transactional theory, data supported this hypothesis. Children who reported that they had been exposed to high levels of community violence also indicated that they felt less positive affect when with their caregiver, were dissatisfied with how close they felt to her, felt more separation anxiety, and reported more negative maternal behavior than children exposed to less violence. Findings are discussed in terms of how violence may affect the family system and the protective function of human attachment. [source]

Conveying caring: Nurse attributes to avert violence in the ED

Dr Lauretta Luck RN BA MA(Psy) PhD
Violence towards nurses in Emergency Department's is a world wide problem that some contend is increasing in severity and frequency, despite the many strategies implemented to prevent violent events. This paper presents the findings of an instrumental case study in a busy rural Emergency Department. Twenty Registered Nurses participated in the study and data from 16 unstructured interviews, 13 semi-structured field interviews, and 290 h of participant observation were thematically analysed. In addition, 16 violent events were observed, recorded via a structured observation tool and analysed using frequency counts. Thematically there were five attributes rural emergency nurses were observed to use to avert, reduce and prevent violence. The five attributes were being safe, being available, being respectful, being supportive and being responsive. We argue that these attributes were embodied in the emergency nurses routine practice and their conceptualization of caring. [source]

Examining the characteristics of workplace violence in one non-tertiary hospital

Rose Chapman
Aim., This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of workplace violence directed at a volunteer sample of nurses at one non-tertiary hospital. Respondents' reasons for not reporting these incidents were also investigated. Background., Incidents of workplace violence are increasing worldwide. However, no studies have investigated this phenomenon from the perspective of nurses in Western Australian non-tertiary hospitals. Design., Survey. Method., A survey was distributed to all 332 nurses working in several areas of one non-tertiary hospital in Western Australia to determine their experiences of workplace violence over a 12 month period. Findings., Of the 113 nurses who agreed to participate in this study, 75% reported experiencing workplace violence in the previous twelve months. When asked about their most recent incident, 50% of the nurses said they had reported it verbally, mostly to more senior staff. Only 16% of the nurses completed an official incident report. Reasons for not reporting included the view that WPV is just part of the job and the perception that management would not be responsive. Conclusion., This study showed that for this sample of nurses violent events are occurring at a rate that is similar to those reported in other studies. This finding should be of great concern to the organisation and the community in general. Relevance to clinical practice., Organisations are obliged to improve the safety of the workplace environment for both staff and patients. The findings of our study may be of help to healthcare institutions in developing education programmes for nurses, patients and their friends and relatives to reduce the impact and frequency of workplace violence. [source]

Integrating DSM-IV Factors to Predict Violence in High-Risk Psychiatric Patients

Donna M. Lynch M.S.N.
Abstract:, This study incorporated Axis-II and Axis-IV factors in DSM-IV to test the relationship between predicted risk for violence assessed in the psychiatric emergency room and actual violence during hospitalization. Psychiatric nurses lack an objective instrument to use during the acute psychiatric assessment. The retrospective study comprised consecutive psychiatric admissions (n = 161) in one tertiary veterans' hospital. Statistical testing for the predictive power of risk factors, relationships between variables, and violent events included nonparametric tests, factor analysis, and logistic regression. Of the 32 patients who committed violence during hospitalization, 12 had committed violence in the psychiatric emergency room. Statistical significance was shown for violent incidents and dementia, court-ordered admission, mood disorder, and for three or more risk factors. The 13-item Risk of Violence Assessment (ROVA) scale suggests validity and sensitivity for rating DSM-IV factors and psychosocial stressors to predict risk for violence during hospitalization. Replication studies are recommended to strengthen validity of the ROVA scale. [source]

The effectiveness of two interventions in the management of patient violence in acute mental inpatient settings: report on a pilot study

I. NEEDHAM rn nt mnsc
Systematic risk assessment and training courses have been suggested as interventions to deal with patient violence in psychiatric institutions. A dual centre prospective feasibility study was conducted on two Swiss psychiatric admission wards to test the hypothesis that such interventions will reduce the frequency and severity of violent events and coercion. A systematic aggression risk assessment, in combination with a standardized training course in aggression management was administered and the frequency and severity of aggressive incidents and the frequency of coercive measures were registered. The incidence rates of aggressive incidents and attacks showed no significant reduction from the baseline through risk prediction and staff training, but the drop in coercive measures was highly significant. A ,ward effect' was detected with one ward showing a decline in attacks with unchanged incidence rates of coercion and the other ward showing the opposite. The severity of the incidents remained unchanged whilst the subjective severity declined after the training course. We conclude that a systematic risk assessment and a training course may assist in reducing the incidence rate of coercive measures on psychiatric acute admission wards. Further testing of the interventions is necessary to measure the effect of the training alone and to counteract ,ward effects'. [source]

Posttraumatic stress disorder and community violence: An update for nurse practitioners

MSN Staff Nurse, Sarah J. Blizzard RN
Abstract Purpose: An update on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and community violence for nurse practitioners (NPs) and other healthcare providers is required. Data Sources: A review of current literature on PTSD related to community violence is presented as well as an overview of PTSD disorders. Conclusions: Violence takes place in our communities and in our larger social world every day. In the face of increasing disasters and violent events, there is growing concern over the overall impact of violence on mental health. PTSD, a type of anxiety disorder, may develop as a result of exposure to these events. Implications for Practice: NPs have an important role to play in recognizing and treating PTSD symptoms in persons following exposure to a severe psychological trauma. [source]

Traumatic Events Involving Friends and Family Members in a Sample of African American Early Adolescents

Esther J. Jenkins PhD
The current study examines violent and nonviolent traumatic events involving friends and family members as predictors of PTSD, depression, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 403 African American early adolescents from chronically violent environments. Although there are many studies of urban children's exposure to community violence, few address the unique contribution of events involving significant others, and almost no research addresses African American youths' exposure to traumatic events other than violence. This study found that violent and nonviolent traumatic events were pervasive in the lives of these urban youth, and that they were as likely to report loss and injury of a close other through an accident as an act of violence. There were strong gender differences in the data. Unexpectedly, injury or loss of a close friend or family member from nonviolent events, but not from violent events, predicted PTSD, internalizing, and depression for boys. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for school-based universal interventions in communities where large numbers of children live with loss and trauma. [source]

Violence and Temporal Subjectivity

Eric J. Haanstad
SUMMARY Perceptions of temporal malleability and subjectivity are experienced by many perpetrators, victims, and witnesses of violence. Are perceptions of the slowing down, speeding up, or heightened awareness of time, which accompany violent moments, indicative of broader cultural and humanistic phenomena? In this article, I explore accounts of temporal perceptions surrounding violent encounters as a methodologically useful field of intersection between theories concerning the cultural construction of reality, the anthropology of time, simulation, and an emergent holographic physics. If, as a growing number of physicists assert, the universe can be described as a hologram where "time" is illusory and simultaneous, violent events that are perceived as temporally ambiguous offer sites of particular interest for the humanistic examination of these physical models. In other words, the temporal subjectivity often experienced by those who encounter violence can be interpreted as directly perceivable holographic encounters. The perpetrators, victims, and witnesses of such encounters can be viewed not only as interpreters of particular cultural temporal systems but also actively manipulating space,time and socially constructed reality. Interpreting violence through the experience of human agents could lead to greater insight into not only the symbolic meaning generated by acts of violence but also its hyperreal, desensitizing, and dissociative effects. Furthermore, the amplification of these effects by mass media and modern state ideologues becomes more penetrable under such an interpretive model. I draw from ethnographic research with police and "security" personnel in Thailand, Vietnam, and the United States, as well as from media and performance analysis. [source]