Violent Behaviour (violent + behaviour)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Homicide and schizophrenia: maybe treatment does have a preventive effect

Martin Erb
Background Persons with schizophrenia have been found to be at increased risk for homicide as compared with the general population. The increased risk may be associated with the implementation of the policy of deinstitutionalization. Method Persons with schizophrenia who had committed or attempted homicide in the German state of Hessen from 1992 to 1996 and in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1955 to 1964 were compared. Results Schizophrenia increased the risk of homicide 16.6 times (95% CI 11.2,24.5) in the recent cohort and 12.7 times (95% CI 11.2,14.3) in the older cohort. These odds ratios are not statistically different. The lack of appropriate services for chronic high-risk patients and the non-use of mental health services by first episode, acutely psychotic patients were associated with homicide. Conclusion There has been no increase in the risk of homicide among persons with schizophrenia since the implementation of the policy of deinstitutionalization. The examination of the recent period suggests that the provision of specialized long-term care to persons with schizophrenia who are at high risk for violent behaviour and the use of mental health services by acutely psychotic persons may reduce the risk of homicide. Copyright © 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Violence among schizophrenia out-patients compliant with medication: prevalence and associated factors

J. Bobes
Objective:, Aggressive behaviour has been related to schizophrenia both in in-patient and out-patient samples. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with aggressive behaviour in out-patient compliant with their prescribed medication. Method:, Eight hundred and ninety-five patients were interviewed at Community-Based Mental Health Services about aggressive,violent behaviour within the week prior to the study visit. Adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving stable pharmacological treatment were enrolled. Presence of aggressive episodes, including type of aggression, severity and frequency, was assessed with the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS). Violence was defined as a score of 3 or more in any of the MOAS subscores. Results:, Prevalence of recent aggressive behaviour was 5.07%, (95% CI 5.04,5.10), where 47% (43 behaviours 91) reached the violent threshold. Among the 91 violent episodes rated, most episodes were verbal (44%), followed by physical violence towards objects (29%), violence towards others (19%) and self-directed violence (8%). Recent episodes of any severity were more likely among patients with a history of violence and also with relapses within the previous year and with low treatment satisfaction. Conclusion:, Five per cent of the studied cases showed aggressive behaviour in the week prior to assessment, despite having been compliant with their medication. Most aggressive behaviour was verbal rather than physical. [source]

A comparison of risk factors for habitual violence in pre-trial subjects

S. Z. Kaliski
Objective: Pre-trial referrals to the Valkenberg Hospital forensic unit over a 6-month period were studied. Habitually violent offenders were compared with those with no history of violence. Methods:, Risk factors known to be associated with violent behaviour were elicited, i.e. demographics, behaviour during index offence (such as impulsivity, identity of victim, use of weapon, accomplices, intoxication, psychotic symptoms), psychiatric and family histories, history of suicide attempts, past child abuse, head injury, criminal record, psychiatric diagnosis and presence of medical disorders. EEG's, Barratt's Impulsivity, Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking and Mini-Mental Scales were administered. Behaviour in the ward during the 30 days was also appraised. Logistic regression models were used to determine relative risks. Results:, There were 155 subjects; 89.7% were male, 71.6% were single and 58.7% were unemployed. For 44.5% the index offence was violent, and 9.7% had committed sexual offences; 61.9% had histories of habitual violence. A psychotic disorder was diagnosed in 32.3% and a personality disorder in 48.4%. Habitually violent subjects were distin- guished by a history of issuing threats (OR=3.68; CI=3.19,4.16; P= 0.000), delusions of persecution (OR=3.43; CI=2.67,4.17; P=0.001), history of conduct disorder (OR=1.95; CI=1.70,2.19; P=0.006), alcohol/substance abuse (OR=2.08; CI=1.53,2.61; P=0.008) and violent index offence (OR=1.66; CI=1.54,2.61; P=0.035). Conclusion: This seems to confirm the relationship between threats, feeling threatened, psychosis, a history of antisocial behaviour and alcohol abuse. [source]

Alcohol, suppressed anger and violence

ADDICTION, Issue 9 2010
Thor Norström
ABSTRACT Aims Is alcohol related causally to violence, and if so, is the effect of drinking contingent on suppressed anger such that it is strongest among individuals who are highly inclined to withhold angry feelings? We addressed these questions by analysing panel data using a method that diminishes the effects of confounding factors. Design We analysed data on heavy episodic drinking and violent behaviour from the second (1994) and third (1999) waves of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study (n = 2697; response rate: 67%). The first difference method was applied to estimate the association between these behaviours, implying that changes in the frequency of violence were regressed on changes in the frequency of drinking. Hence, the effects of time-invariant confounders were eliminated. Analyses were conducted for the whole sample, and for groups scoring low, medium and high on a short version of the STAXI anger suppression scale. Findings Changes in drinking were related positively and significantly to changes in violent behaviour, but the alcohol effect varied with the level of suppressed anger: it was strongest in the high-anger group (elasticity estimate = 0.053, P = 0.011) and weakest (and insignificant) in the low-anger group (elasticity estimate = 0.004, P = 0.806). Conclusions Alcohol use may be related causally to violence, but the effect of drinking is confined to individuals who are inclined to suppress their angry feelings. [source]

Pharmacoepidemiology of anabolic androgenic steroids: a review

Ingemar Thiblin
Abstract Non-prescribed use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with a number of physical and psychiatric/behavioural complications, some of which are potentially lethal. Here, we review both observational and experimental studies on human subjects concerned with such side-effects. The only physical complication of AAS use that receives definitive support from such investigations is unfavourable changes in blood lipid profiles. Support for various psychiatric complications has also been provided by a number of cross-sectional studies, most involving comparisons between weight-training individuals who use or do not use AAS. Certain of these complications, in particular hypomania and increased aggressiveness, have been confirmed in some, but not all, randomized controlled studies. Epidemiological attempts to determine whether AAS use triggers violent behaviour have failed, primarily because of high rates of non-participation. Studies regarding the prevalence of AAS use in different populations typically report life-time prevalences of 1,5% among adolescents. However, the life-time prevalence (i.e. use on at least one occasion) is of doubtful relevance in attempting to estimate the number of individuals at risk for side-effects, as most of these complications appear to develop during prolonged use of AAS. Furthermore, it is reasonable to assume that the symptoms and signs of AAS use are often overlooked by healthcare professionals, so that the number of cases of possible AAS-related complications is virtually unknown. These limitations, together with an apparently low prevalence of prolonged AAS use among the general population, indicate that future epidemiological research in this area should focus on retrospective case,control studies and, perhaps, also on prospective cohort studies of populations selected for a high prevalence of AAS use, rather than attempting to perform large-scale population-based studies. [source]

Methodological Dilemmas: Researching Violent Young Men in Medellín, Colombia

IDS BULLETIN, Issue 3 2009
Adam Baird
This article highlights the main methodological problems and solutions encountered while researching violent young men in the marginalised north-eastern area of Medellín, Colombia. Using ethnographic methods, the research investigated how violent behaviour may be inherited, and its relationship to masculinities and youth. It asked how violence is transmitted to young men in both domestic and social spaces, and evaluated the relationship between marginalisation and social violence. Little has been written about how researchers can access violent actors who are reluctant to come forward or tell the truth, nor the ethical issues that arise when researching violent subjects in conflict contexts. This article explains how dangers were dealt with, but also how problems of accessing violent actors were overcome, and considers the ethical dilemmas. [source]

Heterogeneity of violence in schizophrenia and implications for long-term treatment

J. Volavka
Summary Aims:, Most patients with schizophrenia are not violent. However, persistent violent behaviour in a minority of patients presents a therapeutic challenge. Published treatment guidelines and most pharmacological and epidemiological literature on violence in schizophrenia treat overt physical aggression as a homogeneous phenomenon. The aim of this review is to address the subtyping of violent behaviour in schizophrenia, and to relate the subtypes to treatment. Method:, Literature describing subtypes of violence in schizophrenia and the treatment of this problem was reviewed. ,Schizophrenia', ,violence', ,aggression', ,hostility' and ,personality disorders' were the principal search terms describing behaviours. Generic names of individual atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilisers were used in treatment searches. Results:, There are at least three aetiological subtypes of violence in schizophrenia (i) that related directly to positive psychotic symptoms, (ii) impulsive violence and (iii) violence stemming from comorbidity with personality disorders, particularly psychopathy. Current treatment of violence in schizophrenia relies on antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. The evidence of effectiveness is relatively strong for clozapine, but inconsistent for other treatments. No systematic recommendations relating the treatment to aetiological subtypes of violence were found. Discussion:, The inconsistent effectiveness of the current treatments of violent behaviour in schizophrenia is due, at least in part, to the aetiological heterogeneity of that behaviour. We should not expect that any given pharmacological treatment will be equally effective in reducing violent behaviour caused by psychosis, impaired impulse control or personality disorder. Conclusion:, Violence in schizophrenia is aetiologically heterogeneous. This heterogeneity has therapeutic implications that impact clinical practice today and should be further explored in future studies. [source]

Factors associated with seclusion in a statewide forensic psychiatric service in Australia over a 2-year period

Stuart D.M. Thomas
ABSTRACT Despite seclusion being described as one of the most ethically- and legally-controversial management options available, it remains a widely-used clinical strategy for managing disruptive, aggressive, and violent behaviour. This study sought to determine how frequently seclusion was used, the common characteristics of those secluded and not secluded, and the degree to which the Level of Service Inventory , Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R: SV) could predict seclusion. The study was retrospective, covering the first 2 years of operation of a statewide forensic psychiatry hospital in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected from individual case files, electronic databases, and paper copies of records pertaining to violent incidents and episodes of seclusion. Eighty five (44%) of the 193 patients admitted during this period were secluded. Those secluded were significantly younger and had a more established psychiatric history. LSI-R: SV scores were significantly and positively associated with being secluded. A statistical model containing three LSI-R: SV items, along with age on admission and psychiatric history, achieved an area under the curve of 0.74. Seclusion is used on a regular basis in response to a range of different forms of aggressive behaviour of different severity. The LSI-R: SV demonstrated moderate-to-good accuracy in predicting seclusion and warrants further research using detailed prospective methodologies. [source]

Multilevel generalized linear models for modelling age-related gender difference in violent behaviour and associated factors in the general household population

Min Yang Senior Statistician
Abstract It is preferable to use longitudinal data when studying patterns of violence and antisocial behaviour over the lifespan together with the associated risk factors in the general population. From the statistical modelling perspective, random samples of cross-sectional data, representative of the population, can be a reliable alternative. Sampling, weighting, and possible geographical clustering of the behaviour must be considered in the analysis together with correct choice of model as a function of age, although cohort effects and age effects are not separated from the analysis. This paper demonstrates the use of multilevel generalized linear models in the British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity in 2000. A multilevel logistic model as a special case of a generalized linear model with individual weightings was adapted for a dichotomous measure of violence and extended to Poisson and negative binomial outcomes. Three types of age function, discrete age effects, continuous age effects, and piecewise polynomial function of age intervals were evaluated for goodness of fit, and for their practical advantages and disadvantages. Models were developed for possible risk factors in relation to specific age groups of interest. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Gender-based violence: a study of Iraqi women

Riyadh K. Lafta
The purpose of this article is to examine and analyse the incidence of violence against women in Iraq. Until recently, gender-based violence has been viewed in this country as a private or family matter. Nevertheless, there gradually has been a shift in thinking in the past few years on this phenomenon, and it is now viewed as both a public health problem and a violation of human rights. As a first step toward understanding this problem, the authors conducted an experimental analysis of women in Iraq, focusing on gender-based violence. The results show that violence against women is principally carried out by their husbands and by brothers. The article explains the reasons behind this violent behaviour by analysing a sample survey of 1,000 women and 100 men. The findings show that gender-based violence is a prevalent medical and social problem in Iraq that requires prompt and in-depth intervention so as to prevent or at least control it. This study was undertaken in order to understand the possible solutions to prevent gender-based violence and to change the accepted norms of gender-based social roles and social tolerance. [source]

Executive cognitive functioning and the recognition of facial expressions of emotion in incarcerated violent offenders, non-violent offenders, and controls

Peter N.S. Hoaken
Violence is a social problem that carries enormous costs; however, our understanding of its etiology is quite limited. A large body of research exists, which suggests a relationship between abnormalities of the frontal lobe and aggression; as a result, many researchers have implicated deficits in so-called "executive function" as an antecedent to aggressive behaviour. Another possibility is that violence may be related to problems interpreting facial expressions of emotion, a deficit associated with many forms of psychopathology, and an ability linked to the prefrontal cortex. The current study investigated performance on measures of executive function and on a facial-affect recognition task in 20 violent offenders, 20 non-violent offenders, and 20 controls. In support of our hypotheses, both offender groups performed significantly more poorly on measures of executive function relative to controls. In addition, violent offenders were significantly poorer on the facial-affect recognition task than either of the other two groups. Interestingly, scores on these measures were significantly correlated, with executive deficits associated with difficulties accurately interpreting facial affect. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of a broader understanding of violent behaviour. Aggr. Behav. 33:412,421, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Constant or special observations of inpatients presenting a risk of aggression or violence: nurses' perceptions of the rules of engagement

I. MACKAY bsc (hons) rmn
In acute psychiatric settings the practice of ,observation' is commonly employed. Increased levels of observation, ,constant' or ,special' are used for those perceived as presenting a ,higher' risk. As an intervention it is used most frequently for those at risk of self-harm or suicide, the practice is also however, used for those thought to present a risk of violent behaviour. In this descriptive study the perceptions of 1st level registered mental nurses (RMNs) gave an account of observation for those perceived to be at risk of violence or aggression and insight into what was considered important and desirable in practice. Unstructured qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of six RMNs from a psychiatric intensive care unit. Three major categories, Procedure, Role, and Skills emerged which revealed a complex practice far removed from its literal description as merely ,watching'. Six subcategories emerged from the Role. (1) intervening; (2) maintaining the safety of the patient and others; (3) prevention de-escalation and the management of aggression and violence; (4) assessing; (5) communication; and (6) therapy. Skills in these and, experience were thought to IMPACT on the success of the practice. The description of this and the skills involved offer a definition of the ,rules of engagement' which give insight to the practice and the training needs of staff advocated for ,observation'. The acronym IMPACT may be useful in this. [source]

Revisiting the overcontrolled,undercontrolled typology of violent offenders

Karen D'Silva
Background,In 1966, Megargee separated individuals with violent behaviour into those who either overcontrolled or undercontrolled their hostility and suggested that this typology might be helpful when considering their treatment. Method,We compared the criminological and psychopathological features of those with a single violent offence (SV) and with those who were repeatedly violent (RV). Results,Fifty-one violent personality disordered offenders detained in medium- or high- secure care were examined (19 in the SV group and 32 in the RV group). In comparison to the RV group, the SV group were less antisocial and psychopathic and showed greater anger and behavioural control. However, these differences appeared to be due to the undercontrolled nature of the RV group, rather than the overcontrolled nature of the SV group. Conclusion,There was little evidence to support an overcontrolled hostility pattern in the SV group in this sample. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Antecedents for aggression and the function analytic approach to the assessment of aggression and violence in personality disordered patients within secure settings

Michael Daffern
The aim of this paper is to explore the validity and clinical utility of a function analytic approach to the assessment of aggression and violence in patients with personality disorder. This paper begins with a review of the factors that are associated with aggression in personality disordered patients, and focuses in particular upon those patients whose aggressive and violent behaviour has been the reason for their admission to a secure facility, and who may continue to engage in aggression. Two approaches that may explain such aggression are discussed and evaluated: (1) the identification of personality traits that may influence aggression and (2) the differentiation of hostile and instrumental aggression. Some limitations with these two approaches are identified, and an argument is made for function analytic assessment methods. An overview of one form of functional assessment, the Assessment and Classification of Function method, which assists in the classification of differential forms of aggression, is provided. Finally, the clinical and treatment implications of the function analytic approach are discussed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Narcissistic configurations: Violence and its absence in treatment

,On narcissism: An introduction' constitutes a turning point in psychoanalysis. Although narcissism is a concept which has not been explicitly referred to by many important thinkers for decades, it could be said that there is no paper written in psychoanalysis since Freud that does not implicitly take into account the modifi cations in thinking that the work brought about. In this paper, the author contrasts two types of narcissistic confi gurations: in the fi rst, the intolerance of the other is dealt with by expulsion and violence; in the second, by withdrawal. The author contrasts patients who express manifest violent behaviour with patients for whom the violent behaviour is absent but who, nevertheless, present similar background histories, which might have led to a prediction of violence. They are also profoundly different in terms of what they provoke in the countertransference. In addition, this paper argues that the treatment of narcissistic personalities has allowed in recent years the understanding of a modality of depression. Following Green, the author argues that, instead of a fruitless debate that involves evolutionary issues around the concept of narcissism, it is necessary to distinguish the narcissistic aspect in any analytic relationship, to identify the narcissistic transference in different types of psychopathologies. [source]

Cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation of high-risk violent offenders: Investigating treatment change with explicit and implicit measures of cognition

Devon L. L. Polaschek
Important as it is both to risk of re-offending and to cognitive behavioural treatment, violent cognition is seldom measured in rehabilitation programmes, and even more rarely linked to measures of violence risk. Most often, researchers measure violent cognition by having offenders complete transparent self-report questionnaires. This approach may be flawed both by socially desirable responding and by theoretical speculation that stronger links exist between automatic rather than explicit, consciously deliberated cognition and violent behaviour. We measured violent cognition in several ways; collecting data with two self-report scales, along with two Implicit Association Tests (IATs) from men commencing and completing an intensive cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation programme for high-risk violent prisoners. We addressed the questions of whether these two forms of assessment,explicit and implicit,are related, and which is most strongly linked to estimates of violence, based on the Violence Risk Scale. Explicit and implicit tests were not related to each other, although both self-report scales, and one of the IATs elicited significantly more pro-social responses following treatment. Further, the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) scores were significantly correlated with dynamic risk both pre- and post-programme, while post-programme, scores on one of the two IATs was significantly correlated with dynamic and static risk, as measured pre- and post-programme. These findings suggest that implicit and explicit measures may be assessing different aspects of cognition, and only some are related to violence risk. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The state of residential care for people with mental illness; insights from an audit of the screening tool for entry to licensed residential facilities

Lauren J. Bailey
Abstract Objective: To describe the medical and psychiatric profile of people assessed with the ,Screening Tool for Entry to Licensed Residential Centres' (Boarding House Screening Tool), examine the impact on their accommodation and the screening process. Methods: Copies of all of the Boarding House Screening Tools completed by the Camperdown Aged Care Assessment Team in 2003 and 2004 were examined. Accommodation status in 2006 was obtained from the Boarding House Team, GP or hospital database. A structured telephone survey of Aged Care Assessment Team staff was performed. Results: Thirty-nine Boarding House Screening Tools were reviewed. The mean age of the screened population was 43 yrs (range 22-76 yrs), most were men (36M: 3F). Eighty-two per cent had a listed psychiatric diagnosis, 23% a recent history of substance abuse, 10% a diagnosis of intellectual disability/cognitive impairment and 28% had more than two listed medical diagnoses. Seven people (18%), diagnosed with Schizophrenia, were not approved by the Boarding House Screening Tool because of high care needs and/or violent behaviour, however, only one remained in a high care facility in 2006. Forty-two per cent of people approved by the Boarding House Screening Tool were living in Licensed Boarding Houses in 2006. Conclusion and implications: People being assessed for entry to Licensed Boarding Houses are young with high levels of psychiatric illness, medical co-morbidity and drug and alcohol use. The Boarding House Screening Tool is effective in keeping people who are not approved out of Licensed Boarding Houses; however, even if approved this accommodation is short-term in the majority of cases. [source]

Neural correlates of deficient response inhibition in mentally disordered violent individuals

Ian Barkataki Ph.D.
In this study, response inhibition and associated neural activation during a motor inhibition paradigm were investigated in (i) men with antisocial personality disorder (APD) with a history of violence (n,=,14), (ii) men with schizophrenia with a history of violence (n,=,12), (iii) men with schizophrenia without a history of violence (n,=,12), and (iv) healthy control subjects (n,=,14) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At the behavioural level, individuals with schizophrenia showed impaired performance across all conditions, whereas an increased error rate was seen in the APD group only during the conditions requiring inhibition. At the neural level, both violent groups showed reduced thalamic activity, compared with controls, in association with modulation of inhibition by task demands. In addition, the violent schizophrenia group, compared with controls, showed reduced activity in the caudate nucleus during the condition requiring inhibition. It is concluded that violence may not be specifically associated with impaired voluntary inhibition in schizophrenia but this is likely in APD. Reduced thalamic function, perhaps due to its known association with sensorimotor disturbances, is implicated in violent behaviour across both disorders. In addition, caudate dysfunction may contribute, given its role in timing and temporal processing as well as suppression of motor actions, to deficient inhibition and violent behaviour in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Psychological processes and paranoia: implications for forensic behavioural science

Richard P. Bentall Ph.D.
Paranoid delusions have recently become the focus of empirical research. In this article, we review studies of the psychological mechanisms that might be involved in paranoid thinking and discuss their implications for forensic behaviour science. Paranoia has not been consistently associated with any specific neuropsychological abnormality. However, evidence supports three broad types of mechanism that might be involved in delusional thinking in general and paranoia in particular: anomalous perceptual experiences, abnormal reasoning, and motivational factors. There is some evidence that paranoia may be associated with hearing loss, and good evidence that paranoid patients attend excessively to threatening information. Although general reasoning ability seems to be unaffected, there is strong evidence that a jumping- to-conclusions style of reasoning about data is implicated in delusions in general, but less consistent evidence specifically linking paranoia to impaired theory of mind. Finally, there appears to be a strong association between paranoia and negative self-esteem, and some evidence that attempts to protect self-esteem by attributing negative events to external causes are implicated. Some of these processes have recently been implicated in violent behaviour, and they therefore have the potential to explain the apparent association between paranoid delusions and offending. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Bullying among nurses and its effects

m phd
Background:, The victims of bullying are subjected to being terrorized, annoyed, excluded, belittled, deprived of resources, isolated and prevented from claiming rights. The victims of bullying have decreased job satisfaction, work performance, motivation and productivity. Bullying also negatively affects victims' social relationships inside and outside the institution. Objectives:, This study was conducted as a cross-sectional and descriptive study for the purpose of assessing the workplace, bullying of nurses in Turkey and the effects it has on nursing practices. Method:, The sample was composed of 286 nurses, and all of the respondents were female. The research instrument was a questionnaire in five parts. The first section included the participants' demographic information; the other variables were measured in four categories: psychologically violent behaviours, workload, organizational effects and depression. Findings:, Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses participating in the research had never or almost never encountered workplace bullying behaviour in the last 12 months, 21% of the nurses had been exposed to these behaviours. There were no differences between position and educational level in workplace bullying. Workplace bullying leads to depression, lowered work motivation, decreased ability to concentrate, poor productivity, lack of commitment to work, and poor relationships with patients, managers and colleagues. Conclusion:, Workplace bullying is a measurable problem that negatively affects the psychology and performance of the nurses in this study. [source]

Structural behavioural analysis as a basis for discriminating between genuine and simulated rape allegations

Ben C. Marshall
Abstract This paper explores the potential utility of structural behavioural analysis as a basis for discriminating between genuine and simulated accounts of rape. Structural analysis examines the coherence of the combination of behaviours in the account based against the co-occurrence of behaviours in genuine accounts. Three analyses compared 142 genuine rape with 30 simulated statements in terms of the base rates of behaviours reported within the statements, and in terms of the behavioural coherence of each statement to an established behavioural structure. Results suggest that genuine statements tend to report a larger total number of behaviours than simulated statements; that pseudo-intimate behaviours are significantly more often reported in genuine statements while some violent behaviours are more frequently reported in simulated statements; and that simulated statements are less behaviourally coherent than genuine statements. We concede the many limitations of the study but argue that results provide tentative evidence that false claimants, not fully appreciating the phenomenological experience of rape, overemphasise the significance of violent and demeaning behaviour whilst underplaying the significance of pseudo-intimate behaviour. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Violent incidents and the use of antipsychotic medication within a specialist challenging behaviour unit: an evaluation of the Poole approach to challenging behaviour

George Rowland
Summary The present paper documents a retrospective evaluation of a specialist challenging behaviour unit for individuals with severe learning disabilities according to two criteria: (1) its efficacy at reducing the frequency and severity of violent incidents; and (2) the level of reliance upon antipsychotic medication for behavioural purposes. The results were placed within the perspective of the specific approach to challenging behaviour adopted by the unit, which emphasizes communication as the fundamental tenet within the management and reduction of challenging behaviour. The results demonstrate a 92% reduction in incidents of violence towards others over the 6 years since the unit opened, alongside a 95% reduction in violence towards property. During the same period, the levels of antipsychotic medication used for behavioural purposes fell in the cases of three out of the four clients under examination. An attempt is made to highlight the predominant factors underlying this success as potential indicators for the development of services for those who exhibit challenging and violent behaviours. [source]