Violent Behavior (violent + behavior)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


MODELING MEDIATION IN THE ETIOLOGY OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENCE: A TEST OF THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT MODEL,

CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
BU HUANG
The social development model seeks to explain human behavior through specification of predictive and mediating developmental relationships. It incorporates the effects of empirical predictors ("risk factors" and "protective factors") for antisocial behavior and seeks to synthesize the most strongly supported propositions of control theory, social learning theory, and differential association theory. This article examines the fit of the social development model using constructs measured at ages 10, 13, 14, and 16 to predict violent behavior at age 18. The sample of 808 is from the longitudinal panel of the Seattle Social Development Project, which in 1985 surveyed fifth-grade students from schools serving high crime neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to examine the fit of the model to the data. The model fit the data (CFI ,.90, RMSEA ,.05). We conclude that the social development model adequately predicts violence at age 18 and mediates much of the effect of prior violence. Implications for theory and for prevention are discussed. [source]


Effects of MAOA -Genotype, Alcohol Consumption, and Aging on Violent Behavior

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2009
Roope Tikkanen
Background:, Environmental factors appear to interact with a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) in determining some forms of antisocial behavior. However, how MAOA - LPR modulates the effects of other factors such as alcohol consumption related to antisocial behavior is not completely understood. Methods:, This study examines the conjunct effect of MAOA-LPR, alcohol consumption, and aging on the risk for violent behavior. Recidivism in severe impulsive violent behavior was assessed after 7 to 15 years in a sample of 174 Finnish alcoholic offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial or borderline personality disorder or both, and featured impulsive temperament traits. Results:, The risk for committing new acts of violence increased by 2.3% for each kilogram of increase in yearly mean alcohol consumption (p = 0.004) and decreased by 7.3% for every year among offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype. In contrast, alcohol consumption and aging failed to affect violent behavior in the low activity MAOA genotyped offenders. MAOA-LPR showed no main effect on the risk for recidivistic violence. Conclusions:, Violent offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype differ in several ways from carriers with the low activity MAOA risk allele previously associated with antisocial behavior. Finnish high activity MAOA genotyped risk alcoholics exhibiting antisocial behavior, high alcohol consumption, and abnormal alcohol-related impulsive and uncontrolled violence might represent an etiologically distinct alcohol dependence subtype. [source]


AN ASSESSMENT OF RECENT TRENDS IN GIRLS' VIOLENCE USING DIVERSE LONGITUDINAL SOURCES: IS THE GENDER GAP CLOSING?

CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
DARRELL STEFFENSMEIER
Applying Dickey-Fuller time series techniques in tandem with intuitive plot-displays, we examine recent trends in girls' violence and the gender gap as reported in four major sources of longitudinal data on youth violence. These sources are arrest statistics of the Uniform Crime Reports, victimization data of the National Crime Victimization Survey (where the victim identifies sex of offender) and self-reported violent behavior of Monitoring the Future and National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. We find that the rise in girls' violence over the past one to two decades as counted in police arrest data from the Uniform Crime Reports is not borne out in unofficial longitudinal sources. Several net-widening policy shifts have apparently escalated girls' arrest-proneness: first, stretching definitions of violence to include more minor incidents that girls in relative terms are more likely to commit; second, increased policing of violence between intimates and in private settings (for example, home, school) where girls' violence is more widespread; and, third, less tolerant family and societal attitudes toward juvenile females. These developments reflect both a growing intolerance of violence in the law and among the citizenry and an expanded application of preventive punishment and risk management strategies that emphasize early identification and enhanced formal control of problem individuals or groups, particularly problem youth. [source]


MODELING MEDIATION IN THE ETIOLOGY OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENCE: A TEST OF THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT MODEL,

CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
BU HUANG
The social development model seeks to explain human behavior through specification of predictive and mediating developmental relationships. It incorporates the effects of empirical predictors ("risk factors" and "protective factors") for antisocial behavior and seeks to synthesize the most strongly supported propositions of control theory, social learning theory, and differential association theory. This article examines the fit of the social development model using constructs measured at ages 10, 13, 14, and 16 to predict violent behavior at age 18. The sample of 808 is from the longitudinal panel of the Seattle Social Development Project, which in 1985 surveyed fifth-grade students from schools serving high crime neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to examine the fit of the model to the data. The model fit the data (CFI ,.90, RMSEA ,.05). We conclude that the social development model adequately predicts violence at age 18 and mediates much of the effect of prior violence. Implications for theory and for prevention are discussed. [source]


Isotretinoin and the controversy of psychiatric adverse effects

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 7 2006
Jamison E. Strahan MD
Isotretinoin is a synthetic oral retinoid that has great efficacy against severe, recalcitrant, nodulocystic acne. Since its introduction to the market, it has been associated with a variety of adverse psychiatric effects, including depression, psychosis, mood swings, violent behavior, suicide, and suicide attempts. A MEDLINE review was performed to compile all case reports, case series, adverse drug event reportings, and prospective and retrospective studies relating psychiatric adverse events to isotretinoin. In addition, literature linking a biological mechanism for psychiatric adverse events to retinoid signaling pathways was also reviewed. Although a variety of anecdotal and epidemiologic studies are available, the overall lack of concrete scientific data limits any conclusion that can be drawn about a causal relationship between istotretinoin and psychiatric adverse events. Several lines of evidence link retinoid signaling to theorized psychiatric pathogenesis, but are limited in their applicability to adult neurophysiology. [source]


Aggressive behavior, related conduct problems, and variation in genes affecting dopamine turnover

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 3 2010
Elena L. Grigorenko
Abstract A number of dopamine-related genes have been implicated in the etiology of violent behavior and conduct problems. Of these genes, the ones that code for the enzymes that influence the turnover of dopamine (DA) have received the most attention. In this study, we investigated 12 genetic polymorphisms in four genes involved with DA functioning (COMT, MAOA and MAOB, and D,H) in 179 incarcerated male Russian adolescents and two groups of matched controls: boys without criminal records referred to by their teachers as (a) "troubled-behavior-free" boys, n=182; and (b) "troubled-behavior" boys, n=60. The participants were classified as (1) being incarcerated or not, (2) having the DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) or not, and (3) having committed violent or nonviolent crimes (for the incarcerated individuals only). The findings indicate that, although no single genetic variant in any of the four genes differentiated individuals in the investigated groups, various linear combinations (i.e., haplotypes) and nonlinear combinations (i.e., interactions between variants within and across genes) of genetic variants resulted in informative and robust classifications for two of the three groupings. These combinations of genetic variants differentiated individuals in incarceration vs. nonincarcerated and CD vs. no-CD groups; no informative combinations were established consistently for the grouping by crime within the incarcerated individuals. This study underscores the importance of considering multiple rather than single markers within candidate genes and their additive and interactive combinations, both with themselves and with nongenetic indicators, while attempting to understand the genetic background of such complex behaviors as serious conduct problems. Aggr. Behav. 36:158,176, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Violent phenotype in SAL mice is inflexible and fixed in adulthood

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 5 2009
Deepa Natarajan
Abstract Violence was shown to be qualitatively different from functional hyper-aggression in mice selected for high aggression namely Short Attack Latency (SAL), Turku Aggressive (TA) and North Carolina (NC900) strains. This study aimed at investigating whether this adulthood violent phenotype as seen previously in the SAL mice is fixed and hence behaviorally inflexible right from day 1 of the experiment or consequential, i.e., subject to gradual change from functional aggression to violence. The functionally hyper-aggressive strains namely TA and NC900 strains served as controls for the study. Methodologically, behavioral (in)flexibility was studied using the overall sequential structure of agonistic behavior. In particular, intra-individual variations in the overall agonistic behavior as well as offensive, pre- and post-offensive behavior transitions, directly related to the resident,intruder interactions were investigated. The SAL mice showed the least intra-individual variation in their overall sequential agonistic structure as well as a fixed offense-oriented agonistic behavior of highest magnitude when compared with the other strains. Additionally, the pre- and post- offensive transitions were most salient in the functionally hyper-aggressive TA and NC900 strains, whereas virtually absent in the SAL mice. Thus, the violent behavior of the adult SAL mice is behaviorally inflexible or fixed, whereas the functionally hyper-aggressive behavior of the adult TA and NC900 mice is behaviorally flexible and constantly adaptive to the opponent behavior, over 3 days of repeated resident,intruder interaction. Aggr. Behav. 35:430,436, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Can people's patriarchal ideology predict their beliefs about wife abuse?

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
The case of Jordanian men
A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by 349 Jordanian men to examine the correlation between their patriarchal ideology and their beliefs about wife abuse. The results revealed that high percentages of Jordanian men tended to justify wife abuse, to blame women for violence against them, and to believe that women benefit from beating. In addition, the Jordanian men expressed low levels of willingness to help battered women, and very small percentages of them tended to believe that husbands are responsible for their violent behavior and that violent husbands should be punished. The findings indicate that significant amounts of the variance in those six beliefs can be explained by the six predictors investigated in this study, which derive from patriarchal ideology, over and above the amount of variance in those beliefs about wife abuse that can be attributed to the men's sociodemographic characteristics. The implications of the results for future research and theory development are discussed. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 33: 545,567, 2005. [source]


The relationship between history of violent and criminal behavior and recognition of facial expression of emotions in men with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 3 2006
Elisabeth M. Weiss
Abstract Social psychological research underscores the relation between aggression and emotion. Specifically, regulating negative affect requires the ability to appraise restraint-producing cues, such as facial signs of anger, fear and other emotions. Individuals diagnosed with major mental disorders are more likely to have engaged in violent behavior than mentally healthy members of the same communities. We examined whether violent and criminal behavior in men with schizophrenia is related to emotion recognition abilities. Forty-one men with schizophrenia underwent a computerized emotion discrimination test presenting mild and extreme intensities of happy, sad, angry, fearful and neutral faces, balanced for gender and ethnicity. History of violence was assessed by the Life History of Aggression Scale and official records of arrests. Psychopathology was rated using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Criminal behavior was associated with poor emotion recognition, especially for fearful and angry facial expressions. History of aggression was also associated with more severe positive symptoms and less severe negative symptoms. These findings suggest that misinterpretation of social cues such as angry and fearful expression may lead to a failure in socialization and adaptive behavior in response to emotional situation, which may result in a higher number of criminal arrests. Aggr. Behav. 32:1,8, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry Profiles Predict Later Risk for Criminal Behavior and Violent Crimes in Former Inpatients with Affective Disorder,

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 3 2010
Michael Soyka M.D.
Abstract:, Few studies have investigated criminal and violent behavior in patients with affective disorders. We reviewed the national crime register for records of criminal offenses committed by 1561 patients with affective disorders and studied the predictive value of certain psychopathological symptoms assessed with the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) system concerning future criminal behavior. Sixty-five (4.2%) patients had been convicted in the 7,12 years after discharge (307 cases). Patients with the AMDP syndrome mania had a significantly higher risk for later criminal behavior. The combination with the hostility syndrome further increased the risk. These findings are in line with previous data indicating a higher risk for later criminal behavior in patients with a manic/bipolar disorder compared to depressive disorder. As previously demonstrated in another sample of schizophrenic patients, the AMDP syndromes mania (and hostility) is associated with a higher risk of later criminal behavior. [source]


Screening Adolescents in the Emergency Department for Weapon Carriage

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 2 2010
Rebecca M. Cunningham MD
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to describe the prevalence and correlates of past-year weapon involvement among adolescents seeking care in an inner-city emergency department (ED). Methods:, This cross-sectional study administered a computerized survey to all eligible adolescents (age 14,18 years), 7 days a week, who were seeking care over an 18-month period at an inner-city Level 1 ED. Validated measures were administered, including measures of demographics, sexual activity, substance use, injury, violent behavior, weapon carriage, and/or weapon use. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression models were used to identify correlates of the occurrence and past-year frequency of these weapons variables. Results:, Adolescents (n = 2069, 86% response rate) completed the computerized survey. Fifty-five percent were female; 56.5% were African American. In the past year, 20% of adolescents reported knife or razor carriage, 7% reported gun carriage, and 6% pulled a knife or gun on someone. Although gun carriage was more frequent among males, females were as likely to carry a knife or pull a weapon in the past year. Conclusions:, One-fifth of all adolescents seeking care in this inner-city ED have carried a weapon. Understanding weapon carriage among teens seeking ED care is a critical first step to future ED-based injury prevention initiatives. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:168,176 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]


MAOA Alters the Effects of Heavy Drinking and Childhood Physical Abuse on Risk for Severe Impulsive Acts of Violence Among Alcoholic Violent Offenders

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2010
Roope Tikkanen
Background:, A polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has been shown to alter the effect of persistent drinking and childhood maltreatment on the risk for violent and antisocial behaviors. These findings indicate that MAOA could contribute to inter-individual differences in stress resiliency. Methods:, Recidivism in severe violent crimes was assessed after 8 years of nonincarcerated follow-up in a male sample of 174 impulsive Finnish alcoholic violent offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD) or both. We examined whether MAOA genotype alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse (CPA) on the risk for committing impulsive recidivistic violent crimes. Results:, Logistic regression analyses showed that both heavy drinking and CPA were significant independent predictors of recidivism in violent behavior (OR 5.2, p = 0.004 and OR 5.3, p = 0.003) among offenders having the high MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-H), but these predictors showed no effect among offenders carrying the low MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-L). Conclusion:, Carriers of the MAOA-H allele have a high risk to commit severe recidivistic impulsive violent crimes after exposure to heavy drinking and CPA. [source]


Does Alcohol Involvement Increase the Severity of Intimate Partner Violence?

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2010
Christy M. McKinney
Background:, Most studies that have examined alcohol use immediately prior to intimate partner violence (IPV) have been limited to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and are subject to a number of methodological limitations. We add new information concerning the relationship between alcohol involvement and severity of IPV, MFPV, and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV). Methods:, We analyzed data from a 1995 U.S. national population-based survey of couples ,18 years old. We examined 436 couples who reported IPV and had information on alcohol involvement with IPV. We measured IPV using a revised Conflict Tactics Scale, Form R that asked respondents about 11 violent behaviors in the past year. Respondents were classified into mutually exclusive categories as having experienced mild only or mild + severe ("severe") IPV, MFPV or FMPV. Respondents were also asked if they or their partner were drinking at the time the violent behavior occurred and were classified as exposed to IPV with or without alcohol involvement. We estimated proportions, odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p -values of the proposed associations, accounting for the complex survey design. Results:, Overall, 30.2% of couples who reported IPV reported alcohol involved IPV; 69.8% reported no alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild only) IPV were more than twice as likely to report alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild) MFPV or FMPV were more likely to report female but not male alcohol involvement. Though estimates were positive and strong, most confidence intervals were compatible with a wide range of estimates including no association. Conclusions:, Our findings suggest alcohol involvement of either or both in the couple increases the risk of severe IPV. Our findings also suggest female alcohol use may play an important role in determining the severity of IPV, MFPV or FMPV. [source]


Effects of MAOA -Genotype, Alcohol Consumption, and Aging on Violent Behavior

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2009
Roope Tikkanen
Background:, Environmental factors appear to interact with a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) in determining some forms of antisocial behavior. However, how MAOA - LPR modulates the effects of other factors such as alcohol consumption related to antisocial behavior is not completely understood. Methods:, This study examines the conjunct effect of MAOA-LPR, alcohol consumption, and aging on the risk for violent behavior. Recidivism in severe impulsive violent behavior was assessed after 7 to 15 years in a sample of 174 Finnish alcoholic offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial or borderline personality disorder or both, and featured impulsive temperament traits. Results:, The risk for committing new acts of violence increased by 2.3% for each kilogram of increase in yearly mean alcohol consumption (p = 0.004) and decreased by 7.3% for every year among offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype. In contrast, alcohol consumption and aging failed to affect violent behavior in the low activity MAOA genotyped offenders. MAOA-LPR showed no main effect on the risk for recidivistic violence. Conclusions:, Violent offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype differ in several ways from carriers with the low activity MAOA risk allele previously associated with antisocial behavior. Finnish high activity MAOA genotyped risk alcoholics exhibiting antisocial behavior, high alcohol consumption, and abnormal alcohol-related impulsive and uncontrolled violence might represent an etiologically distinct alcohol dependence subtype. [source]


Partner Violence and Street Violence among Urban Adolescents: Do the Same Family Factors Relate?

JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, Issue 3 2001
Deborah Gorman-Smith
Few studies have evaluated how participation in violence that occurs on the streets as part of criminal or delinquent behavior relates to violence that occurs as part of dating or marital relationships (partner violence). Using longitudinal data from 141 African American and Latino male youth (15,19 years old), the relation between family characteristics and participation in one or both types of violent behavior was evaluated. The youth in this study were more likely to report use of violence in relationships if they were also participating in violence as part of other criminal behavior. However, there were distinct groups of offenders. Among those males reporting involvement in a dating or romantic relationship, four groups were identified: (1) those who had not participated in either type of violence, 57%; (2) those who had participated in partner violence only, 14%; (3) those who had participated in street violence only, 12%; and (4) those who had participated in both, 17%. Discriminate function analyses significantly differentiated the group who had participated in both types of violence from the nonviolent group, with the former group having poorer functioning families. These two groups were also differentiated from the partner violence-only and street violence-only groups. No differences were found between the partner violence-only and the street violence-only groups. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed. [source]


The Evaluation of School-Based Violence Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis,

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, Issue 9 2008
Hyoun-Kyoung Park-Higgerson PhD
ABSTRACT Background:, Youth violence and related aggressive behaviors have become serious public health issues with physical, economic, social, and psychological impacts and consequences. This study identified and evaluated the characteristics of successful school-based violence prevention programs. Methods:, Twenty-six randomized controlled trial (RCT), school-based studies that were designed to reduce externalizing, aggressive, and violent behavior between the 1st and 11th grades were analyzed for assessing the effects of 5 program characteristics by comparing results of intervention groups to control groups (no intervention) after intervention using a meta-analysis. Electronic databases and bibliographies were systematically searched, and a standardized mean difference was used for analysis. Results:, There was no significant difference between interventions, although programs that used non,theory-based interventions, focused on at-risk and older children, and employed intervention specialists had slightly stronger effects in reducing aggression and violence. Interventions using a single approach had a mild positive effect on decreasing aggressive and violent behavior (effect size =,0.15, 95% CI =,0.29 to ,0.02, p = .03). Conclusions:, Unlike previous individual study findings, this meta-analysis did not find any differential effects for 4 of the 5 program characteristics. In addition, the significant effect noted was contrary to expectation, exemplifying the complexity of identifying effective program strategies. This study adds to the current literature by assessing the program characteristics of RCT studies in an effort to determine what factors may affect school-based violence prevention program success. [source]


Young Men as Victims and Perpetrators of Violence in Northern Ireland: A Qualitative Analysis

JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, Issue 3 2004
Jacqueline Reilly
This article explores issues of masculinity and violence in the lives of young men in disadvantaged areas in Northern Ireland. Qualitative data were collected in four focus groups, one group of young men from the Catholic community, one group of young men from the Protestant community, one group of community representatives, and one group of Young Offenders (N= 28). Themes were extracted from the data using a grounded approach. Results indicate that social disadvantage is fundamental to experiences of violence and that young men understand the costs and benefits of a masculine identity that incorporates a capacity for violence. Discussion suggests that initiatives to reduce violent behavior should be compatible with socially and culturally acceptable constructions of masculinity. [source]


Assessing risk of violent behavior among veterans with severe mental illness,

JOURNAL OF TRAUMATIC STRESS, Issue 1 2008
Eric B. Elbogen
Although empirical research has examined factors associated with increased violence risk among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) and among veterans without SMI, less attention has been devoted to identifying violence risk factors among veterans with SMI. Using multivariable analysis of a large pooled sample of individuals with SMI, this study examines violence risk factors of N = 278 veterans with SMI. In multivariate modeling, violence by veterans with SMI was associated with head injury, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and homelessness. Results support the view clinicians assessing violence risk among veterans with SMI should consider a combination of characteristics empirically related to violence by non-veterans with SMI (e.g., homelessness) and veterans without SMI (e.g., PTSD). [source]


The Legal Context of School Violence: The Effectiveness of Federal, State, and Local Law Enforcement Efforts to Reduce Gun Violence in Schools

LAW & POLICY, Issue 3 2001
Richard E. Redding
In the wake of recent school shootings, communities and legislatures are searching for law enforcement solutions to the perceived epidemic of school violence. A variety of legal measures have been debated and proposed. These include: the enactment of tougher gun control laws and more vigorous federal and local enforcement of existing gun control laws; the enactment of laws imposing civil or criminal liability on parents for their children's violent behavior; the establishment of specialized courts and prosecution strategies for handling juveniles who are charged with weapons offenses; stricter enforcement of school disciplinary codes; reform of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to make it easier to expel students for weapons violations; and greater use of alternative schools as placements for students who are charged with weapons violations. This article provides a legal and empirical analysis of proposed legislation in these areas as informed by social science research on the patterns of school violence, gun acquisition by juveniles, and the effectiveness of various laws and law enforcement measures. It proposes and discusses recommendations for legal reform. While efforts to reduce school violence will be most effective at the state and local levels, the United States federal government has an important role to play, particularly in federal-state partnerships aimed at disrupting illegal gun markets, and through the formulation of national standards and guidelines. These standards and guidelines are for the enforcement of existing laws; inter-agency law enforcement cooperation and information-sharing (particularly using computer-based analysis); effective school discipline and alternative educational settings for disruptive youth; and psycho-educational interventions designed to detect and prevent school violence in the first place. [source]


Core competencies and the prevention of youth violence

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR CHILD & ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT, Issue 122 2008
Terri N. Sullivan
We discuss how the five core competencies for healthy adjustment in adolescence (a positive sense of self, self-control, decision-making skills, a moral system of belief, and prosocial connectedness) are represented in theories of aggression and youth violence. We then discuss research supporting the relation between these core competencies and aggressive and violent behavior in childhood and adolescence. Finally, we address the degree to which these core competencies have been included and systematically evaluated within school-based prevention programs, and we end with suggestions for future directions. [source]


Youth and violence: Phenomena and international data

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR YOUTH DEVELOPMENT, Issue 119 2008
Sandra Legge
The topic of youth, violence, and disintegration needs addressing because young women and men are the world's greatest capital. They have the energy, talent, and creativity for building a future. But this group also suffers grave vulnerabilities. The time of adolescence includes important and difficult periods of life (for example, becoming more independent from the family, finding an adequate position in society, and starting a family of one's own). All of these points are strongly correlated with social integration, employment, and a place in the labor market,important factors in this context. This article gives an overview of the international development and the actual situation of socially harmful behavior among youths,both fatal violence (homicide) and nonfatal violence (such as bullying, fighting, and carrying weapons). The author shows that different kinds of youth violence represent social problems in every society. The data show that youths are not only perpetrators but also the group with the highest risk of becoming victims of violence. Furthermore, the data from around the world show that their vulnerability is not limited to this sphere. It arises also from their social conditions, especially their high risk of being disintegrated from the labor market. The parallels in the data underline the significance of a functioning institutional structure without positing a deterministic relationship between the risk of economic disintegration and violent behavior. [source]


Disintegration, recognition, and violence: A theoretical perspective

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR YOUTH DEVELOPMENT, Issue 119 2008
Wilhelm Heitmeyer
The literature explaining deviance, criminality, or violence offers a broad spectrum of approaches in criminology and sociology. Mostly the theories focus on specific levels of explanation like the macrolevel (for example, strain theories) or the microlevel (for example, self-control theory). This article presents a relatively new theoretical approach combining different levels and focusing on three dimensions associated with specific kinds of recognition: social-structural, institutional, and socioemotional. The social-structural dimension refers to access to the functional systems of society and the accompanying recognition of position, status, and so on. The institutional dimension concentrates on the opportunity to participate in public affairs with the aim of getting moral recognition. The socioemotional dimension emphasizes the quantity and quality of integration in and social support from families, friends, partners, and so on, which provide emotional recognition. The underlying idea is that lack of access, participation, and belonging causes a lack of recognition. When this happens, social and individual problems increase. Thus, deviant and violent behavior can be seen as one potential reaction to a lack of recognition and as a way to gain status and recognition in a different manner (for example, with a delinquent peer group or other gang). [source]


Sleep-related violence and low serum cholesterol: A preliminary study

PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES, Issue 2 2002
Mehmed Yucel Agargun MD
Abstract To examine whether there is a relationship between serum cholesterol level and sleep-related violence, we evaluated 15 patients with violent behavior during sleep (VBS) and 15 normal control subjects. The patient and control groups were matched for sex, age, and weight. There were 13 women and two men in each group. The patients with VBS had lower serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein levels than the healthy subjects. Low cholesterol may effect serotonergic neuronal activity and some types of 5-HT receptors, then may be related to violent behavior during sleep. [source]


Educational performance and attitudes toward school as risk-protective factors for violence: A study of the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center,

PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 8 2010
Eldon L. Wegner
The purpose of this study was to examine whether school experiences, school performance, and other risk-protective factors were related to violence among Hawaiian, Filipino, and Samoan youths residing in Hawai'i. This study analyzed survey data (N = 325) collected in three high schools having concentrations of Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan youths, as well as a smaller number of Japanese students, which served as a comparison group. The analyses consisted of bivariate and multivariate analyses of risk protection for violence. Two- and three-way interactions were tested to examine whether there were specific gender and/or ethnic effects. The final model explained 29.3% of the variance in violent behavior. Five variables were significant: grade point average, pressure to choose between school and friends, favorable school attitude, feeling safe, and importance of college. Schools serving these populations should focus on fostering positive bonds between teachers and students and building bridges to families and neighborhoods. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Antisocial behavior and the prediction of violence: A meta-analysis

PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 2 2001
James H. Derzon
Youthful antisocial behavior is often viewed as a precursor to later violent and threatening behavior. Olweus (1979) reported aggressive reaction patterns in males that over time approached the stability of intelligence. While Olweus did not examine violent behavior directly, his study is often cited as evidence for the stability of violence. To examine the evidence for this assertion, this study synthesized the evidence from 82 reports of 58 prospective studies that followed individuals over some period of their life span. After correcting effect sizes for exogenous study features, the grand mean correlation of antisocial and substance misusing behaviors with later crimes against persons was estimated to be r = .33, a far cry from the stability of intelligence. Because these predictors are often used to select people into intervention, this study estimated the conditional error rates associated with identification for preventive intervention. Overall, selection failed to identify 66% of those who displayed later violence, while on average, 60% of those engaging in antisocial or substance-using behavior were not later violent. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]


Annotation: The role of prefrontal deficits, low autonomic arousal, and early health factors in the development of antisocial and aggressive behavior in children

THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 4 2002
Adrian Raine
Background: This article selectively reviews the biological bases of antisocial and aggressive behavior in children with a focus on low autonomic functioning, prefrontal deficits, and early health factors. Results: Low resting heart rate is thought to be the best-replicated biological correlate of antisocial and aggressive behavior in child and adolescent populations and may reflect reduced noradrenergic functioning and a fearless, stimulation-seeking temperament. Evidence from neuropsychological, neurological, and brain imaging studies converges on the conclusion that prefrontal structural and functional deficits are related to antisocial, aggressive behavior throughout the lifespan. A prefrontal dysfunction theory of antisocial behavior is advanced. This argues that social and executive function demands of late adolescence overload the late developing prefrontal cortex, giving rise to prefrontal dysfunction and a lack of inhibitory control over antisocial, violent behavior that peaks at this age. Birth complications and minor physical anomalies are selectively associated with later violent behavior, especially when combined with adverse psychosocial risk factors for violence. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy may increase the risk for antisocial and violent behavior in later life by disrupting noradrenergic functioning and enhancement of cholinergic receptors that inhibit cardiac functioning. Malnutrition during pregnancy is associated with later antisocial behavior and may be mediated by protein deficiency. Conclusions: It is argued that early health intervention and prevention studies may provide the most effective way of reversing biological deficits that predispose to antisocial and aggressive behavior in children and adults. [source]


Comparison of impulsive and premeditated perpetrators of intimate partner violence

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 6 2008
Matthew S. Stanford Ph.D.
Violence occurs in four to five million intimate relationships each year in the United States. Past research has investigated the concept of batterer subtypes based on the nature of the violent behavior. To extend this research, the present study used the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale (IPAS) along with a battery of relevant self-report measures in a sample of men (N,=,113) convicted of domestic violence and court ordered into an intervention program. Batterers whose violence was classified as premeditated scored higher on psychopathic traits and a measure of treatment rejection. Batterers whose violence was classified as impulsive in nature reported a wider range of serious psychopathology. It is suggested that the use of a bimodal classification (Impulsive/Premeditated) in batterers may have significant clinical and legal policy implications. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Psychopathy scores and violence among juvenile offenders: a multi-measure study,

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 1 2004
Daniel C. Murrie Ph.D.
This study examined the relations between psychopathy scores and violent behavior in 113 incarcerated adolescents. We compared the results of four different instruments designed to assess psychopathy features among juveniles,the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV), two versions of the Antisocial Processes Screening Device (APSD), and a Psychopathy Content scale on the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). We found that PCLY:YV scores were significantly correlated with violent offense history, unadjudicated violence, and institutional violence, as well as measures of the severity and instrumentality of prior violence. Receiver operating characteristic analyses generated statistically significant effect sizes (AUC values) ranging from 0.64 to 0.79. The three other measures generated statistically significant correlations with one or more of the violence criteria, although correlations and effect sizes tended to be smaller in magnitude. Our results offer some support for the validity of these measures of psychopathic features, and the value of the PCL:YV in particular, with respect to short-term measures of violence outcome among juvenile offenders. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Impact of concurrent alcohol misuse on symptom presentation of acute mania at initial evaluation

BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 6 2002
Ihsan M Salloum
Objectives:, The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of current alcohol misuse on symptom presentation of acute mania. Methods:, The impact of concurrent alcohol misuse on symptom presentation of acute mania was examined by comparing comorbid subjects with acute bipolar mania complicated by current alcohol misuse (n=60) with subjects with acute bipolar mania without current alcohol misuse (n=196). Results:, Age- and gender-controlled analysis revealed that the comorbid group presented with more severe psychopathology, as indicated by higher number of total mood-related symptoms as well as of higher total number of manic symptoms. Specifically, they presented with significantly higher rates of mood lability and impulsivity, and also demonstrated higher rates of violent behavior, and other drug use. Conclusions:, Acute mania complicated by current alcohol misuse is differentiated from acute mania without alcohol misuse by the presence of higher numbers of manic symptoms and increased high risk behavior such as mood lability, impulsivity, violence, and other drug abuse. [source]


ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND YOUTH GANG MEMBERSHIP: SELECTION AND SOCIALIZATION

CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
RACHEL A. GORDON
We examine whether gang membership is associated with higher levels of delinquency because boys predisposed to delinquent activity are more likely than others to join. We use 10 years of longitudinal data from 858 participants of the Pittsburgh Youth Study to identify periods before, during and after gang membership. We build on prior research by controlling for ages and calendar time, by better accounting for gang memberships that occurred before the study began, and by using fixed effects statistical models. We find more evidence than has been found in prior studies that boys who join gangs are more delinquent before entering the gang than those who do not join. Even with such selective differences, however, we replicate research showing that drug selling, drug use, violent behaviors and vandalism of property increase significantly when a youth joins a gang. The delinquency of peers appears to be one mechanism of socialization. These findings are clearest in youth self-reports, but are also evident in reports from parents and teachers on boys' behavior and delinquency. Once we adjust for time trends, we find that the increase in delinquency is temporary, that delinquency falls to pre-gang levels when boys leave gangs. [source]