Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Terms modified by Violent

  • violent act
  • violent behavior
  • violent behaviour
  • violent conflict
  • violent crime
  • violent death
  • violent event
  • violent game
  • violent incident
  • violent methods
  • violent offence
  • violent offender
  • violent offending
  • violent recidivism
  • violent victimization
  • violent video games

  • Selected Abstracts

    Crime scene actions and offender characteristics in a sample of Finnish stranger rapes

    Helinä Häkkänen
    Abstract The crime scene actions employed by offenders in stranger rapes were analysed in relation to offender characteristics. Data were drawn from an official police database and consisted of stranger rapes occurring in Finland between 1992 and 2001 (n,=,100). The structure of dichotomous variables derived through a content analysis of crime scene actions and offender characteristics were analysed with non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS). The first analysis revealed three separate action themes, with thematic emphases on Hostility, Involvement or Theft. The MDS-solution for offender characteristics suggested four themes: Conventional; Psychiatric/Elderly; Criminal/Violent; and Criminal/Property. Each case was assigned to one of the themes or as a hybrid in order to analyse the associations between action themes and characteristics. The only significant association was found between the action theme, Theft and characteristics theme Criminal/Property. The results are discussed in relation to previous research. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effects of Violent Versus Nonviolent Video Games on Children's Arousal, Aggressive Mood, and Positive Mood

    Michele J. Fleming
    This study investigated the relationship between violent video games and children's mood. A total of 71 children aged 8 to 12 years played a paper-and-pencil game, a nonviolent video game, and a violent video game. Results indicate that arousal, as measured by heart rate and self-reported arousal, increased significantly after playing the violent video game, as compared with the other two game conditions, with girls reporting more arousal than did boys. There was no significant increase in aggressive mood scores for either boys or girls after playing the violent game. Positive mood, as measured by positive affect, showed no significant increases or decreases after playing either video game. However, positive mood, as measured by general mood, showed a significant increase after playing the violent game for both boys and girls, but only as compared with the paper-and-pencil game. Results are interpreted in terms of social learning and cognitive information processing theories of aggression. [source]

    School Connectedness, Anger Behaviors, and Relationships of Violent and Nonviolent American Youth

    FAAN, Sandra P. Thomas PhD
    PROBLEM. Youth violence research often focuses on risk factors arising from early familial interactions rather than school-related factors. METHODS. Via an Internet questionnaire, 282 girls and boys (ages 7,19, mean 15.3) from 47 states and Washington, DC, reported on school connectedness, interpersonal relationships, and anger behaviors. FINDINGS. Substantial percentages of violent youth did not perceive themselves to be liked by classmates and reported loneliness. If not liked by classmates, 80% hated school. Likers and haters of school differed on seven variables (all p,.01). CONCLUSIONS. Insufficient attention is paid to the alienation experienced by disliked and lonely students. Mental health nurses could play a pivotal role in fostering change in the social climate of schools and helping youth to achieve better anger management and social skills. [source]

    Psychiatric Disorders in Property, Violent, and Versatile Offending Detained Male Adolescents

    Olivier Colins MEd
    This study examines the past year prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders in detained male adolescents and the relation between psychiatric disorders and type of offending. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) was administered in a sample (N = 245) of male detained adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Based on lifetime official criminal history, participants were classified into property, violent, and versatile subgroups. High rates of psychiatric disorders were found in all groups. In addition, property offenders reported significantly higher rates of depression, disruptive behavior disorders, substance use disorders and comorbidity than violent and versatile offenders. Overall, versatile offenders did not differ from violent offenders, with the exception of more marijuana use disorder found in violent offenders. This study once more emphasizes that detained boys have substantial mental health needs, a finding that is generalizable across countries. In addition, the current study suggests that classifying detained juveniles by offense subgroups may carry clinical relevance. The long-term impact of these differences, and the possible effects of intervention, should be subject of further research. [source]

    What imaging tells us about violence in anti-social men

    Mairead C. DolanArticle first published online: 8 JUN 2010
    This paper provides an overview of imaging studies in samples of men with personality disorder (PD) who have been violent. Mention is also made of the work of two groups that have looked at the neural correlates of violence across diagnostic categories, including schizophrenia and anti-social PD given their relevance in the field. The paper focuses on the notion that aggressive behaviour can be conceptualised in terms of at least two types, reactive and pro-active, and that few studies separate them. The neuro-anatomical basis of aggression and associated neurobehavioural theories are discussed in relation to clinical disorders (mainly anti-social personality pathology) associated with these different types of aggressive behaviour. Structural (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography, fMRI, single-photon emission tomography) studies with violent people variously characterised as anti-social or having psychopathy will be critically reviewed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A classification of risk factors in serious juvenile offenders and the relation between patterns of risk factors and recidivism

    Eva Mulder
    Background,There has been a lot of research on risk factors for recidivism among juvenile offenders, in general, and on individual risk factors, but less focus on subgroups of serious juvenile offenders and prediction of recidivism within these. Objective,To find an optimal classification of risk items and to test the predictive value of the resultant factors with respect to severity of recidivism among serious juvenile offenders. Method,Seventy static and dynamic risk factors in 1154 juvenile offenders were registered with the Juvenile Forensic Profile. Recidivism data were collected on 728 of these offenders with a time at risk of at least 2 years. After factor analysis, independent sample t-tests were used to indicate differences between recidivists and non-recidivists. Logistic multiple linear regression analyses were used to test the potential predictive value of the factors for violent or serious recidivism. Results,A nine-factor solution best accounted for the data. The factors were: antisocial behaviour during treatment, sexual problems, family problems, axis-1 psychopathology, offence characteristics, conscience and empathy, intellectual and social capacities, social network, and substance abuse. Regression analysis showed that the factors antisocial behaviour during treatment, family problems and axis-1 psychopathology were associated with seriousness of recidivism. Conclusions and implications for practice,The significance of family problems and antisocial behaviour during treatments suggest that specific attention to these factors may be important in reducing recidivism. The fact that antisocial behaviour during treatment consists mainly of dynamic risk factors is hopeful as these can be influenced by treatment. Consideration of young offenders by subgroup rather than as a homogenous population is likely to yield the best information about risk of serious re-offending and the management of that risk. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Changes in patterns of excessive alcohol consumption in 25 years of high security hospital admissions from England and Wales

    Celia McMahon
    Background It is now generally acknowledged that alcohol abuse increases the risk of violence among people with major mental disorder. Studies in the 1980s and earlier, however, tended to report an inverse relationship between their alcohol use and violence. Aims A study was undertaken to test a hypothesis that among people with major mental disorder considered to pose a serious risk to others the likelihood of excessive alcohol consumption in a period leading up to a violent or dangerous act has increased over time. Methods Analysis was made of annual high security hospital admission cohort case register data of 1 January 1975 to 31 December 1999; alcohol use data were taken from interview and records, and problem drinking defined as consumption of alcohol in excess of 21 units per week during the 12 months prior to the index offence or act. Results There was a linear increase in the proportion of patients in five-year admission cohorts who had engaged in excessive alcohol consumption during the year prior to their index offence or act. The increase was steeper among women than men, but cut across all diagnosis and offending groups. It was strongly associated with increasing tendency to abuse illicit drugs. Conclusions The greater proportion of patients affected by excessive alcohol consumption occurred in spite of a reduction over the same period in admission of people in the diagnostic groups most likely to be implicated in substance misuse (personality disorder). This increased trend may simply reflect similar trends in the general population, but may also be associated with a lack of services or current consensus on appropriate treatment for patients whose mental illness is complicated by excessive alcohol use. Regardless, the trend suggests a growing need for ,dual diagnosis' services within and outside high security hospital. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Personality disorders in prisoners and their motivation for dangerous and disruptive behaviour

    Professor Jeremy W. Coid MD FRCPsych
    Objectives To examine the associations between DSM-III, axis II, personality disorder, motivation and disruptive behaviour in prisoners. Method Interviews were carried out with 81 prisoners in prison special units in England using research diagnostic instruments and an item sheet measuring disruptive behaviours and their motivations. Independent associations were established using logistic regression. Results Specific associations were established between psychopathy and axis II disorders with violent and disruptive behaviour and motivations for these behaviours. Conclusions The study supported a cognitive model explaining the functional association between personality disorder and antisocial behaviour. Personality disorders act as predisposing factors influencing the development of motivations and subsequently facilitate the enactment of disordered behaviour, in a linear progression. Assessment of personality disorder should be routine in disruptive and dangerous prisoners. Copyright © 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Because research shows a close association between offending and victimization, recent work has argued that theories that account for crime should explain victimization as well. The current study uses a new approach to examine the extent of the overlap between offenders who commit violent crime and victims of violence to determine whether it is worthwhile to pursue separate theories to account for these phenomena. Specifically, we take the statistical approach that Osgood and Schreck (2007) developed for analyzing specialization in violent versus property offending and apply it to analyzing tendencies to gravitate toward violent offending versus victimization. In doing so, we treat the differentiation into victim and offender roles as an individual-level latent variable while controlling for confounding between the likelihood that individuals will take either role in violent acts and their overall numbers of encounters with violence (as either offender or victim). Our purpose is to examine 1) whether significant differentiation can be observed between the tendency to be an offender versus the tendency to be a victim, 2) whether any such differential tendency is stable over time, and 3) if it is possible to predict whether individuals will tend toward violent offending versus victimization. Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to explore these objectives, we find significant and stable levels of differentiation between offenders and victims. Moreover, this differentiation is predictable with explanatory variables. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    This paper examines microsocial contexts of violent and nonviolent dispute-related incidents involving gang members. Data consist of reports of field observations of twelve black and eight white youth street gangs in Chicago between 1959 and 1962. Dispute-related incidents (N = 2,637) were classified according to three primary pretexts: normative or order violations, identity attacks and retaliation. Findings show that disputes associated with each of these generally unfolded consistently with expectations based on the extent to which status concerns were likely to be outweighed by such situational constraints as a close relationship between disputants and audience intervention. We suggest that understanding violence in the gang context will be enhanced greatly by further consideration of the microsocial level of explanation and linkages to its macro- and individual-level counterparts. [source]


    Research Summary: This research examines how funding from the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), has affected violent and property crime rates in the United States from 1995 to 1999. Drawing on six years of panel data, we examine the effects of three types of awards made by COPS to 6,100 law enforcement agencies serving more than 145 million citizens. We estimate their impact on crime reduction over time in jurisdictions receiving funding and controlling for baseline levels of crime, socioeconomic characteristics, city size, and population diversity and mobility. Our analyses suggest that COPS hiring and innovative grant programs have resulted in significant reductions in local crime rates in cities with populations greater than 10,000 for both violent and nonviolent offenses. Multivariate analysis shows that in cities with populations greater than 10,000, an increase in one dollar of hiring grant funding per resident contributed to a corresponding decline of 5.26 violent crimes and 21.63 property crimes per 100,000 residents. Similarly, an increase in one dollar of innovative grant funding per resident has contributed to a decline of 12.93 violent crimes and 45.53 property crimes per 100,000 persons. In addition, the findings suggest that COPS grants have had no significant negative effect on violent and property crime rates in cities with less than 10,000 population. Policy Implications: The findings of this study imply that COPS program funding to medium- and large-size cities has been an effective force in reducing both violent and property crime. Federal government grants made directly to law enforcement agencies to hire additional officers and promote innovations may be an effective way to reduce crime on a national scale. [source]

    PHYSICAL TRAINING, ETHICAL DISCIPLINE, AND CREATIVE VIOLENCE: Zones of Self-Mastery in the Hindu Nationalist Movement

    ABSTRACT This essay advances understanding of how projects of self-mastery within neighborhood physical training programs associated with the Hindu Nationalist Movement produce subjects that are simultaneously ethically oriented and creatively violent. Such an analysis is contrasted with the conventional view that Hindu Nationalist volunteers are mere objects who blindly conform to a nationalist ideology or religious norms. Drawing on the author's participant observation of physical conditioning within the movement, the essay illustrates how combat training depends on an analytical sensibility by which techniques of drill are simultaneously learned and innovated by volunteers in a disciplinary zone of self-experimentation. Within such a zone, volunteers modify drill routines, enriching and refining them on an everyday basis. Thus, the evolution of physical techniques transforms training into an unfolding enterprise that is continually oriented toward attaining physical and moral self-mastery through the probing of bodily exercises. The essay underscores the social significance of such forms of physical self-exploration, in which movement volunteers understand the iterative probing of physical practice as driven by a resolve that deepens the volunteer's moral fortitude. The essay illuminates how a set of physical and moral processes are intertwined, processes through which militant subjects are culturally formed and routines of violence are sustained as a social and ethical practice. Physical training is connected to anti-Muslim pogroms in postcolonial Gujarat demonstrating how the evolving nature of physical training shapes, prolongs, and enables the improvisation of tactics of ethnic cleansing. [source]

    Violence from young women involuntarily admitted for severe drug abuse

    T. Palmstierna
    Objective:, To simultaneously evaluate actuarial and dynamic predictors of severe in-patient violence among women involuntarily admitted for severe drug abuse. Method:, All patients admitted to special facilities for involuntary treatment of absconding-prone, previously violent, drug abusing women in Sweden were assessed with the Staff Observation Aggression Scale, revised. Actuarial data on risk factors for violence were collected and considered in an extended Cox proportional hazards model with multiple events and daily assessments of the Broset Violence Checklist as time-dependent covariates. Results:, Low-grade violence and being influenced by illicit drugs were the best predictors of severe violence within 24 h. Significant differences in risk for violence between different institutions were also found. Conclusion:, In-patient violence risk is rapidly varying over time with being influenced by illicit drugs and exhibiting low-grade violence being significant dynamic predictors. Differences in violence between patients could not be explained by patient characteristics. [source]

    Family history of suicidal behaviour: prevalence and significance in deliberate self-harm patients

    Keith Hawton
    Objective:, To investigate whether there are differences between the characteristics of deliberate self-harm (DSH) patients with and without a family history of suicidal behaviour. Method:, In 146 DSH patients, those with and without a positive family history were compared with regard to the nature and repetition of their DSH episodes, and psychological and psychiatric characteristics. Results:, Fifty-two (35.6%) patients had a family history of suicidal behaviour. DSH was more frequent in patients' mothers (17.1%) than fathers (2.7%). Patients with a family history of suicidal behaviour, especially females, had higher state anger scores. Conclusion:, Family history of suicidal behaviour appears to be associated with greater anger. Absence of other associations suggests that family history probably has less implication for individuals who have already engaged in DSH than in contributing to its initiation. Future studies should include patients with violent or life-threatening DSH acts. [source]

    A comparison of risk factors for habitual violence in pre-trial subjects

    S. Z. Kaliski
    Objective: Pre-trial referrals to the Valkenberg Hospital forensic unit over a 6-month period were studied. Habitually violent offenders were compared with those with no history of violence. Methods:, Risk factors known to be associated with violent behaviour were elicited, i.e. demographics, behaviour during index offence (such as impulsivity, identity of victim, use of weapon, accomplices, intoxication, psychotic symptoms), psychiatric and family histories, history of suicide attempts, past child abuse, head injury, criminal record, psychiatric diagnosis and presence of medical disorders. EEG's, Barratt's Impulsivity, Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking and Mini-Mental Scales were administered. Behaviour in the ward during the 30 days was also appraised. Logistic regression models were used to determine relative risks. Results:, There were 155 subjects; 89.7% were male, 71.6% were single and 58.7% were unemployed. For 44.5% the index offence was violent, and 9.7% had committed sexual offences; 61.9% had histories of habitual violence. A psychotic disorder was diagnosed in 32.3% and a personality disorder in 48.4%. Habitually violent subjects were distin- guished by a history of issuing threats (OR=3.68; CI=3.19,4.16; P= 0.000), delusions of persecution (OR=3.43; CI=2.67,4.17; P=0.001), history of conduct disorder (OR=1.95; CI=1.70,2.19; P=0.006), alcohol/substance abuse (OR=2.08; CI=1.53,2.61; P=0.008) and violent index offence (OR=1.66; CI=1.54,2.61; P=0.035). Conclusion: This seems to confirm the relationship between threats, feeling threatened, psychosis, a history of antisocial behaviour and alcohol abuse. [source]

    Benefits of communal breeding in burying beetles: a field experiment

    Anne-Katrin Eggert
    Summary 1. The ultimate causes of communal breeding and joint parental care in various species of Nicrophorus burying beetles have not been resolved satisfactorily. One hypothesis suggests that females remain on the carcass for extended periods of time because joint defence affords them improved probabilities of retaining the carcass successfully in the face of intense competition from intra-generic competitors. 2. In a field experiment designed to test this hypothesis in N. defodiens (Mannerheim), breeding associations of two females and a male were no more successful at retaining their carcass than were monogamous pairs, lending no support to the hypothesis. 3. Intra-generic intruders that usurped already-buried carcasses were typically much larger than the original residents. 4. The body size of original residents affected both the burial depth and the probability of a takeover. Larger beetles buried the carcass deeper and were more likely to retain possession of the carcass. Group composition also did not affect the depth at which carcasses were buried. 5. Severe and even fatal injuries incurred by some residents indicated the occurrence of violent and damaging fights between competitors over carcasses in the field. [source]

    Review article: Emergency department implications of the TASER

    Megan Robb
    Abstract The TASER is a conducted electricity device currently being introduced to the Australian and New Zealand police forces as an alternative to firearms in dealing with violent and dangerous individuals. It incapacitates the subject by delivering rapid pulses of electricity causing involuntary muscle contraction and pain. The use of this device might lead to cardiovascular, respiratory, biochemical, obstetric, ocular and traumatic sequelae. This article will summarize the current literature and propose assessment and management recommendations to guide emergency physicians who will be required to review these patients. [source]

    The usefulness of self-reported psychopathy-like traits in the study of antisocial behaviour among non-referred adolescents

    Henrik Andershed
    The present study addresses the question of whether it is possible to use a self-report measure of psychopathic traits on non-referred youth samples to identify a subgroup of problematic youths who are particularly problematic and different from other problem youths. A large sample of eighth-grade, non-referred adolescents, and their parents were assessed. Results showed that the adolescents exhibiting a low-socialized psychopathy-like personality constellation had a more frequent, violent, and versatile conduct-problem profile than other low-socialized and well socialized adolescents. The psychopathy-like adolescents also differed from other poorly socialized adolescents in ways that suggested that their etiological background was different from adolescents with non-psychopathy-like conduct problems. We conclude that self-report measures can indeed be useful for research purposes in subtyping youths with conduct problems. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Self-Propagating Domino-like Reactions in Oxidized Graphite

    Franklin Kim
    Abstract Graphite oxide (GO) has received extensive interest as a precursor for the bulk production of graphene-based materials. Here, the highly energetic nature of GO, noted from the self-propagating thermal deoxygenating reaction observed in solid state, is explored. Although the resulting graphene product is quite stable against combustion even in a natural gas flame, its thermal stability is significantly reduced when contaminated with potassium salt by-products left from GO synthesis. In particular, the contaminated GO becomes highly flammable. A gentle touch with a hot soldering iron can trigger violent, catastrophic, total combustion of such GO films, which poses a serious fire hazard. This highlights the need for efficient sample purification methods. Typically, purification of GO is hindered by its tendency to gelate as the pH value increases during rinsing. A two-step, acid,acetone washing procedure is found to be effective for suppressing gelation and thus facilitating purification. Salt-induced flammability is alarming for the fire safety of large-scale manufacturing, processing, and storage of GO materials. However, the energy released from the deoxygenation of GO can also be harnessed to drive new reactions for creating graphene-based hybrid materials. Through such domino-like reactions, graphene sheets decorated with metal and metal oxide particles are synthesized using GO as the in situ power source. Enhanced electrochemical capacitance is observed for graphene sheets loaded with RuO2 nanoparticles. [source]

    Self-Propagating Domino-like Reactions in Oxidized Graphite

    Franklin Kim
    Abstract Graphite oxide (GO) has received extensive interest as a precursor for the bulk production of graphene-based materials. Here, the highly energetic nature of GO, noted from the self-propagating thermal deoxygenating reaction observed in solid state, is explored. Although the resulting graphene product is quite stable against combustion even in a natural gas flame, its thermal stability is significantly reduced when contaminated with potassium salt by-products left from GO synthesis. In particular, the contaminated GO becomes highly flammable. A gentle touch with a hot soldering iron can trigger violent, catastrophic, total combustion of such GO films, which poses a serious fire hazard. This highlights the need for efficient sample purification methods. Typically, purification of GO is hindered by its tendency to gelate as the pH value increases during rinsing. A two-step, acid,acetone washing procedure is found to be effective for suppressing gelation and thus facilitating purification. Salt-induced flammability is alarming for the fire safety of large-scale manufacturing, processing, and storage of GO materials. However, the energy released from the deoxygenation of GO can also be harnessed to drive new reactions for creating graphene-based hybrid materials. Through such domino-like reactions, graphene sheets decorated with metal and metal oxide particles are synthesized using GO as the in situ power source. Enhanced electrochemical capacitance is observed for graphene sheets loaded with RuO2 nanoparticles. [source]

    Heterogeneity of violence in schizophrenia and implications for long-term treatment

    J. Volavka
    Summary Aims:, Most patients with schizophrenia are not violent. However, persistent violent behaviour in a minority of patients presents a therapeutic challenge. Published treatment guidelines and most pharmacological and epidemiological literature on violence in schizophrenia treat overt physical aggression as a homogeneous phenomenon. The aim of this review is to address the subtyping of violent behaviour in schizophrenia, and to relate the subtypes to treatment. Method:, Literature describing subtypes of violence in schizophrenia and the treatment of this problem was reviewed. ,Schizophrenia', ,violence', ,aggression', ,hostility' and ,personality disorders' were the principal search terms describing behaviours. Generic names of individual atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilisers were used in treatment searches. Results:, There are at least three aetiological subtypes of violence in schizophrenia (i) that related directly to positive psychotic symptoms, (ii) impulsive violence and (iii) violence stemming from comorbidity with personality disorders, particularly psychopathy. Current treatment of violence in schizophrenia relies on antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. The evidence of effectiveness is relatively strong for clozapine, but inconsistent for other treatments. No systematic recommendations relating the treatment to aetiological subtypes of violence were found. Discussion:, The inconsistent effectiveness of the current treatments of violent behaviour in schizophrenia is due, at least in part, to the aetiological heterogeneity of that behaviour. We should not expect that any given pharmacological treatment will be equally effective in reducing violent behaviour caused by psychosis, impaired impulse control or personality disorder. Conclusion:, Violence in schizophrenia is aetiologically heterogeneous. This heterogeneity has therapeutic implications that impact clinical practice today and should be further explored in future studies. [source]

    Mental health nurses: De facto police

    Jacklin E. Fisher
    ABSTRACT:, This paper examines the consequences for nursing staff and patients when police bring to hospital a person they assess to have a mental illness who exhibits violent or criminal behaviour. In particular, the impact on the nurse,patient relationship and the occupational health and safety of patients and staff is explored. Tensions between the conflicting roles for nurses of controlling the behaviour of this small minority of patients, while providing care and therapy, are examined within the context of health policy, bed shortages, and staffing problems. Recent Australian government and non-government reports are examined to assess the capacity of current health services in the State of New South Wales, to adequately and safely control behaviour while also provide therapeutic care for patients who are seeking help for their mental illness and emotional distress. [source]

    A Homogeneous Catalyst for Reduction of Optically Active Esters to the Corresponding Chiral Alcohols without Loss of Optical Purities

    Wataru Kuriyama
    Abstract A ruthenium complex was found to catalyze the hydrogen reduction of esters under mild and neutral conditions. A variety of optically active esters can be reduced to the corresponding alcohols in excellent yield without loss of their optical purity or causing undesirable side reactions. Hydrogen reduction needs such simple operations , reaction, concentration, and purification , that the violent quench step and extraction step, which accompany conventional sodium borohydride or lithium aluminum hydride reduction, can be omitted. [source]

    Global Religious Transformations, Political Vision and Christian Witness,

    Vinoth Ramachandra
    From the nineteenth-century onwards religion has been, and continues to be, an important resource for nationalist, modernizing movements. What was true of Protestant Christianity in the world of Victorian Britain also holds for the nationalist transformations of Hindu Neo-Vedanta, Theravada Buddhism, Shintoism and Shi'ite Islam in the non-Western world. Globalizing practises both corrode inherited cultural and personal identities and, at the same time, stimulate the revitalisation of particular identities as a way of gaining more influence in the new global order. However, it would be a gross distortion to identify the global transformations of Islam, and indeed of other world religions, with their more violent and fanatical forms. The globalization of local conflicts serves powerful propaganda purposes on all sides. If global Christian witness in the political arena is to carry integrity, this essay argues for the following responses, wherever we may happen to live: (a) Learning the history behind the stories of ,religious violence' reported in the secular media; (b) Identifying and building relationships with the more self-critical voices within the other religious traditions and communities, so avoiding simplistic generalizations and stereotyping of others; (c) Actively engaging in the political quest for truly participatory democracies that honour cultural and religious differences. In a hegemonic secular culture, as in the liberal democracies of the West, authentic cross-cultural engagement is circumvented. There is a militant secularist ,orthodoxy' that is as destructive of authentic pluralism as its fundamentalist religious counterpart. The credibility of the global Church will depend on whether Christians can resist the totalising identities imposed on them by their nation-states and/or their ethnic communities, and grasp that their primary allegiance is to Jesus Christ and his universal reign. [source]

    Did Futures Markets Stabilise US Grain Prices?

    Joseph Santos
    Though economists are divided over whether, in practice, futures markets reduce spot price volatility, observers of nascent nineteenth century US futures markets essentially praised the stabilising effects of this financial innovation. Indeed, such praise is understandable, particularly if, as the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) and others assert, "violent" spot price fluctuations were common prior to, but not after, the 1870s; the same decade that grain trade historians typically associate with the birth of the modern futures contract. And whereas these events may be unrelated, the claim is intriguing because it requires that nineteenth century futures prices fulfil their price discovery function, a property that many modern futures markets do not possess. This paper explores what role, if any, the advent of futures trading may have had on spot price volatility. I corroborate the CBOT's assertion regarding diminished spot price volatility around the 1870s and show that early futures prices did indeed fulfil their price discovery function. Moreover, I address two alternative hypotheses that relate the decline in spot price volatility to the Civil War. Ultimately, I maintain that the evolution of futures markets is the principal proximate reason why commodity spot price volatility diminished. [source]

    A Follow-up of Deinstitutionalized Men with Intellectual Disabilities and Histories of Antisocial Behaviour

    Vernon L. Quinsey
    Background, There is frequently great concern about the dangerousness of deinstitutionalized men with intellectual disabilities who have been institutionalized because they are considered to be at high risk for the commission of serious antisocial acts or sexual offending. Unfortunately, there is little information on whether changes in the behaviour of these men can be used to adjust supervision so as to manage risk. Methods, An appraisal of men with intellectual disabilities and histories of serious antisocial behaviours who were residing in institutions about to be closed led to a 16 month follow-up of 58 of these clients who had been transferred to community settings. Results, A total of 67% exhibited antisocial behaviour of some kind and 47% exhibited ,hands-on' violent or sexual misbehaviours directed toward other clients or staff. The Violent Risk Appraisal Guide was the best predictor of new violent or sexual incidents and a variety of other pre-release predictors were related to the likelihood of antisocial incidents of any kind. Overall predictive accuracy was moderate. A field trial showed that monthly staff ratings of client characteristics were related to antisocial incidents. Conclusions, These preliminary data indicate that measures of dynamic risk involving staff ratings are worth developing and evaluating. [source]

    Aggressive behavior, related conduct problems, and variation in genes affecting dopamine turnover

    Elena L. Grigorenko
    Abstract A number of dopamine-related genes have been implicated in the etiology of violent behavior and conduct problems. Of these genes, the ones that code for the enzymes that influence the turnover of dopamine (DA) have received the most attention. In this study, we investigated 12 genetic polymorphisms in four genes involved with DA functioning (COMT, MAOA and MAOB, and D,H) in 179 incarcerated male Russian adolescents and two groups of matched controls: boys without criminal records referred to by their teachers as (a) "troubled-behavior-free" boys, n=182; and (b) "troubled-behavior" boys, n=60. The participants were classified as (1) being incarcerated or not, (2) having the DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) or not, and (3) having committed violent or nonviolent crimes (for the incarcerated individuals only). The findings indicate that, although no single genetic variant in any of the four genes differentiated individuals in the investigated groups, various linear combinations (i.e., haplotypes) and nonlinear combinations (i.e., interactions between variants within and across genes) of genetic variants resulted in informative and robust classifications for two of the three groupings. These combinations of genetic variants differentiated individuals in incarceration vs. nonincarcerated and CD vs. no-CD groups; no informative combinations were established consistently for the grouping by crime within the incarcerated individuals. This study underscores the importance of considering multiple rather than single markers within candidate genes and their additive and interactive combinations, both with themselves and with nongenetic indicators, while attempting to understand the genetic background of such complex behaviors as serious conduct problems. Aggr. Behav. 36:158,176, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Adaptive and maladaptive personality traits as predictors of violent and nonviolent offending behavior in men and women

    Abigail J. Varley Thornton
    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess both violent and nonviolent offending behavior in a single, mixed-sex population. The rationale for this is that the two types of offending are usually researched separately, despite evidence that they overlap. A comprehensive measure of general violence, intimate partner violence (IPV), and nonviolent offending behavior was administered to 116 men and 181 women, together with measures of personality and personality disorder (PD) traits, to investigate whether predictors of violent and nonviolent offending were similar or different for men and women. Men were found to perpetrate higher levels of general violence and nonviolent offenses than women, but women perpetrated significantly more IPV than men. Cluster B PD traits predicted all three offense types for women and also men's general violence and nonviolent offending. Women's general violence and men's non-violence also had one unique risk factor each, low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness, respectively. The main difference was for IPV, where men's IPV was predicted by cluster A PD traits, indicating that men's and women's risk factors for IPV may be different, although their risk factors for the other offense types were fairly consistent. Aggr. Behav. 36:177,186, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The influence of violent and nonviolent computer games on implicit measures of aggressiveness

    Matthias Bluemke
    Abstract We examined the causal relationship between playing violent video games and increases in aggressiveness by using implicit measures of aggressiveness, which have become important for accurately predicting impulsive behavioral tendencies. Ninety-six adults were randomly assigned to play one of three versions of a computer game that differed only with regard to game content (violent, peaceful, or abstract game), or to work on a reading task. In the games the environmental context, mouse gestures, and physiological arousal,as indicated by heart rate and skin conductance,were kept constant. In the violent game soldiers had to be shot, in the peaceful game sunflowers had to be watered, and the abstract game simply required clicking colored triangles. Five minutes of play did not alter trait aggressiveness, yet an Implicit Association Test detected a change in implicit aggressive self-concept. Playing a violent game produced a significant increase in implicit aggressive self-concept relative to playing a peaceful game. The well-controlled study closes a gap in the research on the causality of the link between violence exposure in computer games and aggressiveness with specific regard to implicit measures. We discuss the significance of importing recent social,cognitive theory into aggression research and stress the need for further development of aggression-related implicit measures. Aggr. Behav. 36:1,13, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Portrayals of Violence and Group Difference in Newspaper Photographs: Nationalism and Media

    Jessica M. Fishman
    The authors analyzed group membership of violent agents and types of violence in front-page photographs from 21 years of The New York Times. Using a trimodal definition of media violence, they confirmed the hypothesis that non-U.S. agents are represented as more explicitly violent than U.S. agents, and that the latter are associated with disguised modes of violence more often than the former. The recurring image of non-U.S. violence is that of order brutally ruptured or enforced. By contrast, images of U.S. violence are less alarming and suggest order without cruelty. The study showed how violent imagery is associated with in-group and out-group status stratification. [source]