Violations

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Violations

  • human right violation
  • norm violation
  • parity violation
  • protocol violation
  • right violation


  • Selected Abstracts


    DISORDER WITH LAW: A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF VIOLENCE IN RESPONSE TO WATER RIGHTS VIOLATION IN COLONIAL NEW SOUTH WALES

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 2 2008
    EDWYNA HARRIS
    Scholars argue that violence will not occur in the presence of efficient property rights institutions. Empirical evidence from the Riverina district in New South Wales between 1855 and 1870 contradicts this claim. This paper provides a preliminary analysis of evidence to explain this apparent inconsistency. Violence was directed at upstream users who dammed rivers, preventing flow to downstream users. Evidence suggests violence was a form of social control referred to as self-help employed to enforce conventions of fairness. Dams were perceived as unfair because they reduced the distributive equity embodied in the common law of riparian rights that established water-use rules to allocate water between competing users. Violence in the form of dam destruction occurred primarily during drought years and was the preferred over common law remedies because of the lag time between seeking court intervention and obtaining a remedy. Coasean bargaining was not possible because of high transaction costs. The findings suggest that violence may occur in the presence of efficient property rights institutions if actors violate conventions of fairness. Violence may be more likely if property rights themselves embody these conventions. [source]


    THE DEATH PENALTY FOR DRUGS IS A VIOLATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW; EFFICACY,WHETHER REAL OR IMAGINED,PROVIDES NO EXCUSE

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2009
    RICK LINES
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    MOVING VIOLATIONS: DATA PRIVACY IN PUBLIC TRANSIT

    GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 3 2007
    NANCY J. OBERMEYER
    ABSTRACT. This article draws from the foundation provided by the ongoing debate about geosurveillance to frame a discussion of the use of tracking technologies in public transit. Specifically, it uses the case of public transit to illustrate the uncomfortable debate about compromises that come with increased surveillance to enhance public safety and security. The article begins with a discussion of the evolution of the debate about geosurveillance, casting the use of surveillance technologies in public transit within this framework. Next, it describes and discusses the implementation of automatic vehicle locators and closed-circuit television in public transit. The following sections focus on the risks to individual privacy that accompany implementation of these technologies, then describe an unusual effort to draw attention to the prevalence of increased surveillance in public spaces in an effort to expose the risks. The article concludes by making the case that public transit is a place where surveillance provides clear benefits but where the humans who review the surveillance data must interpret and use them responsibly to minimize the risks to individual privacy. [source]


    A COMMENT ON ADAMS AND BALFOUR: DIGNITY VIOLATIONS, AN ALTERNATIVE VIEW OF ,ADMINISTRATIVE EVIL'

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, Issue 4 2008
    FINN TSCHUDI
    The major focus of Adams and Balfour's article in this volume is on what they call ,administrative evil' where ,evil' is not intended but somehow inherent in modern ,technical rationality'. Adams and Balfour draw inspiration from Bauman's (1989) work and, further, use the interesting metaphor that administrative evil is ,masked'. This means it is difficult to recognize , unlike intentional evil which is ,unmasked', that is, readily recognized. Common to both forms is that ,evil' implies ,depriving of humanity' or to ,make someone suffer', and there is no reason to question this. A basic aim of the article is thus to draw attention to ,masked evil', phenomena Adams and Balfour believe are insufficiently attended to. There is a broad variety of problems which Adams and Balfour do not touch on but which more or less appropriately can be subsumed under the label ,masked evil'. Adams and Balfour mention a continuum according to degree of deliberation on consequences. There are, however, no examples given of acts which do not occur at any extreme of deliberation. A related point is that there are historical and cultural determinants of whether (and to what extent) we regard some forms of suffering as ,evil' or not. [source]


    Leadership Style and International Norm Violation: The Case of the Iraq War

    FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS, Issue 1 2007
    VAUGHN P. SHANNON
    We examine the topic of decision making and norm violation in international politics. While constructivists emphasize norm conformity due to global social pressures, and realists emphasize the ease of norm violation due to self-interest and the lack of a world enforcer, we argue that these approaches fail to explain variation in normative behavior in foreign policy. We suggest that normative behavior is mitigated importantly by leaders' beliefs and decision-making styles. Leaders who view the international environment in state-centric, Hobbesian terms and are less sensitive to the political context are more likely to violate international norms than leaders who view world politics in more benign terms and are more sensitive to contextual pressures. We test these expectations by correlating key leadership traits of Bush Administration officials with their positions regarding the normatively suspect invasion of Iraq in 2003. The findings suggest that need for power, belief in ability to control events, ingroup bias, and especially distrust may be important predictors of one's willingness to violate international norms. We discuss the implications of our results for the prospect for international society to regulate force, and call for a third wave of constructivism wedded to its ideational ally of political psychology. [source]


    Vulnerability and Violation in the New Ethnography

    ANTHROPOLOGY & HUMANISM, Issue 2 2000
    Barbara Tedlock
    Vulnerability and Violation in the New Ethnography. Carolyn Ellis and Arthur Bochner. eds. Composing Ethnography: Alternative Forms of Qualitative Writing. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira, 1998.400 pp. [source]


    Violation of the Isolated Square Rule for Group 13,15 Oligomers: Theoretical Prediction of a New Class of Inorganic Polymers.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 19 2005
    Alexey Y. Timoshkin
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]


    CP Violation and Flavor Mixing (Nobel Lecture),

    CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 11 2009
    Makoto Kobayashi
    Six different tastes: The discovery of the broken symmetry has required the Standard Model to be extended to six kinds of quarks (see picture). The existence of the new particles was predicted in 1972, but only thirty years later could they be observed experimentally. Makoto Kobayashi, Nobel Laureate in Physics 2008, describes herein how he and Toshihide Maskawa made their groundbreaking discovery. [source]


    Limitations in predicting dyebath exhaustion using optical spectroscopy

    COLORATION TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Melih Gnay
    There are practical limitations in predicting dyebath concentrations and dyebath exhaustion using absorbance measurements from optical spectroscopy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the common assumptions of prediction models that cause prediction errors, and especially when multiple dye combinations are used. If a linear model is used to map absorbance to concentration, then five assumptions must hold: measurement repeatability, linear scaling, spectral additivity, linear independence of the constituent spectra and the absence of spectral morphing. Violation of one or more of these assumptions will lead to errors in predicting the concentrations of dyes in a dyebath and subsequent exhaustion calculations. [source]


    Minimal and maximal goal orientation and reactions to norm violations

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Immo Fritsche
    Violations of social norms can either be evaluated in an absolute or in a gradual fashion depending on whether group goals are represented as minimal or maximal goals. Recent research has shown that absolute versus gradual deviations lead to increased levels of demanded punishment and inclination to exclude the deviant from the respective moral community. In this article, we investigate whether individual differences in orientation towards setting goals in either minimal or maximal terms predict reactions to norm violation. In three studies we found that a dominant minimal goal orientation (MIN) relative to maximal goal orientation (MAX) increased punishment inclinations and social exclusion tendencies towards norm violators. These effects were mediated by affective reaction and proved to be unique goal orientation effects when possible effects of need for closure, intolerance of ambiguity and regulatory focus were controlled for. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Driving Vengeance and Willful Violations: Clustering of Problem Driving Attitudes

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    Dwight A. Hennessy
    A total of 93 drivers (46 female, 47 male) from Toronto, Canada, with at least 5 years' driving experience, completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing the likelihood of engaging in mild driver aggression, frequency of past driver violence, driving vengeance, and willful violations. All were recruited as voluntary participants through posted signs, personal contact, and referrals. Mild driver aggression increased independently with elevated vengeance and elevated violations. Driver violence was predicted by the three-way interaction of Vengeance Violations Gender such that violence increased in male drivers with a vengeful attitude, especially in combination with higher levels of violations. The data indicated that driver aggression and violence were more prevalent among drivers who held clusters of other dangerous driving attitudes and behaviors as part of their typical behavior routine. [source]


    Anger, Blame, and Dimensions of Perceived Norm Violations: Culture, Gender, and Relationships

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 8 2004
    Ken-Ichi Ohbuchi
    From a social cognitive perspective on anger, we attempted to examine the structure of perceived norm violations and their relationships with anger. We asked 884 university students from 4 countries (United States, Germany, Japan, and Hong Kong) to rate their experiences of being harmed in terms of norm violations, angry feelings, blame, and relationship with the harm doers. We found 2 culturally common dimensions in perceived norm violations (informal interpersonal norms and formal societal norms), and these dimensions substantially increased both angry feelings and blame in almost all cultural groups. The violation of interpersonal norms generally evoked anger more frequently than that of societal norms, but there were interactions between culture and relationship closeness and between gender and relationship closeness. [source]


    Richard Whately and the Gospel of Transparency

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND SOCIOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    David Levy
    Whately is a difficult thinker, partly because he is competent in so many disciplines. Joseph Schumpeter, who struggled with Whatley's "elusive" greatness, saw a systematic core in Whately: the force behind Nassau Senior's axiomatics. Whately's contemporaries did not talk of axiomatics, but they did point out that his work depended upon an unusually small number of authorities, that is, Aristotle, Bacon, and Smith. In our interpretation, these foundational sources gave Whately three guiding principles to characterize all human activity: innate sociability, innate self-love, and costly mental activity. Self-love includes a desire to know and a desire to share knowledge. These principles, coupled with a normative principle of fairness, constitute the basis for his science of reciprocal exchange, or catallactics. Violations of fairness motivate his multidimensional reform proposals. For Whately, fairness requires transparency, and the demands of transparency for tractions is literally Gospel. [source]


    Human Rights Violations, Corruption, and the Policy of Repression

    POLICY STUDIES JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
    Alok K. Bohara
    Quantitative cross-national research on human rights violations and repression has made considerable progress in identifying and eliminating economic and political factors that influence the use of torture and killing by governments. Warfare tends to increase violations, democracy,notably full democracy,and trade tends to inhibit violations. Where motives have been considered, this research has generally assumed a strategic motivation for government use of repression. Repression is employed to counter threats from the opposition as represented by the presence of warfare. Less attention has been given to the effect of implementation on levels of repression. Theory suggests that agents are likely to make a substantial independent contribution to the level of repression, if given the opportunity. In this article we develop this argument and present cross-country comparative evidence that suggests that agents' opportunities for hidden action measured by perceived levels of financial corruption substantially influences the incidence of torture in a political system, after controlling for the strategic motive of governments and the other factors found influential in earlier research. We show that the results are robust and not sensitive to alternative modeling, measurement, and research-design decisions. [source]


    Order imbalance and the pricing of index futures

    THE JOURNAL OF FUTURES MARKETS, Issue 7 2007
    Joseph K.W. Fung
    This study examines whether the aggregate order imbalance for index stocks can explain the arbitrage spread between index futures and the underlying cash index. The study covers the period of the Asian financial crisis and includes wide variations in order imbalance and the indexfutures basis. The analysis controls for realistic trading costs and actual dividend payments. The results indicate that the arbitrage spread is positively related to the aggregate order imbalance in the underlying index stocks; negative order-imbalance has a stronger impact than positive order imbalance. Violations of the upper no-arbitrage bound are related to positive order imbalance; of the lower no-arbitrage bound to negative order imbalance. Asymmetric response times to negative and positive spreads can be attributed to the difficulty, cost, and risk of short stock arbitrage when the futures are below their no-arbitrage value. The significant relationship between order imbalance and arbitrage spread confirms that index arbitrageurs are important providers of liquidity in the futures market when the stock market is in disequilibrium. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Jrl Fut Mark 27:697,717, 2007 [source]


    Responsibility Beyond Borders: State Responsibility for Extraterritorial Violations by Corporations of International Human Rights Law

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 4 2007
    Robert McCorquodale
    States routinely provide support and assistance to their corporate nationals in their global trade and investment ventures. While states may not intend to allow corporate nationals to violate human rights in their extraterritorial operations, by their actions or omissions, states may facilitate, or otherwise contribute to, a situation in which such violations by a corporation occur. This article investigates the extent to which the extraterritorial activities of transnational corporations (TNCs) that violate international human rights law can give rise to home state responsibility. The analysis shows that home states of TNCs have obligations under international law in certain situations to regulate the extraterritorial activities of corporate nationals or the latter's foreign subsidiaries and can incur international responsibility where they fail to do so. [source]


    The Anonymous Matrix: Human Rights Violations by ,Private' Transnational Actors

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 3 2006
    Article first published online: 27 APR 200, Gunther Teubner
    Do fundamental rights obligate not only States, but also private transnational actors? Since violations of fundamental rights stem from the totalising tendencies of partial rationalities, there is no longer any point in seeing the horizontal effect as if rights of private actors have to be weighed up against each other. On one side of the human rights relation is no longer a private actor as the fundamental-rights violator, but the anonymous matrix of an autonomised communicative medium. On the other side, the fundamental rights are divided into three dimensions: first, institutional rights protecting the autonomy of social discourses , art, science, religion - against their subjugation by the totalising tendencies of the communicative matrix; secondly, personal rights protecting the autonomy of communication, attributed not to institutions, but to the social artefacts called ,persons'; and thirdly, human rights as negative bounds on societal communication, where the integrity of individuals' body and mind is endangered. [source]


    The Nature and Processing of Errors in Interactive Behavior

    COGNITIVE SCIENCE - A MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL, Issue 2 2000
    Wayne D. Gray
    Understanding the nature of errors in a simple, rule-based task,programming a VCR,required analyzing the interactions among human cognition, the artifact, and the task. This analysis was guided by least-effort principles and yielded a control structure that combined a rule hierarchy task-to-device with display-based difference-reduction. A model based on this analysis was used to trace action protocols collected from participants as they programmed a simulated VCR. Trials that ended without success (the show was not correctly programmed) were interrogated to yield insights regarding problems in acquiring the control structure. For successful trials (the show was correctly programmed), steps that the model would make were categorized as matches to the model; steps that the model would not make were violations of the model. The model was able to trace the vast majority of correct keystrokes and yielded a business-as-usual account of the detection and correction of errors. Violations of the model fell into one of two fundamental categories. The model provided insights into certain subcategories of errors; whereas, regularities within other subcategories of error suggested limitations to the model. Although errors were rare when compared to the total number of correct actions, they were important. Errors were made on 4% of the keypresses that, if not detected, would have prevented two-thirds of the shows from being successfully recorded. A misprogrammed show is a minor annoyance to the user. However, devices with the approximate complexity of a VCR are ubiquitous and have found their way into emergency rooms, airplane cockpits, power plants, and so on. Errors of ignorance may be reduced by training; however, errors in the routine performance of skilled users can only be reduced by design. [source]


    THE MIRACLE OF THE CELLS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INTERVENTIONS TO INCREASE PAYMENT OF COURT-ORDERED FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS,

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 1 2008
    DAVID WEISBURD
    Research Summary: In this article, we present findings from an experimental study of an innovative program in fine enforcement developed by the Administrative Office of the Courts (AOC) of New Jersey, termed Project MUSTER (MUST Earn Restitution). The project was initiated by the New Jersey AOC as a response to concerns among probation personnel that probationers sentenced to monetary penalties often failed to meet their financial obligations. The program sought to increase payment of court-ordered financial obligations among probationers who are seriously delinquent in paying fines, penalties, and restitution, and was designed to "strengthen the effectiveness of restitution and fine sanctions by forcing those offenders who have the ability to make regular payments to do so." Project MUSTER relied on a combination of intensive probation, threats of violation to court and incarceration, and community service. We find that probationers sentenced to Project MUSTER were significantly more likely to pay court-ordered financial obligations than were those who experienced regular probation supervision. However, probationers sentenced to a second treatment group, in which the only intervention was violation of probation (one part of the MUSTER program), had similar outcomes to the MUSTER condition. These findings suggest that the main cause of fine payment was a deterrent threat of possible incarceration, which is often termed the "miracle of the cells." Policy Implications: Our study shows that it is possible to gain greater compliance with court-ordered financial obligations and that such compliance may be gained with a relatively simple and straightforward criminal justice intervention. Threats of violation of probation are an effective tool for gaining compliance with financial obligations. Given the growing interest in monetary penalties as an alternative to incarceration, these findings have particular policy importance. [source]


    Marketing Category Forecasting: An Alternative of BVAR-Artificial Neural Networks

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 4 2000
    James J. Jiang
    ABSTRACT Analyzing scanner data in brand management activities presents unique difficulties due to the vast quantity of the data. Time series methods that are able to handle the volume effectively often are inappropriate due to the violation of many statistical assumptions in the data characteristics. We examine scanner data sets for three brand categories and examine properties associated with many time series forecasting methods. Many violations are found with respect to linearity, normality, autocorrelation, and heteroscedasticity. With this in mind we compare the forecasting ability of neural networks that require no assumptions to two of the more robust time series techniques. Neural networks provide similar forecasts to Bayesian vector autoregression (BVAR), and both outperform generalized autoregressive conditional herteroscedasticty (GARCH) models. [source]


    Development of multisensory spatial integration and perception in humans

    DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE, Issue 5 2006
    Patricia A. Neil
    Previous studies have shown that adults respond faster and more reliably to bimodal compared to unimodal localization cues. The current study investigated for the first time the development of audiovisual (A-V) integration in spatial localization behavior in infants between 1 and 10 months of age. We observed infants' head and eye movements in response to auditory, visual, or both kinds of stimuli presented either 25 or 45 to the right or left of midline. Infants under 8 months of age intermittently showed response latencies significantly faster toward audiovisual targets than toward either auditory or visual targets alone They did so, however, without exhibiting a reliable violation of the Race Model, suggesting that probability summation alone could explain the faster bimodal response. In contrast, infants between 8 and 10 months of age exhibited bimodal response latencies significantly faster than unimodal latencies for both eccentricity conditions and their latencies violated the Race Model at 25 eccentricity. In addition to this main finding, we found age-dependent eccentricity and modality effects on response latencies. Together, these findings suggest that audiovisual integration emerges late in the first year of life and are consistent with neurophysiological findings from multisensory sites in the superior colliculus of infant monkeys showing that multisensory enhancement of responsiveness is not present at birth but emerges later in life. [source]


    What Does the Conservation of Energy Have to Do with Physicalism?

    DIALECTICA, Issue 4 2006
    Barbara Montero
    The conservation of energy law, a law of physics that states that the total energy of any closed system is always conserved, is a bedrock principle that has achieved both broad theoretical and experimental support. Yet if interactive dualism is correct, it is thought that the mind can affect physical objects in violation of the conservation of energy. Thus, some claim, the conservation of energy grounds an argument for physicalism. Although critics of the argument focus on the implausibility of causation requiring the transference of energy, I argue that even if causation requires the transference of energy, once we accept the other required premises of the argument that lie behind any supposed argument from the conservation of energy the law of the conservation of energy is revealed as irrelevant to the question of whether the mental is physical. [source]


    Interpretation of urinary concentrations of pseudoephedrine and its metabolite cathine in relation to doping control

    DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS, Issue 5 2009
    K. Deventer
    Abstract Until the end of 2003 a urinary concentration of pseudoephedrine exceeding 25 g/mL was regarded as a doping violation by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Since its removal from the prohibited list in 2004 the number of urine samples in which pseudoephedrine was detected in our laboratory increased substantially. Analysis of 116 in-competition samples containing pseudoephedrine in 2007 and 2008, revealed that 66% of these samples had a concentration of pseudoephedrine above 25 g/mL. This corresponded to 1.4% of all tested in competition samples in that period. In the period 2001,2003 only 0.18% of all analysed in competition samples contained more than 25 g/mL. Statistical comparison of the two periods showed that after the removal of pseudoephedrine from the list its use increased significantly. Of the individual sports compared between the two periods, only cycling is shown to yield a significant increase. Analysis of excretion urine samples after administration of a therapeutic daily dose (240 mg pseudoephedrine) in one administration showed that the threshold of 25 g/mL can be exceeded. The same samples were also analysed for cathine, which has currently a threshold of 5 g/mL on the prohibited list. The maximum urinary concentration of cathine also exceeded the threshold for some volunteers. Comparison of the measured cathine and pseudoephedrine concentrations only indicated a poor correlation between them. Hence, cathine is not a good indicator to control pseudopehedrine intake. To control the (ab)use of ephedrines in sports it is recommended that WADA reintroduce a threshold for pseudoephedrine. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Validity of suspected alcohol and drug violations in aviation employees

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
    Guohua Li
    ABSTRACT Aims In the United States, transportation employees who are suspected of using alcohol and drugs are subject to reasonable-cause testing. This study aims to assess the validity of suspected alcohol and drug violations in aviation employees. Methods Using reasonable-cause testing and random testing data from the Federal Aviation Administration for the years 1995,2005, we calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) and positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of suspected alcohol and drug violations. The true status of violations was based on testing results, with an alcohol violation being defined as a blood alcohol concentration of ,0.04 mg/dl and a drug violation as a test positive for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, phencyclidine or opiates. Results During the 11-year study period, a total of 2284 alcohol tests and 2015 drug tests were performed under the reasonable-cause testing program. The PPV was 37.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 35.7,39.7%] for suspected alcohol violations and 12.6% (95% CI, 11.2,14.1%) for suspected drug violations. Random testing revealed an overall prevalence of 0.09% for alcohol violations and 0.6% for drug violations. The LR+ was 653.6 (95% CI, 581.7,734.3) for suspected alcohol violations and 22.5 (95% CI, 19.6,25.7) for suspected drug violations. Conclusion The discriminative power of reasonable-cause testing suggests that, despite its limited positive predictive value, physical and behavioral observation represents an efficient screening method for detecting alcohol and drug violations. The limited positive predictive value of reasonable-cause testing in aviation employees is due in part to the very low prevalence of alcohol and drug violations. [source]


    The Economics of Trade Disputes, the GATT's Article XXIII, and the WTO's Dispute Settlement Understanding

    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 3 2002
    Chad P. Bown
    Economic theory has yet to provide a convincing argument that can explain why the threat of retaliation under the GATT/WTO dispute settlement procedures is not sufficient to prevent countries from violating the agreement. We consider the question of why countries violate the agreed,upon rules in the face of explicit provisions which allow them to legally adjust their trade policy. Using the GATT/WTO institutional structure and the guiding principle of reciprocity, we provide a theory suggesting when countries will choose to implement protection in violation of GATT/WTO rules, as opposed to under the relevant safeguards provisions, when trade policy adjustments are necessary between "negotiating rounds." [source]


    Minimal and maximal goal orientation and reactions to norm violations

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Immo Fritsche
    Violations of social norms can either be evaluated in an absolute or in a gradual fashion depending on whether group goals are represented as minimal or maximal goals. Recent research has shown that absolute versus gradual deviations lead to increased levels of demanded punishment and inclination to exclude the deviant from the respective moral community. In this article, we investigate whether individual differences in orientation towards setting goals in either minimal or maximal terms predict reactions to norm violation. In three studies we found that a dominant minimal goal orientation (MIN) relative to maximal goal orientation (MAX) increased punishment inclinations and social exclusion tendencies towards norm violators. These effects were mediated by affective reaction and proved to be unique goal orientation effects when possible effects of need for closure, intolerance of ambiguity and regulatory focus were controlled for. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Blushing after a moral transgression in a prisoner's dilemma game: appeasing or revealing?

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    Peter J. de Jong
    This study investigated the alleged remedial effects of blushing in the context of real-time interactions. Therefore, 30 pairs of prosocial individuals participated in a prisoner's dilemma ,game'. The experiment was framed as an objective test of moral behaviour. To elicit a shameful moral transgression, one individual of each pair was instructed to select the non-habitual cheat-option on a pre-defined target trial. Supporting the idea that violation of shared rules elicits blushing, the defectors displayed a blush on the target trial. Yet, unexpectedly, there was a negative relationship between the observed blush intensity and the trustworthiness attributed to the defectors. One explanation might be that the ,victims' used the blush response to deduce and interpret the defector's motive. As the antecedent behaviour involved in the present context was not completely unambiguous with respect to the perpetrators' motive (e.g. innocent playing around vs. maximizing outcomes) the observers might have interpreted blushing as signaling that the situation should be interpreted as an intentional violation of a social standard. Together the available evidence suggests that only in the context of unambiguous antecedent behaviours blushing has remedial effects, whereas in ambiguous situations blushing has undesirable revealing effects. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    QoS in IntServ-based IP networks: the peak rate policing

    EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Issue 4 2003
    Lorenzo Battaglia
    In the last few years, IP has moved towards resource reservation, with the task to guarantee in the future Quality of Service (QoS). This has led to flow admission control algorithms based on the negotiation of standardised traffic parameters. QoS can be guaranteed in any network, a priori from the used technology, only if the used admission control algorithm wisely shares the network's resources among the users. Any admission control algorithm on its turn can do so, only if every user respects the negotiated traffic parameters. Since any user could, maliciously or not, send at a higher rate than negotiated, i.e. use a higher share of resources than the negotiated one, in every network in which admission control is performed, a policing algorithm is used. An ideal policer should guarantee to reject no packet of a well-behaved user and police contract violation as rigidly as possible. All this independently of the characteristics of the monitored stream and of the background traffic. This holds also for Integrated Services (IS) based IP networks. In these networks, every user negotiates a peak and an average rate. In this paper we present the solution to the peak rate policing issue. We adapt the Generic Cell Rate Algorithm (GCRA), well-known policer used in ATM networks, to police the peak rate of flows of packets with variable length. We intuitively call this modified GCRA Generic Packet Rate Algorithm (GPRA) and dimension its parameters so that independently of the characteristics of the policed flow and of the background traffic, no packets of a well-behaved user are rejected and that the flows of any misbehaving user are rigidly policed. Copyright 2003 AEI. [source]


    Optical CDMA codes for use in a lightwave communication network with multiple data rates,

    EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Issue 3 2002
    Jian-Guo Zhang
    This paper presents a new kind of optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) codes, called unequal-length optical orthogonal codes (UL-OOC's), for multirate data communications. The autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions of UL-OOC's are dependent only on each individual codeword, in spite of either an aperiodic or a periodic pulse-sequence pattern at the input of optical CDMA decoders. This property can be thus used to support multirate data communications in a lightwave network, without any violation of the minimum correlation constraint (i.e., "1") for incoherent optical processing. Theory and simple design of UL-OOC's are presented. Applications of the proposed codes to multirate optical CDMA is also explained in detail. [source]


    Leadership Style and International Norm Violation: The Case of the Iraq War

    FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS, Issue 1 2007
    VAUGHN P. SHANNON
    We examine the topic of decision making and norm violation in international politics. While constructivists emphasize norm conformity due to global social pressures, and realists emphasize the ease of norm violation due to self-interest and the lack of a world enforcer, we argue that these approaches fail to explain variation in normative behavior in foreign policy. We suggest that normative behavior is mitigated importantly by leaders' beliefs and decision-making styles. Leaders who view the international environment in state-centric, Hobbesian terms and are less sensitive to the political context are more likely to violate international norms than leaders who view world politics in more benign terms and are more sensitive to contextual pressures. We test these expectations by correlating key leadership traits of Bush Administration officials with their positions regarding the normatively suspect invasion of Iraq in 2003. The findings suggest that need for power, belief in ability to control events, ingroup bias, and especially distrust may be important predictors of one's willingness to violate international norms. We discuss the implications of our results for the prospect for international society to regulate force, and call for a third wave of constructivism wedded to its ideational ally of political psychology. [source]