Vinyl Alcohol (vinyl + alcohol)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Vinyl Alcohol

  • ethylene vinyl alcohol

  • Terms modified by Vinyl Alcohol

  • vinyl alcohol copolymer

  • Selected Abstracts


    Effect of Pasteurization, High-Pressure Processing, and Retorting on the Barrier Properties of Nylon 6, Nylon 6/Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol, and Nylon 6/Nanocomposites Films

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
    L. Halim
    ABSTRACT:, This study determined the impact of pasteurization, high-pressure processing (HPP), and retorting on the barrier properties of nylon 6 (N6), nylon 6/ethylene vinyl alcohol (N6/EVOH), and nylon 6/nanocomposite (N6/nano) materials. The pasteurized and high-pressure treated films were coextruded with low-density polyethylene (PE) as the heat-sealing layer. The retorted films were coextruded with polypropylene (PP). Oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the samples were measured after pasteurization (75 C for 30 min), HPP (800 MPa for 10 min at 70 C), and retorting (121 C for 30 min) treatments. These were compared with the thermal characteristics and morphologies of the samples using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that OTR of N6 and N6/Nano increased after HPP (16.9% and 39.7%), pasteurization (13.3% and 75.9%), and retorting (63.3% and 112.6%), respectively. For N6/EVOH, a decrease in OTR after HPP (53.9%) and pasteurization (44.5%) was observed. The HPP treatment increased the WVTR of N6 (21.0%), N6/EVOH (48.9%), and N6/Nano (21.2%). The WVTR of N6, N6/EVOH, and N6/Nano increased by 96.7%, 43.8%, and 40.7%, respectively, after pasteurization. The DSC analyses showed that the enthalpy and percent crystallinity increased (2.3% to 6.5%) in the N6/Nano when compared with the N6 material after each treatment. Retorting caused a decrease (3.5%) in the percent crystallinity of the polypropylene material. HPP did not cause major morphological changes to the samples. Results of the barrier studies were influenced by the crystallinity changes in the materials as seen in the XRD diffractograms. [source]


    On-line concentration of proteins by SDS-CGE with LIF detection

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 2 2008
    Cheng-Ju Yu
    Abstract We present a simple approach for on-line concentration of SDS-protein complexes by using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution in CGE. In comparison to the coated capillary, the presence of EOF in CGE omitted the need to fill the capillaries with polymer solutions prior to the analysis. More importantly, we found that highly reproducible separation of eight proteins by 3.5% PVA was achieved between runs and without the regeneration of high bulk EOF; the RSD of migration times was less than 0.7%. To further improve the concentration sensitivity, neutral PVA was introduced into the capillary with the help of EOF to act as sieving matrix. The occurrence of stacking at the boundary between the PVA and the sample zone is mainly due to the retardation of proteins by PVA. As a result, the LODs at an S/N of 3 for SDS,protein complexes are of the order of sub-nM to several nM. For example, the LOD for BSA is 0.78 nM, which is a 91-fold sensitivity enhancement over the normal injection. In addition, our stacking method has been applied to the analyses of proteins in Escherichia coli cells. The peak for ,-galactosidase (E. coli) was observed after 0.1 ,M ,-galactosidase was spiked into the E. coli samples. [source]


    Simultaneous determination of low-molecular-weight organic acids and chlorinated acid herbicides in environmental water by a portable CE system with contactless conductivity detection

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 10 2007
    Yan Xu
    Abstract This report describes a method to simultaneously determine 11 low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids and 16 chlorinated acid herbicides within a single run by a portable CE system with contactless conductivity detection (CCD) in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-coated capillary. Under the optimized condition, the LODs of CE-CCD ranged from 0.056 to 0.270,ppm, which were better than for indirect UV (IUV) detection of the 11 LMW organic acids or UV detection of the 16 chlorinated acid herbicides. Combined with an on-line field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) procedure, sensitivity enhancement of 632- to 1078-fold was achieved, with satisfactory reproducibility (RSDs of migration times less than 2.2%, and RSDs of peak areas less than 5.1%). The FASS-CE-CCD method was successfully applied to determine the two groups of acidic pollutants in two kinds of environmental water samples. The portable CE-CCD system shows advantages such as simplicity, cost effectiveness, and miniaturization. Therefore, the method presented in this report has great potential for onsite analysis of various pollutants at the trace level. [source]


    Use of poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillaries for separation of amino-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimers

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 3 2007
    Britton Carter
    Abstract Characterization of amino-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimers by CE suffers from a lack of resolution for higher generations and poor between-day reproducibility of retention times. Under optimal conditions of temperature, voltage, and sample amount, 0,5,generations of dendrimers could be resolved with a bare fused-silica capillary. However, reproducibility was poor due to potential interactions of the polycationic dendrimers with the uncoated quartz capillary wall. Use of a poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillary significantly decreased the migration times of the nanomolecules without compromising resolution. Dendrimer mixtures containing generations,0,5 are separated as discrete, nonoverlapping peaks in about 15,min. In addition, the between-day precision of retention times was dramatically improved without the need for internal standards or data normalization. Dendrimers of various generations and cores run on different days showed an RSD of retention times of less than 4%. The poly(vinyl alcohol) coating was very stable as shown by the excellent precision of migration times obtained on a capillary used for a month with more than 100,injections. Similar to PAGE, separation of polyamidoamine dendrimers on a bare fused-silica and poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillary showed an exponential relationship between migration times and calculated charge density of the nanomolecules. [source]


    Capillary electrophoresis of liposomes functionalized for protein binding

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 20 2006
    Gerhard Bilek
    Abstract CE enabled assessing the attachment of hexa-histidine-tagged proteins to functionalized phospholipid liposomes. The liposomes were made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine, cholesterol and distearoyl-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine- N -methoxy(polyethylene glycol) in a molar ratio of 29:26:40:5. The unilamellar vesicles, which had an average diameter of 170,nm, were labelled by inclusion of FITC-dextran for fluorescence detection. CE was carried out in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-coated capillaries at 25C with a BGE consisting of Tris-HCl (50,mM, pH,8.0). For conjugation of the liposomes with the proteins (soluble synthetic receptor fragments with molecular mass of 60 and 70,kDa, respectively), Ni2+ was implanted into the vesicle surface by an anchor lipid containing a nitrilotriacetate acid (NTA) group as complexation agent for the metal ions. The difference in surface charge enabled the separation of the different species of interest by CE: plain vesicles, vesicles functionalised with Ni-NTA, vesicle,protein complexes and the species formed upon removal of the Ni-ions by complexation with EDTA. Loss of the Ni-ions resulted in the release of the proteins and the reappearance of the plain Ni-free NTA-liposome species in the electropherograms. [source]


    Separation of cationic polymer particles and characterization of avidin-immobilized particles by capillary electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 5-6 2006
    Yukihiro Okamoto
    Abstract Cationic polymer microparticles have received much attention especially in the field of biotechnology, such that their analysis and separation have become important. So far, the separation of cationic polymer particles with different size using CE has not been achieved and the cationic particles migrated as if they are negatively charged, probably due to electrostatic interaction between capillary wall and cationic polymer particles. In this paper, the separation of cationic polymer microparticles by CE was investigated in detail. The separation of cationic particles with different size was achieved in CE by taking into account the interaction between sample particles and the inner surface of capillaries. By employing a poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated capillary, a better size separation of amine-modified latex particles was obtained compared to a Polybrene-coated capillary. It was elucidated that the composition, concentration, and pH of the background solution were also important factors in the separation of colloidal particles to avoid the surface adsorption and the characteristic aggregation of polymer particles. Furthermore, the CE analysis was applied to the characterization of cationic protein-immobilized particles. [source]


    Combination of cationic surfactant-assisted solid-phase extraction with field-amplified sample stacking for highly sensitive analysis of chlorinated acid herbicides by capillary zone electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 18 2005
    Yan Xu
    Abstract This report describes a novel online field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) procedure to analyze 16 chlorinated acid herbicides. By using a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-coated capillary to reduce electroosmotic flow and introducing a methanol,water plug before sample loading, the sample injection time could be very long without loss of sample and separation efficiency. Under the optimized condition, the FASS procedure could provide great sensitivity enhancement (5000,10,000-fold) and satisfactory reproducibility (relative standard deviations of migration times less than 2.4%, relative standard deviations of peak areas less than 8.0%). Combined with cationic surfactant-assisted solid-phase extraction (CSA-SPE), the limit of detection of the herbicides ranged from 0.269 to 20.3,ppt, which are two orders lower than those of the US Environmental Protection Agency standard method 515.1. The CSA-SPE-FASS-CE method was successfully applied to the analysis of local pond water. [source]


    Multilayer poly(vinyl alcohol)-adsorbed coating on poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic chips for biopolymer separation

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 1 2005
    Dapeng Wu
    Abstract A poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic chip surface was modified by multilayer-adsorbed and heat-immobilized poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) after oxygen plasma treatment. The reflection absorption infrared spectrum (RAIRS) showed that 88% hydrolyzed PVA adsorbed more strongly than 100% hydrolyzed one on the oxygen plasma-pretreated PDMS surface, and they all had little adsorption on original PDMS surface. Repeating the coating procedure three times was found to produce the most robust and effective coating. PVA coating converted the original PDMS surface from a hydrophobic one into a hydrophilic surface, and suppressed electroosmotic flow (EOF) in the range of pH 3,11. More than 1 000,000 plates/m and baseline resolution were obtained for separation of fluorescently labeled basic proteins (lysozyme, ribonuclease B). Fluorescently labeled acidic proteins (bovine serum albumin, ,-lactoglobulin) and fragments of dsDNA ,X174 RF/HaeIII were also separated satisfactorily in the three-layer 88% PVA-coated PDMS microchip. Good separation of basic proteins was obtained for about 70 consecutive runs. [source]


    High-buffering capacity, hydrolytically stable, low-pI isoelectric membranes for isoelectric trapping separations

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 20 2004
    Sanjiv Lalwani
    Abstract Hydrolytically stable, low-pI isoelectric membranes have been synthesized from low-pI ampholytic components, poly(vinyl alcohol), and a bifunctional cross-linker, glycerol-1,3-diglycidyl ether. The low-pI ampholytic components used contain one amino group and at least two weakly acidic functional groups. The acidic functional groups are selected such that the pI value of the ampholytic component is determined by the pKa values of the acidic functional groups. When the concentration of the ampholytic component incorporated into the membrane is higher than a required minimum value, the pI of the membrane becomes independent of variations in the actual incorporation rate of the ampholytic compound. The new, low-pI isoelectric membranes have been successfully used as anodic membranes in isoelectric trapping separations with pH < 1.5 anolytes and replaced the hydrolytically less stable polyacrylamide-based isoelectric membranes. The new low-pI isoelectric membranes have excellent mechanical stability, low electric resistance, good buffering capacity, and long life time, even when used with as much as 50 W power and current densities as high as 33 mA/cm2 during the isoelectric trapping separations. [source]


    Cytotoxicity and Cell Cycle Effects of Bare and Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Mouse Fibroblasts

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 12 2009
    Morteza Mahmoudi
    Super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are recognized as powerful biocompatible materials for use in various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, magnetic-resonance imaging, cell/protein separation, hyperthermia and transfection. This study investigates the impact of high concentrations of SPIONs on cytotoxicity and cell-cycle effects. The interactions of surface-saturated (via interactions with cell medium) bare SPIONs and those coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with adhesive mouse fibroblast cells (L929) are investigated using an MTT assay. The two SPION formulations are synthesized using a co-precipitation method. The bare and coated magnetic nanoparticles with passivated surfaces both result in changes in cell morphology, possibly due to clustering through their magnetostatic effect. At concentrations ranging up to 80,,10,3,M, cells exposed to the PVA-coated nanoparticles demonstrate high cell viability without necrosis and apoptosis. In contrast, significant apoptosis is observed in cells exposed to bare SPIONs at a concentration of 80,,10,3,M. Nanoparticle exposure (20,80,,10,3,M) leads to variations in both apoptosis and cell cycle, possibly due to irreversible DNA damage and repair of oxidative DNA lesions, respectively. Additionally, the formation of vacuoles within the cells and granular cells indicates autophagy cell death rather than either apoptosis or necrosis. [source]


    High-Nanofiller-Content Graphene Oxide,Polymer Nanocomposites via Vacuum-Assisted Self-Assembly

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 19 2010
    Karl W. Putz
    Abstract Highly ordered, homogeneous polymer nanocomposites of layered graphene oxide are prepared using a vacuum-assisted self-assembly (VASA) technique. In VASA, all components (nanofiller and polymer) are pre-mixed prior to assembly under a flow, making it compatible with either hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) or hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the preparation of composites with over 50 wt% filler. This process is complimentary to layer-by-layer assembly, where the assembling components are required to interact strongly (e.g., via Coulombic attraction). The nanosheets within the VASA-assembled composites exhibit a high degree of order with tunable intersheet spacing, depending on the polymer content. Graphene oxide,PVA nanocomposites, prepared from water, exhibit greatly improved modulus values in comparison to films of either pure PVA or pure graphene oxide. Modulus values for graphene oxide,PMMA nanocomposites, prepared from dimethylformamide, are intermediate to those of the pure components. The differences in structure, modulus, and strength can be attributed to the gallery composition, specifically the hydrogen bonding ability of the intercalating species [source]


    Molecular-Level Dispersion of Graphene into Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Effective Reinforcement of their Nanocomposites

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 14 2009
    Jiajie Liang
    Abstract Despite great recent progress with carbon nanotubes and other nanoscale fillers, the development of strong, durable, and cost-efficient multifunctional nanocomposite materials has yet to be achieved. The challenges are to achieve molecule-level dispersion and maximum interfacial interaction between the nanofiller and the matrix at low loading. Here, the preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposites with graphene oxide (GO) using a simple water solution processing method is reported. Efficient load transfer is found between the nanofiller graphene and matrix PVA and the mechanical properties of the graphene-based nanocomposite with molecule-level dispersion are significantly improved. A 76% increase in tensile strength and a 62% improvement of Young's modulus are achieved by addition of only 0.7,wt% of GO. The experimentally determined Young's modulus is in excellent agreement with theoretical simulation. [source]


    Towards Thermoconductive, Electrically Insulating Polymeric Composites with Boron Nitride Nanotubes as Fillers

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 12 2009
    Chunyi Zhi
    Abstract Ultilizing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) as fillers, composites are fabricated with poly(methyl methacrylate), polystyrene, poly(vinyl butyral), or poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) as the matrix and their thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties are evaluated. More than 20-fold thermal conductivity improvement in BNNT-containing polymers is obtained, and such composites maintain good electrical insulation. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the BNNT-loaded polymers is dramatically reduced because of interactions between the polymer chains and the nanotubes. Moreover, the composites possess good mechanical properties, as revealed by Vickers microhardness tests. This detailed study indicates that BNNTs are very promising nanofillers for polymeric composites, allowing the simultaneous achievement of high thermal conductivity, low CTE, and high electrical resistance, as required for novel and efficient heat-releasing materials. [source]


    Aqueous Lithium-ion Battery LiTi2(PO4)3/LiMn2O4 with High Power and Energy Densities as well as Superior Cycling Stability**,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 18 2007
    J.-Y. Luo
    Abstract Porous, highly crystalline Nasicon-type phase LiTi2(PO4)3 has been prepared by a novel poly(vinyl alcohol)-assisted sol,gel route and coated by a uniform and continuous nanometers-thick carbon thin film using chemical vapor deposition technology. The as-prepared LiTi2(PO4)3 exhibits excellent electrochemical performance both in organic and aqueous electrolytes, and especially shows good cycling stability in aqueous electrolytes. An aqueous lithium-ion battery consisting of a combination of LiMn2O4 cathode, LiTi2(PO4)3 anode, and a 1 M Li2SO4 electrolyte has been constructed. The cell delivers a capacity of 40 mA,h,g,1 and a specific energy of 60 W,h,kg,1 with an output voltage of 1.5 V based on the total weight of the active electrode materials. It also exhibits an excellent cycling stability with a capacity retention of 82,% over 200 charge/discharge cycles, which is much better than any aqueous lithium-ion battery reported. [source]


    Poly(vinyl alcohol) Scaffolds with Tailored Morphologies for Drug Delivery and Controlled Release,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 17 2007
    C. Gutirrez
    Abstract Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) scaffolds are prepared by a cryogenic process that consists of the unidirectional freezing of a PVA solution. The scaffolds exhibit a microchanneled structure, the morphology of which (in terms of pore diameter, surface area, and thickness of matter accumulated between adjacent microchannels) can be finely tailored by the averaged molecular weight of PVA, the PVA concentration in the solution, and the freezing rate of the PVA solution. The resulting PVA scaffolds are suitable substrates for drug-delivery purposes, the drug release being controlled (from tens of minutes up to several days) by the morphology of the microchanneled structure. In,vitro experiments reveal the efficiency of PVA scaffolds for controlling the release of ciprofloxacin into a bacteria culture medium. [source]


    Palladium Nanowire from Precursor Nanowire: Crystal-to-Crystal Transformation via In,Situ Reduction by Polymer Matrix,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 14 2007
    S. Porel
    Abstract Precursor nanowires of potassium palladium(II) chloride crystallized inside a poly(vinyl alcohol) film are reduced to palladium nanowires by the polymer itself under mild thermal annealing. The chemical reaction occurring in situ inside the polymer film, including byproduct formation, is investigated through electronic absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy together with atomic force and electron microscopy. The overall process can be described as a novel case of crystal-to-crystal transformation at the nanoscopic level. Optical limiting characteristics of the nanowire-embedded polymer film are explored. The fabrication procedure developed, involving chemistry inside a polymer matrix mediated by the polymer, opens up a convenient route to the fabrication of free-standing metal nanowire-embedded thin films. [source]


    Morphology of poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends: An analysis under real processing conditions by rheology and microscopy

    ADVANCES IN POLYMER TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    lhan zen
    Abstract The present work describes the formation of co-continuous phase morphologies in uncompatibilized and compatibilized poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET),poly(m -xylene adipamide) (MXD6) and PET, poly(ethylene- co -vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) melt-extruded blends. Phase continuity has been determined by using the Jordhamo relationship. Viscosity values, which are essential for the calculation of the phase continuity, have been obtained by capillary rheometry. Thermal behavior of the blends has been analyzed by employing differential scanning calorimetry and phase continuity has been investigated for the noncompatibilized and the compatibilized blends by scanning electron microscopy. PET,MXD6 blends [92.35:7.65 (v/v) and 84.5:15.5 (v/v)] and PET,EVOH blends [73.63:26.37 (v/v)] exhibit droplet-in-matrix phase morphology, whereas uncompatibilized PET,MXD6 [75.8:24.2 (v/v)] blend has a combination of rod-like, droplet,matrix structure, and quasi-interpenetrating network structure. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 28:173,184, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20156 [source]


    Improved compatibility of EVOH/LDPE blends by ,-ray irradiation

    ADVANCES IN POLYMER TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Haihong Li
    Abstract The change of compatibility of poly(ethylene- co -vinyl alcohol) (EVOH)/LDPE blends induced by,-ray radiation was studied. Gel extraction experiment results show that the gel fraction of blends increases linearly with the content of LDPE and reaches a maximum at 100 kGy, because neat EVOH is difficult to cross-link by irradiation. A comparison of theoretical and experimental gel contents indicates that some EVOH molecular chains enter the LDPE gel network. The peak at 3363 cm,1 on the Fourier transform infrared spectrum of pure blend gel is assigned to typical stretching of an OH bond, which indicates that a "graft" reaction occurs in the interface between EVOH and LDPE phases during the irradiation process. Mechanical property measurement results support such a structural change. The tensile strength of cross-linked blends increases with absorbed dose first, reaches a maximum value at 150 kGy, and then decreases with dose. A similar trend can also be observed in bending tests. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 28:192,198, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20160 [source]


    Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanocomposites comprising poly(vinyl alcohol) and colloidal silica

    ADVANCES IN POLYMER TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Mousumi De Sarkar
    Abstract Organic,inorganic hybrid composite films were developed using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and an aqueous dispersion of colloidal silica of initial particle size of 15,30 nm. The hybrid films, prepared with varied proportion of colloidal silica (10,90 phr), were found to be transparent, indicating the nanolevel dispersion of the inorganic component over the polymer. Morphological studies further revealed no significant agglomeration of the silica domains embedded into the polymer matrix. A depression in glass transition temperature of PVA is observed with increasing proportion of silica. The degree of crystallinity also showed a decreasing trend with increasing amount of silica. However, the composite films demonstrated superior mechanical performances, higher resistances to dissolution in boiling water, and lower permeability compared with virgin PVA, owing to the better interaction between PVA and silica as well as the reinforcing action of nanosilica particles in the polymer matrix. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 27:152,162, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20129 [source]


    Modifications in the correlation function in poly(vinyl alcohol)/silica hybrid wet gels

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2009
    Dimas R. Vollet
    Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to study structural modifications in tetraethoxysilane-derived poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/silica hybrids. The basic structure of the wet gels can be described as a mass-fractal structure with fractal dimension D equal to 2 and characteristic length ,, which increases with addition of PVA. Wet gels with high PVA content exhibit a positive deviation from the mass-fractal power-law scattering at low q; this deviation is associated with additional scattering due to a second large correlation distance ,, reinforced by the addition of PVA. The fraction of both contributions to the total correlation function was estimated; this is the first time that such a study has been carried out for mass-fractal structures. [source]


    Synthesis and characterizations of nanosized iron(II) hydroxide and iron(II) hydroxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2010
    M. Fathima Parveen
    Abstract Nanosized Fe(OH)2 was synthesized by a coprecipitation method. Peaks between 500 and 1250 cm,1 in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of metal hydroxide stretching. X-ray diffraction showed the suppressed crystalline system of Fe(OH)2/aniline (ANI) due to the presence of a higher weight percentage of the dispersing agent, ANI. Thermogravimetric analysis implied that 75.5 wt % of residue remained up to 800C. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis of Fe(OH)2/ANI revealed that its size ranged from 10 to 50 nm with a rodlike morphology. Scanning electron microscopy implied that pristine Fe(OH)2 had a nanotriangular platelet morphology, and a higher weight percentage of dispersing agent intercalated with Fe(OH)2 had a spheroid with an agglomerated structure. The (UV,visible) spectrum implied the presence of Fe2+ ions at 326 nm and the existence of an amino group intercalated with Fe(OH)2 showed a sharp peak at 195 nm, the intensity of which increased with increasing intercalated dispersing agent weight percentage. Photoluminescence showed that ANI-intercalated Fe(OH)2 showed a lesser intensity than the pristine Fe(OH)2. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Fabrication of aragonite rosette superstructure through the weak interaction between nonionic polymers and Ca2+

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2010
    Shuxian Shi
    Abstract The controlled formation of aragonite by simple method under ambient condition is a big challenge for biomaterial scientists. In this article, we took poly (N -vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as an example to investigate the influence of water-soluble nonionic polymers on the polymorphs of CaCO3 via CO2 diffusion method under ambient pressure and temperature, and found that the existence of PVP molecules favors the formation of aragonite with rosette superstructure. A possible mechanism is proposed that nonionic polymers can be doped into amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles and further participate in the transformation process from ACC to aragonite and then promotes the formation of rosette superstructure through parallel aggregation by crosslinking the aragonite nuclei. The experiments of CaCO3 crystallization in presence of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) confirmed the mechanism. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Tensile and lignocellulosic properties of Prosopis chilensis natural fabric

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2010
    G. Venkata Reddy
    Abstract The uniaxial natural fabric Prosopis chilensis was treated with NaOH (alkali), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and polycarbonate (PC) solutions. The Prosopis chilensis fabric belongs to Leguminosae family. The properties of ligno-cellulosic fabric and the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment were evaluated using thermal analysis by means of thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, Autonated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Tensile properties of the untreated and fabric treated with NaOH, PVA, and PC were also studied to assess their performance. The fabric has good thermal resistance on alkali treatment. The FTIR method indicates lowering the hemi cellulose and lignin content by alkali treatment. Further, the XRD studies reveal that crystallinity of the fabric increases on alkali treatment. Tensile properties of the fabric were enhanced on treatments with NaOH, PVA, and PC treatments. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Poly(vinyl alcohol),polyacrylamide blends with cesium salts of heteropolyacid as a polymer electrolyte for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2010
    M. Helen
    Abstract A class of inorganic,organic hybrid membranes with low methanol permeability characteristics for possible direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications was architected, formulated, and fabricated through the blending of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyacrylamide (PAM) followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (Glu). Cesium salts of different heteropolyacids, including phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), phosphotungstic acid (PWA), and silicotungstic acid (SWA), were incorporated into the polymer network to form corresponding hybrid membrane materials, namely, PVA,PAM,CsPMA,Glu, PVA,PAM,CsPWA,Glu, and PVA,PAM,CsSWA,Glu, respectively (where "Cs" together with a heteropolyacid abbreviation indicates the cesium salt of that acid). All the three hybrid polymer membranes fabricated exhibited excellent swelling, thermal, oxidative, and additive stability properties with desired proton conductivities in the range 10,2 S/cm at 50% relative humidity. A dense network formation was achieved through the blending of PVA and PAM and by crosslinking with Glu, which led to an order of magnitude decrease in the methanol permeability compared to the state-of-the-art commercial Nafion 115 membrane. The hybrid membrane containing CsSWA exhibited a very low methanol permeability (1.4 10,8 cm2/s) compared to other membranes containing cesium salt of heteropolyacids such as PMA and PWA. The feasibility of these hybrid membranes as proton-conducting electrolytes in DMFC was investigated, and the preliminary results were compared with those of Nafion 115. The results illustrate the attractive features and suitability of the fabricated hybrid membranes as an electrolyte for DMFC applications. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Organic and aqueous compatible polystyrene,maleic anhydride copolymer ultra-fine fibrous membranes

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009
    Corine Ccile
    Abstract Polystyrene,maleic anhydride copolymer (PSMA, Mv= 700 kDa) was synthesized and efficiently processed into 400 to 600 nm diameter fibers via electrospinning from either 20 wt % dimethylformamide or 25 wt % dimethylsulfoxide solution. Crosslinking of PSMA was effective by adding glycerol and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (Mw = 31,50 kDa) in the dimethylformamide and dimethylsulfoxide solutions, respectively. The PSMA fibers containing glycerol at 29.4 mol% were auto-crosslinked whereas those with 12.9 mol% (2 wt %) glycerol and 15.4 mol% (0.75 wt %) PVA required heating to induce intermolecular esterification. Heat-induced crosslinking with glycerol was more effective in rendering the PSMA fibrous membranes insoluble in all solvents whereas that with PVA remained soluble in most solvents except for acetone and tetrahydrofuran. The crosslinked fibrous membranes had improved thermally stability and retained physical integrity upon exposure (2 hr at 40C) to carbon disulfide, the solvent for Friedel-Craft reactions of the styrene moiety. Hydrolysis (0.01N NaOH) of the auto-crosslinked fibrous membrane significantly improved its hydrophilicity by reducing the water contact angles from 90.6 to 62.5 in a matter of seconds. These ultra-high specific surface PSMA fibrous membranes have shown superior organic and aqueous solvent compatibility to be used as highly reactive and easily retrievable supports for solid-phase synthesis. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    A simple method to obtain a swollen PVA gel crosslinked by hydrogen bonds

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
    Emiko Otsuka
    Abstract A simple method to obtain a physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel is reported. In this technique, the PVA solution in pure water was simply cast at room temperature without using any additional chemical. The gelation proceeded during the dehydration after casting the PVA solution into a mold. After the completion of gelation, the swelling ratio of the gel in its equilibrium was measured whenever the solvent water was repeatedly exchanged. The weight gradually decreased due to the elution of non-crosslinked polymers into the solvent, and became constant after sufficient water exchange. The measurements using a Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and an X-ray diffraction suggested that the crosslinks due to hydrogen bonds and microcrystals were formed during the dehydration process of the PVA solution. We concluded that the sample obtained by the present method is a physically crosslinked polymer network, insoluble in water, i.e., a swollen gel in water. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    Properties of soy protein isolate/poly(vinyl alcohol) blend "green" films: Compatibility, mechanical properties, and thermal stability

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
    Jun-Feng Su
    Abstract Blend films from nature soy protein isolates (SPI) and synthetical poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) compatibilized by glycerol were successfully fabricated by a solution-casting method in this study. Properties of compatibility, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of SPI/PVA films were investigated based on the effect of the PVA concentration. XRD tests confirm that the SPI/PVA films were partially crystalline materials with peaks of 2, = 20. And, the addition of glycerol will insert the crystalline structure and destroy the blend microstructure of SPI/PVA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests show that SPI/PVA blend polymers have a single glass transition temperature (Tg) between 80 and 115.0C, which indicate that SPI and PVA have good compatibility. The tension tests show that SPI/PVA films exhibit both higher tensile strength (,b) and percentage elongation at break point (P.E.B.). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and water solubility tests show that SPI/PVA blend polymer has more stable stability than pure SPI. All the results reflect that SPI/PVA/glycerol blend film provides a convenient and promising way to prepare soy protein plastics for practical application. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Functional modification of poly(vinyl alcohol) through phosphorus containing nitrogen heterocyclic moieties

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2008
    S. Karpagam
    Abstract Functional modification of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with phosphorus containing nitrogen heterocyclic has been believed to have extensive thermal and biological applications in the area of polymers. Efforts have been taken for the synthesis of phosphorus-containing N -heterocyclic (5,6 member and fused ring) based PVA. The synthesized compounds were characterized using UV, FTIR, and NMR spectral studies. Thermal studies (DSC-TGA) scans display phosphorus-containing five membered and fused heterocyclic-based PVA has less thermal stability than six-membered compounds. Modified polymers infer to have excellent bacterial response against micro-organisms. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Thermal and rheological properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) and water-soluble chitosan hydrogels prepared by a combination of ,-ray irradiation and freeze thawing

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
    Xiaomin Yang
    Abstract Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/water-soluble chitosan (ws-chitosan) hydrogels were prepared by a combination of ,-irradiation and freeze thawing. The thermal and rheological properties of these hydrogels were compared with those of hydrogels prepared by pure irradiation and pure freeze thawing. Irradiation reduced the crystallinity of PVA, whereas freeze thawing increased it. Hydrogels made by freeze thawing followed by irradiation had higher degrees of crystallinity and higher melting temperatures than those made by irradiation followed by freeze thawing. ws-Chitosan disrupted the ordered association of PVA molecules and decreased the thermal stability of both physical blends and hydrogels. All the hydrogels showed shear-thinning behavior in the frequency range of 0.2,100 rad/s. Hydrogels made by freeze thawing dissolved into sol solutions at about 80C, whereas those made by irradiation showed no temperature dependence up to 100C. The chemical crosslinking density of the hydrogels made by irradiation followed by freeze thawing was much greater than that of hydrogels made by freeze thawing followed by irradiation. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Preparation and characterization of interpenetration polymer network films based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(acrylic acid) for drug delivery

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
    Yu-Mei Yue
    Abstract A series of full interpenetrating polymer network (full-IPN) films of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by radical solution polymerization and sequential IPN technology. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, swelling properties, mechanical properties, morphology, and glass transition temperature of the films were investigated. FTIR spectra analysis showed that new interaction hydrogen bonds between PVA and PAA were formed. Swelling property of the films in distilled water and different pH buffer solution was studied. Swelling ratio increased with increasing PAA content of IPN films in all media, and swelling ratio decreased with increasing PVA crosslink degree. Tensile strength and elongation at break related not only to the constitution of IPNs but also to the swelling ratio of IPNs. Mechanical property of glutaraldehyde (0.5%) for poly(vinyl alcohol) crosslinking was better than that of glutaraldehyde (1.0%). DSC of the IPN films showed only a single glass transition temperature (Tg) for each sample, and Tg data showed a linear relationship with network composition. Morphology was observed a homogeneous structure, indicating the good compatibility and miscibility between PAA and PVA. Potential application of the IPN films in controlled drug delivery was also examined using crystal violet as a model drug. The release rate of the drug was higher at 37C than 25C for all IPNs and also increased slightly with decreasing of poly(acrylic acid) content. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]