Vitamin D Status (vitamin + d_status)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Vitamin D Status

  • adequate vitamin d status
  • low vitamin d status


  • Selected Abstracts


    Optimization of Vitamin D Status as an Alternative Strategy for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 4 2010
    DPhil, Oscar M. P. Jolobe MRCP (UK)
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Associations Between Vitamin D Status and Pain in Older Adults: The Invecchiare in Chianti Study

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 5 2008
    Gregory E. Hicks PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To examine cross-sectional associations between vitamin D status and musculoskeletal pain and whether they differ by sex. DESIGN: Population-based study of persons living in the Chianti geographic area (Tuscany, Italy). SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred fifty-eight persons (aged ,65) selected from city registries of Greve and Bagno a Ripoli. MEASUREMENTS: Pain was categorized as mild or no pain in the lower extremities and back; moderate to severe back pain, no lower extremity pain; moderate to severe lower extremity pain, no back pain; and moderate to severe lower extremity and back pain (dual region). Vitamin D was measured according to radioimmunoassay, and deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) less than 25 nmol/L. RESULTS: The mean age±standard deviation was 75.1±7.3 for women and 73.9±6.8 for men. Fifty-eight percent of women had at least moderate pain in some location, compared with 27% of men. After adjusting for potential confounders, vitamin D deficiency was not associated with lower extremity pain or dual-region pain, although it was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of at least moderate back pain without lower extremity pain in women (odds ratio=1.96, 95% confidence interval=1.01,3.59) but not in men. CONCLUSION: Lower concentrations of 25(OH)D are associated with significant back pain in older women but not men. Because vitamin D deficiency and chronic pain are fairly prevalent in older adults, these findings suggest it may be worthwhile to query older adults about their pain and screen older women with significant back pain for vitamin D deficiency. [source]


    Does Low Vitamin D Status Contribute to "Age-Related" Morbidity?

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue S2 2007
    Neil Binkley MD
    Abstract It is increasingly appreciated that vitamin D plays important physiological roles beyond the musculoskeletal system. As such, it is plausible that endemic vitamin D deficiency contributes to much nonskeletal morbidity that adversely affects quality of life with advancing age among older adults. This overview will explore the evidence for, and potential involvement of, vitamin D deficiency in nonbone conditions that are currently accepted as "age-related" morbidity among older adults. [source]


    Vitamin D Status and the Metabolic Syndrome

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 11 2006
    Ligia A. Martini PhD
    ABSTRACT The identification of vitamin D receptor expression in different tissues suggests a widespread role for vitamin D action beyond its classical function in bone and mineral metabolism. Recently, the importance of vitamin D status as a risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome has been the focus of several studies [source]


    Calculated Ultraviolet Exposure Levels for a Healthy Vitamin D Status

    PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    Ann R. Webb
    The dangers of overexposure to sunlight have been well publicized, but less attention has been given to an acknowledged benefit of exposure to UV radiation; that being the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3. Here we define a standard vitamin D dose on the basis of recently recommended requirements for vitamin D that take account of its risk reduction role in a variety of diseases, and present a web-based tool that enables the reader to calculate associated exposure times for any time and place using either default values or user-selected conditions. Either it is not possible to synthesize vitamin D3 at high latitudes in winter, or the exposure time required to reach a standard dose is sometimes impractical. Where solar UV is sufficient, a risk-benefit analysis of sunburn vs. vitamin D3 synthesis shows that the best time for brief sun exposure is in the middle of the day. For low solar elevation angles common at high latitudes, a fine line exists between adequate UV exposure for vitamin D3 synthesis and a risk of sun burn. [source]


    Vitamin D status of chronically ill or disabled children in Victoria

    JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 7 2003
    A Greenway
    Objective: To establish the percentage prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in chronically ill or disabled children in Melbourne, Australia. Methodology: A group of inpatients at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, as identified by the primary unit, were sampled to measure serum vitamin D and parameters of bone turnover. A second group of disabled children (outpatients) were also measured to establish vitamin D status. Results: Of the total population, 54.9% were found to have low serum 25 hydroxy (25OH) vitamin D levels. Of the inpatient group, 25.4% were vitamin D deficient (<30 nmol/L), and 27.1% were vitamin D insufficient (30,50 nmol/L). The mean 25OH vitamin D was 52.1 nmol/L. Of the outpatient group, 15.4% were vitamin D deficient, whilst 42.3% were found to be insufficient. The mean vitamin D level was 41.2 nmol/L. No difference attributable to intellectual versus physical disability was found. Anticonvulsant use and ambulatory status was not predictive of vitamin D status in the children examined. Of the total population, 0.05% were found to have secondary hyperparathyroidism. The mean 25OH vitamin D level of this subgroup was 30.6 nmol/L. Dark skin tone was found to be significantly associated with hypovitaminosis D (P = 0.001), where all five children with dark skin tone were found to have serum 25OH vitamin D levels <50 nmol/L. Of the seven disabled children (outpatients) found to be iron deficient, four had coexistent hypovitaminosis D. Conclusion: The percentage prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is high in both chronically ill, and physically/intellectually disabled children in Melbourne, Australia. Increased vigilance and recognition of this deficiency state is needed as an important health prevention strategy. [source]


    Vitamin D status of Australians

    NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 4 2006
    Caryl Nowson PhD
    [source]


    Vitamin D status may effect the skeletal complications of multiple myeloma,

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Terry Diamond
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Vitamin D status is associated with relapse rate in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Ellen M. Mowry MD
    Objective We sought to determine if vitamin D status, a risk factor for multiple sclerosis, is associated with the rate of subsequent clinical relapses in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Methods This is a retrospective study of patients with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome who were consecutively recruited into a prospective cohort at their clinical visit at the pediatric multiple sclerosis center of University of California, San Francisco or State University of New York at Stony Brook. Of 171 eligible patients, 134 (78%) with multiple sclerosis/clinically isolated syndrome were included in the cohort; a further 24 were excluded from this analysis due to lack of available serum (n = 7) or lack of follow-up (n = 17). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were measured and were adjusted to reflect a deseasonalized value. The adjusted serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level was the primary predictor in a multivariate negative binomial regression model in which the main outcome measure was the number of subsequent relapses. Results Among the 110 subjects, the mean unadjusted 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level was 22 ± 9ng/ml. After adjustment for age, gender, race, ethnicity, disease duration, disease-modifying therapy, and length of follow-up, every 10ng/ml increase in the adjusted 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level was associated with a 34% decrease in the rate of subsequent relapses (incidence rate ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.46,0.95; p = 0.024). Interpretation Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are associated with a substantially increased subsequent relapse rate in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome, providing rationale for a randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:618,624 [source]


    Factors associated with low vitamin D status of Australian alpacas

    AUSTRALIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 12 2008
    GJ Judson
    Objective To investigate factors associated with low vitamin D status of alpacas at pasture in southern Australia. Design A 2-year survey of alpacas from two farms in South Australia and three in Victoria. Blood samples were collected from 20 to 30 alpacas on each farm on five occasions each year. Breed, gender, age and fleece colour of animals were recorded. Method Blood samples were assayed for plasma 2.5-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH D3) and plasma inorganic phosphorus (Pi). Data sets from 802 animal samples were analysed by multiple regression to determine variables associated with low vitamin D status of alpacas. The relationship between plasma 25-OH D3 and plasma Pi was also investigated. Results Vitamin D status was significantly affected by month of sampling, with low values in late winter and high values in summer. Plasma vitamin D concentrations increased with age, were higher in alpacas with light fleeces than in those with dark fleeces and were also higher in the Suri than in the Huacaya breed. Plasma Pi concentrations were generally lower in alpacas with plasma 25-OH D3 values < 25 nmol/L. Conclusions Young alpacas with dark fleeces are most at risk from vitamin D insufficiency in late winter in southern Australia. The present study indicates that plasma Pi values are not a reliable indicator of vitamin D status of alpacas as assessed by plasma 25-OH D3 concentrations. [source]


    Vitamin D status and acute lower respiratory infection in early childhood in Sylhet, Bangladesh

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 3 2010
    DE Roth
    Abstract Aim: Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) is the most important global cause of childhood death. Micronutrient deficiencies may increase the risk of ALRI. A case,control study was conducted to assess the association between vitamin D status and ALRI in rural Bangladesh. Methods: Children aged 1,18 months hospitalized with ALRI (cases) were individually matched to controls on age, sex, and village (N = 25 pairs). The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration [25(OH)D] in cases and controls was compared using paired t -test. The unadjusted and adjusted odds of ALRI were assessed by multivariate conditional logistic regression. Results: Mean [25(OH)D] was significantly lower among ALRI cases than controls (29.1 nmol/L vs. 39.1 nmol/L; p = 0.015). The unadjusted odds of ALRI was halved for each 10 nmol/L increase in [25(OH)D] (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30,0.96). Adjustment for confounders increased the magnitude of the association. Conclusion: Vitamin D status was associated with early childhood ALRI in a matched case,control study in rural Bangladesh. Randomized trials may establish whether interventions to improve vitamin D status can reduce the burden of ALRI in early childhood. [source]


    Vitamin D status in female patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: does it play a role in skeletal damage?

    CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    Vincenzo Carnevale
    Summary objective, Vitamin D deficiency, even subclinical, has been considered to worsen the skeletal damage in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Our study aimed to investigate the impact of vitamin D status on skeletal involvement in PHPT. design and measurements, A cross-sectional study was designed involving 62 female patients with PHPT. Serum total calcium (tCa), phosphate (P), creatinine (Cr) and total alkaline phosphatase activity (AP), together with 24-h (uCa 24 h) and spot fasting (uCa/Cr) urinary calcium, were measured by autoanalyser; ionized calcium (iCa) was assessed by an ion-specific electrode; intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) was measured by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine in 58 patients, and at femoral neck, Ward's triangle, greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line and total hip in 56 patients. The associations of all variables with age, 25-OHD, body mass index (BMI) and PTH were studied by linear multiple regression analysis, using progressively restricted models. results, The model including age, 25-OHD, PTH and BMI showed significant regression with BMD values. PTH, age and BMI exerted a leading role in determining such a significance, while no significant regression was found between the parameters studied and 25-OHD; this was confirmed by Pearson's linear correlation analysis. The progressively restricted models showed significant regression of BMD at femoral neck, femoral intertrochanteric line and total hip with age, BMI and PTH. BMD measured at the Ward's triangle and greater trochanter showed significant regression with age and BMI, and that measured at lumbar spine with age. conclusions, Our data indicate that in primary hyperparathyroidism patients the influence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels on bone mineral density, if any, was overwhelmed by the effects of parathyroid hormone excess, age and body mass index. The latter unequally affected bone mineral density of various measured sites with different composition. [source]


    Vitamin D and innate immunity

    DERMATOLOGIC THERAPY, Issue 1 2010
    Jeremiah Miller
    ABSTRACT Vitamin D's role in bone health has been well established. Recently, studies have identified additional roles of vitamin D in the immune system, cardiovascular system, and cancer prevention. The effect of vitamin D on the immune system is particularly relevant to the dermatologist in that it has implications for atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and skin cancer. However, there is much disagreement on a dose of vitamin D that is both safe and effective as both ultraviolet exposure and certain vitamin D-rich foods come with unwanted consequences. This review aims to update the dermatologist on the roles of vitamin D in the immune system, the safety and dose of different sources, and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency that may necessitate supplementation. Immune consequences of vitamin D status represent one additional aspect that illustrates how guidelines for supplementation are needed and will only be useful clinically if they are presented in context with validated controlled clinical trials. [source]


    Influence of narrowband UVB phototherapy on vitamin D and folate status

    EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOLOGY, Issue 8 2010
    Emanuela Cicarma
    Please cite this paper as: Influence of narrowband UVB phototherapy on vitamin D and folate status. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: e67,e72. Abstract Background:, A variety of studies have shown beneficial effects of different types of phototherapy in skin disorders. Such therapy leads to enhanced cutaneous vitamin D synthesis, which may be one of the mechanisms of action. Furthermore, another nutrient, folate, can probably also be influenced by UV radiation. Objective:, The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of low-dose narrowband UVB (nUVB) phototherapy of patients with psoriasis, atopic eczema and other skin disorders on serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D (the serum marker for vitamin D status) and on serum and erythrocyte-folate. Methods:, 25(OH) vitamin D (25(OH)D), serum and erythrocyte-folate levels were measured before and after low-dose nUVB (TL-01 tubes) phototherapy of these patients. The spectrum of the TL-01 tube was compared with the solar spectrum, and the efficiency spectra of vitamin D photosynthesis were calculated. Results:, For patients with a high initial 25(OH)D serum level (> 80 nmol/l), no significant (P = 0.36) increase in 25(OH)D levels was seen, in contrast to patients with a low initial level (< 80 nmol/l) where a significant increase (P < 0.001) was observed. The increase was 30,60%, depending on the UVB dose (2.35,13.4 J/cm2). No significant nUVB-effect was found on the erythrocyte and serum-folate level. Conclusion:, Low-dose nUVB treatment gives a significant increase (P < 0.001) of the vitamin D status in persons with low initial levels of 25(OH)D, but no effect on the folate level. [source]


    Report on the vitamin D status of adult and pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease and its significance for bone health and disease

    INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES, Issue 12 2006
    Helen M. Pappa MD
    Abstract Vitamin D is a hormone responsible for calcium homeostasis and essential for bone mineralization throughout the lifespan. Recent studies revealed a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among healthy adults and children, especially in the northern hemisphere, and a link between this condition and suboptimal bone health. Moreover, maintenance of what are today considered optimal vitamin D stores has not been achieved throughout the year with currently recommended daily intake for vitamin D. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is even higher among adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a situation that may be caused by malabsorption and gastrointestinal losses through an inflamed intestine, among other factors. In children with IBD, existing reports of vitamin D status are scarce. The relationship between vitamin D status and bone health, although well-established in healthy adults and children, has been controversial among adults and children with IBD, and the reasons for this have not been investigated to date. Studies in animal models of colitis and in vitro human studies support a role of vitamin D in the regulation of the immune system of the gut and the potential of vitamin D and its derivatives as therapeutic adjuncts in the treatment of IBD. This role of vitamin D has not been investigated with translational studies to date. Currently, there are no guidelines for monitoring vitamin D status, treating hypovitaminosis D, and maintaining optimal vitamin D stores in patients with IBD. These tasks may prove particularly difficult because of malabsorption and gastrointestinal losses that are associated with IBD. [source]


    Vitamin D deficiency in a multinational refugee population

    INTERNAL MEDICINE JOURNAL, Issue 12 2007
    H. D. Wishart
    Abstract Background: Populations with increased skin pigmentation who have migrated to countries of high latitude are at increased risk of low vitamin D. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of low vitamin D among the refugee population arriving in New Zealand. Methods: An audit of all refugees arriving at the national refugee resettlement centre from May 2004 to May 2005 was carried out. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were measured and defined as normal (50,150 nmol/L) or low, with low subdivided into insufficient (25 to <50 nmol/L) and deficient (<25 nmol/L). Whether vitamin D status varied with age and sex was determined. Results: Vitamin D was measured in 869 (99%) of the refugees and was low in 470 (54%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 51,57%). It was insufficient in 323 (37%, 95%CI 34,41%) and deficient in 147 (17%, 95%CI 15,20%). Female sex was associated with at least a 10 times increased risk of vitamin D deficiency (relative ratio 13.93, 95%CI 10.15,17.96). Women aged between 17 and 45 years and men aged 46 years and more were at greatest risk. Conclusion: Poor vitamin D status is prevalent among refugees arriving in New Zealand. Women, particularly those of child-bearing age are at greatest risk. Screening and ongoing surveillance for vitamin D deficiency should be considered for all recent refugee immigrants to New Zealand. [source]


    The prevalence of vitamin D abnormalities in South Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the UK

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 3 2010
    A. A. Tahrani
    Summary Background:, The high prevalence of both hypovitaminosis D and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the Asian community is well recognised, but the impact of diabetes on vitamin D status and vice versa, has not been well reported. Aims:, To determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Asian patients with T2DM and its impact on glycaemic control. Methods:, A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary referral centre in the UK. Two hundred and ten Asian patients aged more than 40 years were included (170 with and 40 without T2DM). Each had a standard bone profile (serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase), serum parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Results:, The prevalence of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (< 50 nmol/l) was high in the group as a whole (> 80%) and more common in diabetics compared with controls (83% vs. 70%; p = 0.07). This was particularly so in men (82.5% vs. 57.9%; p = 0.02). HbA1c was higher in women with vitamin D deficiency (< 12.5 nmol/l) (8.11 ± 1.11% vs. 7.33 ± 1.32%, p = 0.046). In logistic regression analysis, T2DM was an independent predictor of hypovitaminosis D. In linear regression analysis, vitamin D deficiency was independently related to HbA1c in women with T2DM. Conclusions:, Hypovitaminosis D remains a major public health issue in the Asian population and is exaggerated in patients with T2DM. The fact that vitamin D deficient women had higher HbA1c levels raises the possibility that vitamin D replacement may improve glycaemic control. [source]


    Associations Between Vitamin D Status and Pain in Older Adults: The Invecchiare in Chianti Study

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 5 2008
    Gregory E. Hicks PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To examine cross-sectional associations between vitamin D status and musculoskeletal pain and whether they differ by sex. DESIGN: Population-based study of persons living in the Chianti geographic area (Tuscany, Italy). SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred fifty-eight persons (aged ,65) selected from city registries of Greve and Bagno a Ripoli. MEASUREMENTS: Pain was categorized as mild or no pain in the lower extremities and back; moderate to severe back pain, no lower extremity pain; moderate to severe lower extremity pain, no back pain; and moderate to severe lower extremity and back pain (dual region). Vitamin D was measured according to radioimmunoassay, and deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) less than 25 nmol/L. RESULTS: The mean age±standard deviation was 75.1±7.3 for women and 73.9±6.8 for men. Fifty-eight percent of women had at least moderate pain in some location, compared with 27% of men. After adjusting for potential confounders, vitamin D deficiency was not associated with lower extremity pain or dual-region pain, although it was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of at least moderate back pain without lower extremity pain in women (odds ratio=1.96, 95% confidence interval=1.01,3.59) but not in men. CONCLUSION: Lower concentrations of 25(OH)D are associated with significant back pain in older women but not men. Because vitamin D deficiency and chronic pain are fairly prevalent in older adults, these findings suggest it may be worthwhile to query older adults about their pain and screen older women with significant back pain for vitamin D deficiency. [source]


    Wintertime Vitamin D Supplementation Inhibits Seasonal Variation of Calcitropic Hormones and Maintains Bone Turnover in Healthy Men,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 2 2009
    Heli T Viljakainen
    Abstract Vitamin D is suggested to have a role in the coupling of bone resorption and formation. Compared with women, men are believed to have more stable bone remodeling, and thus, are considered less susceptible to the seasonal variation of calcitropic hormones. We examined whether seasonal variation exists in calcitropic hormones, bone remodeling markers, and BMD in healthy men. Furthermore, we determined which vitamin D intake is required to prevent this variation. Subjects (N = 48) were healthy white men 21,49 yr of age from the Helsinki area with a mean habitual dietary intake of vitamin D of 6.6 ± 5.1 (SD) ,g/d. This was a 6-mo double-blinded vitamin D intervention study, in which subjects were allocated to three groups of 20 ,g (800 IU), 10 ,g (400 IU), or placebo. Fasting blood samplings were collected six times for analyses of serum (S-)25(OH)D, iPTH, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and TRACP. Radial volumetric BMD (vBMD) was measured at the beginning and end of the study with pQCT. Wintertime variation was noted in S-25(OH)D, S-PTH, and S-TRACP (p < 0.001, p = 0.012, and p < 0.05, respectively) but not in S-BALP or vBMD in the placebo group. Supplementation inhibited the winter elevation of PTH (p = 0.035), decreased the S-BALP concentration (p < 0.05), but benefited cortical BMD (p = 0.09) only slightly. Healthy men are exposed to wintertime decrease in vitamin D status that impacts PTH concentration. Vitamin D supplementation improved vitamin D status and inhibited the winter elevation of PTH and also decreased BALP concentration. The ratio of TRACP to BALP shows the coupling of bone remodeling in a robust way. A stable ratio was observed among those retaining a stable PTH throughout the study. A daily intake of vitamin D in the range of 17.5,20 ,g (700,800 IU) seems to be required to prevent winter seasonal increases in PTH and maintain stable bone turnover in young, healthy white men. [source]


    Therapy of Osteoporosis With Calcium and Vitamin D,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue S2 2007
    Bess Dawson-Hughes MD
    Abstract Inadequate intakes of vitamin D and calcium lead to reduced calcium absorption, higher bone remodeling rates, and increased bone loss. Vitamin D insufficiency has also been linked to reduced muscle function and increased risk of falling. The mechanisms for the performance and muscle effects are not well understood. Administering vitamin D to those with inadequate vitamin D status has been shown to lower fracture rates in some trials but not in others. The purpose of this presentation is (1) to examine how calcium and vitamin D work in concert, (2) to consider key evidence that increasing vitamin D intake will affect risk of falls and fractures, and (3) to estimate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level needed to achieve maximum fracture protection. [source]


    Vitamin D Receptor Expression in Human Muscle Tissue Decreases With Age,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 2 2004
    HA Bischoff-Ferrari
    Abstract Intracellular 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human skeletal muscle tissue. However, it is unknown whether VDR expression in vivo is related to age or vitamin D status, or whether VDR expression differs between skeletal muscle groups. Introduction: We investigated these factors and their relation to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in freshly removed human muscle tissue. Materials and Methods: We investigated biopsy specimens of the gluteus medius taken at surgery from 20 female patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (mean age, 71.6 ± 14.5; 72% > 65 years) and biopsy specimens of the transversospinalis muscle taken at surgery from 12 female patients with spinal operations (mean age, 55.2 ± 19.6; 28% > 65 years). The specimens were obtained by immunohistological staining of the VDR using a monoclonal rat antibody to the VDR (Clone no. 9A7). Quantitative VDR expression (number of VDR positive nuclei) was assessed by counting 500 nuclei per specimen and person. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were assessed at day of admission to surgery. Results: All muscle biopsy specimens stained positive for VDR. In the univariate analyses, increased age was associated with decreased VDR expression (r = 0.5: p = 0.004), whereas there were no significant correlations between VDR expression and 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. VDR expression did not differ between patients with hip and spinal surgery. In the multivariate analysis, older age was a significant predictor of decreased VDR expression after controlling biopsy location (gluteus medius or the transversospinalis muscle), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (linear regression analysis: ,-estimate = ,2.56; p = 0.047). Conclusions: Intranuclear immunostaining of the VDR was present in muscle biopsy specimens of all orthopedic patients. Older age was significantly associated with decreased VDR expression, independent of biopsy location and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. [source]


    A high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Finnish medical in- and outpatients

    JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, Issue 6 2001
    R. Kauppinen-Mäkelin
    Abstract.,Kauppinen-Mäkelin R, Tähtelä R, Löyttyniemi E, Kärkkäinen J, Välimäki MJ (Peijas Hospital, Vantaa; United Laboratories, Leiras Research, and Division of Endocrinology; Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland). A high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Finnish medical in- and outpatients. J Intern Med 2001; 249: 559,563. Objective.,To study the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D [serum 25(OH)D , 37 nmol L,1)] in Finnish medical in- and outpatients in a cross-sectional study. Methods.,The subjects were 106 consecutive medical inpatients (57 females, 49 males with mean ages of 65 and 58 years) from the Peijas Hospital, Vantaa, Finland, and 99 ambulatory patients (48 females, 51 males with mean ages of 42 and 46 years) contacting a private outpatient centre in Helsinki, Finland. Serum 25(OH)D, vitamin D binding protein (DBP), free vitamin D index (FDI), intact PTH (iPTH), and albumin-corrected calcium were measured. Results.,Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was 37 nmol L,1 or less in 70% of female and in 61% of male inpatients and in 44% of female and in 37% of male outpatients. In the whole population, a statistically significant inverse association (P < 0.0001) was detected between iPTH and 25(OH)D levels; the iPTH concentration appeared to start increasing when 25(OH)D concentration was 50 nmol L,1 or less. The association remained the same (P < 0.0001) when FDI was used instead of 25(OH)D in the calculations. When the sexes were analysed separately, the statistically significant association was found only in females (P < 0.0001 for iPTH versus 25(OH)D; P < 0.0001 for iPTH versus FDI) but not in males. Conclusion.,Hypovitaminosis D is very common amongst Finnish in- and outpatients in both sexes, causing secondary hyperparathyroidism in females. More extensive studies are warranted to elucidate the vitamin D status of the Finnish population. [source]


    Vitamin D status of chronically ill or disabled children in Victoria

    JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 7 2003
    A Greenway
    Objective: To establish the percentage prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in chronically ill or disabled children in Melbourne, Australia. Methodology: A group of inpatients at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, as identified by the primary unit, were sampled to measure serum vitamin D and parameters of bone turnover. A second group of disabled children (outpatients) were also measured to establish vitamin D status. Results: Of the total population, 54.9% were found to have low serum 25 hydroxy (25OH) vitamin D levels. Of the inpatient group, 25.4% were vitamin D deficient (<30 nmol/L), and 27.1% were vitamin D insufficient (30,50 nmol/L). The mean 25OH vitamin D was 52.1 nmol/L. Of the outpatient group, 15.4% were vitamin D deficient, whilst 42.3% were found to be insufficient. The mean vitamin D level was 41.2 nmol/L. No difference attributable to intellectual versus physical disability was found. Anticonvulsant use and ambulatory status was not predictive of vitamin D status in the children examined. Of the total population, 0.05% were found to have secondary hyperparathyroidism. The mean 25OH vitamin D level of this subgroup was 30.6 nmol/L. Dark skin tone was found to be significantly associated with hypovitaminosis D (P = 0.001), where all five children with dark skin tone were found to have serum 25OH vitamin D levels <50 nmol/L. Of the seven disabled children (outpatients) found to be iron deficient, four had coexistent hypovitaminosis D. Conclusion: The percentage prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is high in both chronically ill, and physically/intellectually disabled children in Melbourne, Australia. Increased vigilance and recognition of this deficiency state is needed as an important health prevention strategy. [source]


    A case,control study of vitamin D status and asthma in adults

    ALLERGY, Issue 5 2010
    G. Devereux
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Effect of combined maternal and infant vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status of exclusively breastfed infants

    MATERNAL & CHILD NUTRITION, Issue 1 2009
    Hussein F. Saadi
    Abstract Severe vitamin D deficiency in mothers and their breastfed infants is a significant health problem in the Middle East. Supplementation of the breastfed infant alone with the recommended dose of vitamin D may be insufficient in high-risk population. We investigated the effect of combined maternal and infant vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status of the breastfed infant. We examined also the effect of supplementation on vitamin D antirachitic activity of breast milk in a subset of mothers. Healthy breastfeeding mothers (n = 90) were randomly assigned to 2000 IU daily (group 1) or 60 000 IU monthly (group 2) of vitamin D2, and all their infants (n = 92) received 400 IU daily of vitamin D2 for 3 months. Most infants had vitamin D deficiency , 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] , 37.5 nmol L,1, at study entry. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations at 3 months increased significantly from baseline in infants of mothers in group 1 (13.9 ± 8.6 vs. 49.6 ± 18.5 nmol L,1, P < 0.0001) and group 2 (13.7 ± 12.1 vs. 44.6 ± 15.0 nmol L,1, P < 0.0001). Maternal and infant serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively at baseline (r = 0.36, P = 0.01) and 3 months (r = 0.46, P = 0.002). Milk antirachitic activity increased from undetectable (<20 IU L,1) to a median of 50.9 IU L,1. In conclusion, combined maternal and infant vitamin D supplementation was associated with a threefold increase in infants' serum 25(OH)D concentrations and a 64% reduction in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency without causing hypervitaminosis D. [source]


    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and IgE , a significant but nonlinear relationship

    ALLERGY, Issue 4 2009
    E. Hyppönen
    Background:, Hormonal vitamin D system affects the determination of T-cell responses. It is unknown if there is an association between vitamin D status and allergic conditions. Our aim was to investigate differences in serum IgE concentrations by vitamin D status [measured by 25(OH)D] and by a genetic variation in a key vitamin D activation enzyme (CYP27B1) previously shown to be associated with type 1 diabetes. Methods:, 9377 participants in the 1958 British birth cohort completed a biomedical assessment at 45 years of age ; 7288 eligible participants had data on 25(OH)D and IgE, with 6429 having further information on CYP27B1 genotype (,1260C>A). Results:, There was a nonlinear association between 25(OH)D and IgE (P -value for curvature = 0.0001). Compared with the reference group with the lowest IgE concentrations [25(OH)D 100,125 nmol/l], IgE concentrations were 29% higher (95% CI 9,48%) for participants with the 25(OH)D <25 nmol/l, and 56% higher (95% CI 17,95%) for participants with 25(OH)D >135 nmol/l (adjusted for sex, month, smoking, alcohol consumption, time spent outside, geographical location, social class, PC/TV time, physical activity, body mass index and waist circumference). CYP27B1 genotype was associated with both 25(OH)D (difference for A vs. C allele: 1.88%, 95% CI 0.37,3.4%, P = 0.01) and IgE concentrations (,6.59%, ,11.6% to ,1.42%, P = 0.01). Conclusions:, These data suggest that there may be a threshold effect with both low and high 25(OH)D levels associated with elevated IgE concentrations. The same CYP27B1 allele that is protective of diabetes was associated with increased IgE concentrations. [source]


    Correcting poor vitamin D status: Do older adults need higher repletion doses of vitamin D3 than younger adults?

    MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue 8 2010
    Susan J. Whiting
    Abstract We conducted an examination of recent studies to determine whether older adults (,65 years) need higher levels of supplementary vitamin D than young adults when attempting to replete vitamin D status in deficient subjects, i.e. those with levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 75,nmol/L. As data on repletion with vitamin D2 have recently been published, we restricted our discussion to the use of vitamin D3 from dietary supplements, prescriptions for large oral doses, and bolus dosing or injections. Most published dosing regimens failed to achieve 75,nmol/L in most all subjects, whether young adults (<65 years) or older adults (,65 years). Whether as daily or bolus oral supplementation, elderly subjects appeared to need more vitamin D3 compared with younger adults, however, baseline levels, endpoints, study duration, compliance, and other factors were different among studies. To ensure most subjects are replete in vitamin D, a daily dose of more than 50,,g (2000,IU) in younger and 125,,g (5000,IU) is required. Other strategies including bolus and loading doses are described. No study reported adverse effects of using oral intakes about the current upper level of 50,,g (2000,IU). [source]


    Modern India and the vitamin D dilemma: Evidence for the need of a national food fortification program

    MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue 8 2010
    Uma S. Babu
    Abstract India is located between 8.4 and 37.6°N latitude with the majority of its population living in regions experiencing ample sunlight throughout the year. Historically, Indians obtained most of their vitamin D through adequate sun exposure; however, darker skin pigmentation and the changes which have accompanied India's modernization, including increased hours spent working indoors and pollution, limit sun exposure for many. Inadequate sun exposure results in reduced vitamin D synthesis and ultimately poor vitamin D status if not compensated by dietary intake. Dietary vitamin D intake is very low in India because of low consumption of vitamin D rich foods, absence of fortification and low use of supplements. All these factors contribute to poor vitamin D status as measured by low circulating levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Our review searches the published literature specific to India for evidence that would confirm the need to fortify food staples with vitamin D or stimulate public health policies for vitamin D supplementation and dietary guidelines tailored to the Indian diet. This review documents findings of widespread vitamin D deficiency in Indian populations in higher and lower socioeconomic strata, in all age groups, in both genders and people in various professions. Moreover, poor vitamin D status in India is accompanied by increased bone disorders including osteoporosis, osteomalacia in adults and rickets and other bone deformities in children. Without a concerted national effort to screen for vitamin D status, to implement policies or guidelines for vitamin D fortification and/or supplementation and to re-assess recommended dietary intake guidelines, dramatic increase in the number of bone disorders and other diseases may lie ahead. [source]


    The estimated benefits of vitamin D for Germany

    MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue 8 2010
    A. Zittermann
    Abstract This article gives an overview of the vitamin D status in Germany, provides evidence for an independent association of vitamin D deficiency with various chronic diseases, and discusses preventive measures for improving vitamin D status in Germany. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency is 40,45% in the general German population. An additional 15,30% are vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D can prevent falls and osteoporotic fractures in older people. There is also accumulating evidence that vitamin D may prevent excess mortality and may probably prevent some chronic diseases that occur in early life such as type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Adherence to present sun safety policy (avoidance of the sun between 11 am and 3 pm) and dietary recommendations (5,10,,g daily for adults) would, however, definitively lead to vitamin D deficiency. The estimated cost saving effect of improving vitamin D status in Germany might be up to 37.5 billion , annually. It should be the goal of nutrition and medical societies to erase vitamin D deficiency in Germany within the next 5,10 years. To achieve this goal, the daily production of at least 25,,g of vitamin D in the skin or an equivalent oral intake should be guaranteed. [source]


    Is low vitamin D status a problem in Britain?

    NUTRITION BULLETIN, Issue 4 2007
    R. L. Thompson
    [source]