Virtual Worlds (virtual + world)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Real places in a Virtual World

MUSEUM INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2006
Robert R. Archibald
[source]


Negotiation for Action: English Language Learning in Game-Based Virtual Worlds

MODERN LANGUAGE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2009
DONGPING ZHENG
This study analyzes the user chat logs and other artifacts of a virtual world,,Quest Atlantis,(QA), and proposes the concept of Negotiation for Action (NfA) to explain how interaction, specifically, avatar-embodied collaboration between native English speakers and nonnative English speakers, provided resources for English language acquisition. Iterative multilayered analyses revealed several affordances of QA for language acquisition at both utterance and discourse levels. Through intercultural collaboration on solving content-based problems, participants successfully reached quest goals during which emergent identity formation and meaning making take place. The study also demonstrates that it is in this intercultural interaction that pragmatics, syntax, semantics, and discourse practices arose and were enacted. The findings are consistent with our ecological psychology framework, in that meaning emerges when language is used to coordinate in-the-moment actions. [source]


Making Virtual Worlds: Linden Lab and Second Life by Thomas M. Malaby

AMERICAN ETHNOLOGIST, Issue 3 2010
TOM BOELLSTORFF
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Augmented reality agents for user interface adaptation

COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS (PREV: JNL OF VISUALISATION & COMPUTER ANIMATION), Issue 1 2008
István Barakonyi
Abstract Most augmented reality (AR) applications are primarily concerned with letting a user browse a 3D virtual world registered with the real world. More advanced AR interfaces let the user interact with the mixed environment, but the virtual part is typically rather finite and deterministic. In contrast, autonomous behavior is often desirable in ubiquitous computing (Ubicomp), which requires the computers embedded into the environment to adapt to context and situation without explicit user intervention. We present an AR framework that is enhanced by typical Ubicomp features by dynamically and proactively exploiting previously unknown applications and hardware devices, and adapting the appearance of the user interface to persistently stored and accumulated user preferences. Our framework explores proactive computing, multi-user interface adaptation, and user interface migration. We employ mobile and autonomous agents embodied by real and virtual objects as an interface and interaction metaphor, where agent bodies are able to opportunistically migrate between multiple AR applications and computing platforms to best match the needs of the current application context. We present two pilot applications to illustrate design concepts. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A programming environment for behavioural animation

COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS (PREV: JNL OF VISUALISATION & COMPUTER ANIMATION), Issue 5 2002
Frédéric Devillers
Abstract Behavioural models offer the ability to simulate autonomous agents like organisms and living beings. Psychological studies have shown that human behaviour can be described by a perception,decision,action loop, in which the decisional process should integrate several programming paradigms such as real time, concurrency and hierarchy. Building such systems for interactive simulation requires the design of a reactive system treating flows of data to and from the environment, and involving task control and preemption. Since a complete mental model based on vision and image processing cannot be constructed in real time using purely geometrical information, higher levels of information are needed in a model of the virtual environment. For example, the autonomous actors of a virtual world would exploit the knowledge of the environment topology to navigate through it. Accordingly, in this paper we present our programming environment for real-time behavioural animation which is compounded of a general animation and simulation platform, a behavioural modelling language and a scenario-authoring tool. Those tools has been used for different applications such as pedestrian and car driver interaction in urban environments, or a virtual museum populated by a group of visitors. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Eye gaze in virtual environments: evaluating the need and initial work on implementation

CONCURRENCY AND COMPUTATION: PRACTICE & EXPERIENCE, Issue 11 2009
Norman Murray
Abstract For efficient collaboration between participants, eye gaze is seen as being critical for interaction. Video conferencing either does not attempt to support eye gaze (e.g. AcessGrid) or only approximates it in round table conditions (e.g. life size telepresence). Immersive collaborative virtual environments represent remote participants through avatars that follow their tracked movements. By additionally tracking people's eyes and representing their movement on their avatars, the line of gaze can be faithfully reproduced, as opposed to approximated. This paper presents the results of initial work that tested if the focus of gaze could be more accurately gauged if tracked eye movement was added to that of the head of an avatar observed in an immersive VE. An experiment was conducted to assess the difference between user's abilities to judge what objects an avatar is looking at with only head movements being displayed, while the eyes remained static, and with eye gaze and head movement information being displayed. The results from the experiment show that eye gaze is of vital importance to the subjects correctly identifying what a person is looking at in an immersive virtual environment. This is followed by a description of the work that is now being undertaken following the positive results from the experiment. We discuss the integration of an eye tracker more suitable for immersive mobile use and the software and techniques that were developed to integrate the user's real-world eye movements into calibrated eye gaze in an immersive virtual world. This is to be used in the creation of an immersive collaborative virtual environment supporting eye gaze and its ongoing experiments. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A Web page that provides map-based interfaces for VRML/X3D content

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATIONS IN JAPAN, Issue 2 2009
Yoshihiro Miyake
Abstract The electronic map is very useful for navigation in the VRML/X3D virtual environments. So far various map-based interfaces have been developed. But they are lacking for generality because they have been separately developed for individual VRML/X3D contents, and users must use different interfaces for different contents. Therefore, we have developed a Web page that provides a common map-based interface for VRML/X3D contents on the Web. Users access VRML/X3D contents via the Web page. The Web page automatically generates a simplified map by analyzing the scene graph of downloaded contents, and embeds the mechanism to link the virtual world and the map. An avatar is automatically created and added to the map, and both a user and its avatar are bidirectionally linked together. In the simplified map, obstructive objects are removed and the other objects are replaced by base boxes. This paper proposes the architecture of the Web page and the method to generate simplified maps. Finally, an experimental system is developed in order to show the improvement of frame rates by simplifying the map. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electron Comm Jpn, 92(2): 28,37, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/ecj.10017 [source]


Griefing in virtual worlds: causes, casualties and coping strategies

INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 6 2009
Thomas Chesney
Abstract A virtual world is a computer-simulated three-dimensional environment. They are increasingly being used for social and commercial interaction, in addition to their original use for game playing. This paper studies negative behaviour, or ,griefing', inside one virtual world through a series of observations and focus groups with users. Data were collected to identify griefing behaviours and their impact, examine why griefing happens and who the likely targets and perpetrators are, and suggest strategies for coping with it. Findings show that griefing behaviour is common. It is defined as unacceptable, persistent behaviour and is typically targeted at inexperienced residents by those with more knowledge of the virtual world. Community and individual coping strategies are identified and discussed. [source]


Immune response inspired spatial,temporal target detection algorithms with CNN-UM

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIRCUIT THEORY AND APPLICATIONS, Issue 1 2006
György Cserey
Abstract In this paper we show that, similar to the nervous system and the genetic system, the immune system provides a prototype for a ,computing mechanism.' We are presenting an immune response inspired algorithmic framework for spatial,temporal target detection applications using CNN technology (IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II 1993; 40(3):163,173; Foundations and Applications. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002). Unlike most analogic CNN algorithms (IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 1988; 35(10):1257,1290; Foundations and Applications. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002) here we will detect various targets by using a plethora of templates. These algorithms can be implemented successfully only by using a computer upon which thousands of elementary, fully parallel spatial,temporal actions can be implemented in real time. In our tests the results show a statistically complete success rate, and we are presenting a special example of recognizing dynamic objects. Results from tests in a 3D virtual world with different terrain textures are also reported to demonstrate that the system can detect unknown patterns and dynamical changes in image sequences. Applications of the system include in explorer systems for terrain surveillance. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Awareness of toddlers' initial cognitive experiences with virtual reality

JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING, Issue 4 2001
D. Passig
Abstract In this study Virtual Reality technology was used to simulate a toddler's first few days' experiences in daycare and improve the caregiver's understanding of their state of mind. The virtual worlds were developed in accordance with toddlers' way of thinking and from their cognitive and visual viewpoint. The aim of the research was to investigate whether the caregiver's awareness to the cognitive experiences that toddlers undergo in their first days in kindergarten improves through a VR simulation of toddlers' worlds. Six cognitive elements of toddlers were simulated: object constancy; trial and error; perspective of height; perspective of things; egocentricity and imagination. The participants in this study were 40 (female) caregivers who work with infants aged 6 months to 4 years in private daycare. The findings indicate that experiencing a virtual world that reflects the real world of children improves the caregiver's awareness to the cognitive experiences that toddlers undergo in their first days in a kindergarten or daycare. [source]


Projective virtual reality as a basis for on-line control of complex systems-not only-over the internet

JOURNAL OF FIELD ROBOTICS (FORMERLY JOURNAL OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS), Issue 3 2005
Eckhard Freund
Already in 1994 the term Projective Virtual Reality was coined and a first implementation was used to control a complex multirobot system in Germany over the Internet from California. Building on this foundation, the general aim of the development of virtual reality technology for automation applications at the Institute of Robotics Research (IRF) today is to provide the framework for Projective Virtual Reality for a broad range of applications. The general idea of Projective Virtual Reality is to allow users to "project" actions carried out in the virtual world into the real world by means of robots or other means of automation. The framework is based on a task-oriented approach which builds on the "task deduction" capabilities of a newly developed virtual reality system and a task planning component. The advantage of this approach is that robots which work at great distances from the control station can be controlled as easily and intuitively as robots that work right next to the control station. Robot control technology now provides the user in the virtual world with a "prolonged arm" into the physical environment, thus paving the way for intuitive control of complex systems over the Internet,and in general for a new quality of user-friendly man-machine interfaces for automation applications. Lately, this work has been enhanced by a new structure that allows one to distribute the virtual reality application over multiple computers on a network. With this new feature, it is now possible for multiple users to share the same virtual room, although they may physically be thousands of miles apart. They only need an Internet connection to share this new experience. Lately, the network distribution techniques have been further developed to not just allow users to cooperate over networked PCs but also to be able to set up a panorama projection or a cave running of a networked cluster of PCs. This approach cuts down the costs for such a high-end visualization environment drastically and allows for a new range of applications. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Negotiation for Action: English Language Learning in Game-Based Virtual Worlds

MODERN LANGUAGE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2009
DONGPING ZHENG
This study analyzes the user chat logs and other artifacts of a virtual world,,Quest Atlantis,(QA), and proposes the concept of Negotiation for Action (NfA) to explain how interaction, specifically, avatar-embodied collaboration between native English speakers and nonnative English speakers, provided resources for English language acquisition. Iterative multilayered analyses revealed several affordances of QA for language acquisition at both utterance and discourse levels. Through intercultural collaboration on solving content-based problems, participants successfully reached quest goals during which emergent identity formation and meaning making take place. The study also demonstrates that it is in this intercultural interaction that pragmatics, syntax, semantics, and discourse practices arose and were enacted. The findings are consistent with our ecological psychology framework, in that meaning emerges when language is used to coordinate in-the-moment actions. [source]


Virtual Reality and Interactive Simulation for Pain Distraction

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2007
Mark D. Wiederhold MD
ABSTRACT Pain and discomfort are perceptible during many medical procedures. In the past, drugs have been the conventional means to alleviate pain, but in many instances, medications by themselves do not provide optimal results. Current advances are being made to control pain by integrating both the science of pain medications and the science of the human mind. Various psychological techniques, including distraction by virtual reality environments and the playing of video games, are being employed to treat pain. In virtual reality environments, an image is provided for the patient in a realistic, immersive manner devoid of distractions. This technology allows users to interact at many levels with the virtual environment, using many of their senses, and encourages them to become immersed in the virtual world they are experiencing. When immersion is high, much of the user's attention is focused on the virtual environment, leaving little attention left to focus on other things, such as pain. In this way virtual reality provides an effective medium for reproducing and/or enhancing the distractive qualities of guided imagery for the majority of the population who cannot visualize successfully. [source]


Narcissism: fragile bodies in a fragile world.

PSYCHOTHERAPY AND POLITICS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2008
Part
Abstract In this two-part paper, we explore how, in Western society, intensified consumer culture, playing on feelings of shame and inadequacy, can be seen as reactivating the ,narcissistic wound' while the recent growth of information technology increasingly provides access to a global spectacle and a virtual world that offer an escape from reality, fuelling the illusion of immortality and invulnerability to physical/emotional needs. We ask who benefits from this culture of unrelatedness and disembodiment and what are the repercussions in terms of participation in social life and organized response to global issues. Using material from our practices and from social life, we seek to identify the collective cost of maintaining a disassociation that can permeate not only the therapeutic process but also work, personal relationships and events on the political stage. We consider a view of Bush as a narcissistic president in a narcissistic culture with the Iraq war as a narcissistic misadventure, and we present vignettes from the consulting room, Dance Movement Therapy work in Holloway Prison, and the academic world of prehistoric archaeology to show how narcissistic behaviours are embedded in many diverse situations in Western society. We ask how the concept of narcissism in our media age can help us understand phenomena such as the rise of fundamentalism; celebrity cult; insatiable aspirations to ,self-improvement'; obsession with ,success' and consumer goodies; the denial of ageing; the upsurge in cosmetic surgery, body modification and self-harm; as well as growing addiction to alcohol and hard drugs. Finally we ask, how do the narcissistic fantasy of self-sufficiency, the disavowal of loss and the denial of the ultimate non-discursive reality of death affect our ability to respond appropriately to human injustice and the fragility of our planet? Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Myriad: scalable VR via peer-to-peer connectivity, PC clustering, and transient inconsistency

COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS (PREV: JNL OF VISUALISATION & COMPUTER ANIMATION), Issue 1 2007
Benjamin Schaeffer
Abstract Distributed scene graphs are important in virtual reality, both in collaborative virtual environments and in cluster rendering. Modern scalable visualization systems have high local throughput, but collaborative virtual environments (VEs) over a wide-area network (WAN) share data at much lower rates. This complicates the use of one scene graph across the whole application. Myriad is an extension of the Syzygy VR toolkit in which individual scene graphs form a peer-to-peer network. Myriad connections filter scene graph updates and create flexible relationships between nodes of the scene graph. Myriad's sharing is fine-grained: the properties of individual scene graph nodes to share are dynamically specified (in C++ or Python). Myriad permits transient inconsistency, relaxing resource requirements in collaborative VEs. A test application, WorldWideCrowd, demonstrates collaborative prototyping of a 300-avatar crowd animation viewed on two PC-cluster displays and edited on low-powered laptops, desktops, and over a WAN. We have further used our framework to facilitate collaborative educational experiences and as a vehicle for undergraduates to experiment with shared virtual worlds. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A kaleidoscope as a cyberworld and its animation: linear architecture and modeling based on an incrementally modular abstraction hierarchy

COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS (PREV: JNL OF VISUALISATION & COMPUTER ANIMATION), Issue 3-4 2006
Tosiyasu L. Kunii
Abstract An incrementally modular abstraction hierarchy is known to effectively linearize cyberworlds and virtual worlds, which are combinatorially exploding and hardly managed. It climbs down from general level to specific model preserving the higher level modules as invariants. It not only prevents the combinatorial explosion but also benefits the reuse, development, testing and validation of cyberworld resources. By applying this incrementally modular abstraction hierarchy to a kaleidoscope animation, its architecture and modeling is also specified in this paper as a typical case of cyberworlds. In particular, a homotopy lifting property and a homotopy extension property, which satisfy a duality relation, are also described to show how a kaleidoscope world is systematically created top-down from the whole system and bottom-up from the components. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Scalable real-time animation of rivers

COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 2 2009
Qizhi Yu
Many recent games and applications target the interactive exploration of realistic large scale worlds. These worlds consist mostly of static terrain models, as the simulation of animated fluids in these virtual worlds is computationally expensive. Adding flowing fluids, such as rivers, to these virtual worlds would greatly enhance their realism, but causes specific issues: as the user is usually observing the world at close range, small scale details such as waves and ripples are important. However, the large scale of the world makes classical methods impractical for simulating these effects. In this paper, we present an algorithm for the interactive simulation of realistic flowing fluids in large virtual worlds. Our method relies on two key contributions: the local computation of the velocity field of a steady flow given boundary conditions, and the advection of small scale details on a fluid, following the velocity field, and uniformly sampled in screen space. [source]


Artificial Animals and Humans: From Physics to Intelligence

COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2002
Demetri Terzopoulos
The confluence of virtual reality and artificial life, an emerging discipline that spans the computational and biological sciences, has yielded synthetic worlds inhabited by realistic, artificial flora and fauna. Artificial animals are complex synthetic organisms that possess functional biomechanical bodies, sensors, and brains with locomotion, perception, behavior, learning, and cognition centers. Artificial humans and other animals are of interest in computer graphics because they are self-animating characters that dramatically advance the state of the art of production animation and interactive game technologies. More broadly, these biomimetic autonomous agents in their realistic virtual worlds also foster deeper, computationally oriented insights into natural living systems. [source]


How do you write "yes"?: A study on the effectiveness of online dispute resolution

CONFLICT RESOLUTION QUARTERLY, Issue 3 2003
Anne-Marie G. Hammond
This article is derived from original research into the applicability and effectiveness of online dispute resolution, particularly mediation, for resolving disputes in the real and virtual worlds. It records the experience of a variety of mediators and disputants in fifteen online mediation simulations, using eight different dispute scenarios, some of them multiparty, in consumer transactions, insurance claims, and workplace and family cases. The objective of the study was to seek answers to the questions: How can online communications be organized and managed so that parties have the greatest possible opportunity to achieve a mutually beneficial agreement? What behaviors, skills, strategies, and techniques will most enhance effective communications? What is required in an online process to effectively facilitate communications and enable the resolution of disputes? [source]


Nodes and Connections: Science Museums in the Network Age,

CURATOR THE MUSEUM JOURNAL, Issue 1 2002
Rob Semper
For some it is a convenient way to market their offerings, for others it has become a fundamental cornerstone of their practice. Questions still remain about the role of the Web in the museum world and the interplay between the physical and virtual worlds. Developing a strong research agenda and fostering a shared community of practice are two necessary components if museums are to maximize the potential that the Web has to offer them. [source]


Second Life: an overview of the potential of 3-D virtual worlds in medical and health education

HEALTH INFORMATION & LIBRARIES JOURNAL, Issue 4 2007
Maged N. Kamel Boulos
This hybrid review-case study introduces three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds and their educational potential to medical/health librarians and educators. Second life (http://secondlife.com/) is perhaps the most popular virtual world platform in use today, with an emphasis on social interaction. We describe some medical and health education examples from Second Life, including Second Life Medical and Consumer Health Libraries (Healthinfo Island,funded by a grant from the US National Library of Medicine), and VNEC (Virtual Neurological Education Centre,developed at the University of Plymouth, UK), which we present as two detailed ,case studies'. The pedagogical potentials of Second Life are then discussed, as well as some issues and challenges related to the use of virtual worlds. We have also compiled an up-to-date resource page (http://healthcybermap.org/sl.htm), with additional online material and pointers to support and extend this study. [source]


Griefing in virtual worlds: causes, casualties and coping strategies

INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 6 2009
Thomas Chesney
Abstract A virtual world is a computer-simulated three-dimensional environment. They are increasingly being used for social and commercial interaction, in addition to their original use for game playing. This paper studies negative behaviour, or ,griefing', inside one virtual world through a series of observations and focus groups with users. Data were collected to identify griefing behaviours and their impact, examine why griefing happens and who the likely targets and perpetrators are, and suggest strategies for coping with it. Findings show that griefing behaviour is common. It is defined as unacceptable, persistent behaviour and is typically targeted at inexperienced residents by those with more knowledge of the virtual world. Community and individual coping strategies are identified and discussed. [source]


Researching consumers in virtual worlds: a cyberspace odyssey

JOURNAL OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR, Issue 3 2002
Dr Miriam Catterall
Abstract Following Belk's (1991) Consumer Behaviour Odyssey, the authors suggest the need for a new odyssey, one that focuses on consumers in virtual worlds. In this paper the authors discuss the relevance of virtual communities for marketers and how ethnographic research methods can be adapted to the online environment. The unique methodological problems, opportunities and ethical dilemmas for researchers are considered that online ethnography raises before an exploration of how discourse analysis can assist in the interpretation of data collected online. Copyright © 2002 Henry Stewart Publications. [source]


What are the learning affordances of 3-D virtual environments?

BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
Barney Dalgarno
This article explores the potential learning benefits of three-dimensional (3-D) virtual learning environments (VLEs). Drawing on published research spanning two decades, it identifies a set of unique characteristics of 3-D VLEs, which includes aspects of their representational fidelity and aspects of the learner,computer interactivity they facilitate. A review of applications of 3-D VLEs is presented, leading to the identification of a series of learning affordances of such environments. These affordances include the facilitation of tasks that lead to enhanced spatial knowledge representation, greater opportunities for experiential learning, increased motivation/engagement, improved contextualisation of learning and richer/more effective collaborative learning as compared to tasks made possible by 2-D alternatives. The authors contend that the continued development of and investment in 3-D games, simulations and virtual worlds for educational purposes should be considered contingent on further investigation into the precise relationships between the unique characteristics of 3-D VLEs and their potential learning benefits. To this end, they conclude by proposing an agenda or ,roadmap' for future research that encompasses empirical studies aimed at exploring these relationships, as well as those aimed at deriving principles and guidelines to inform the design, development and use of 3-D virtual environments for learning. [source]


Use of three-dimensional (3-D) immersive virtual worlds in K-12 and higher education settings: A review of the research

BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
Khe Foon Hew
In this paper, we review past empirical research studies on the use of three-dimensional immersive virtual worlds in education settings such as K-12 and higher education. Three questions guided our review: (1) How are virtual worlds (eg, Active Worlds, Second Life) used by students and teachers? (2) What types of research methods have been applied? (3) What research topics have been conducted on virtual worlds in teaching and learning, as well as their related findings? Overall, we found that virtual worlds may be utilised for the following uses: (1) communication spaces, (2) simulation of space (spatial), and (3) experiential spaces (,acting' on the world). Most of the studies reviewed were descriptive and conducted in polytechnic and university settings, and past virtual world research had been most frequently carried out in the media arts and health and environment disciplines. Three main research topics were found: participants' affective domain, learning outcomes and social interaction. We conclude by summarising some major findings and discussing three limitations of previous empirical studies. Several recommendations for future research related to virtual worlds in education settings are also provided. [source]


Second Life in higher education: Assessing the potential for and the barriers to deploying virtual worlds in learning and teaching

BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
Steven Warburton
Second Life (SL) is currently the most mature and popular multi-user virtual world platform being used in education. Through an in-depth examination of SL, this article explores its potential and the barriers that multi-user virtual environments present to educators wanting to use immersive 3-D spaces in their teaching. The context is set by tracing the history of virtual worlds back to early multi-user online computer gaming environments and describing the current trends in the development of 3-D immersive spaces. A typology for virtual worlds is developed and the key features that have made unstructured 3-D spaces so attractive to educators are described. The popularity in use of SL is examined through three critical components of the virtual environment experience: technical, immersive and social. From here, the paper discusses the affordances that SL offers for educational activities and the types of teaching approaches that are being explored by institutions. The work concludes with a critical analysis of the barriers to successful implementation of SL as an educational tool and maps a number of developments that are underway to address these issues across virtual worlds more broadly. [source]