Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Verification

  • costly state verification
  • data verification
  • experimental verification
  • forecast verification
  • independent verification
  • numerical verification
  • state verification

  • Terms modified by Verification

  • verification bias
  • verification experiment
  • verification statistics

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 1 2000
    ABSTRACT Populations of Aeromonas spp. and aerobic bacteria from dehairing equipment and from carcasses passing through different processing steps in a swine slaughtering plant were evaluated to identify the hygienic risks of each operation. Sponge samples were taken from the scraper flails in dehairing machines and the surface of the shackling table at pre- and post-operation times, with 20 samples from each location being collected at each time. Increased post-operation levels of Aeromonas spp. indicated a buildup and possible spread of these bacteria to carcasses. The belly skins of 40 dehaired carcasses were each sampled at five points along the process line which were after the shackling, after the final singeing, after the final polishing, after the final wash and after chilling. The levels of microbial contaminants on carcasses varied at each processing step. The heaviest contamination of carcasses with Aeromonas (1.88 log CFU/cm2) and aerobic bacteria (2.66 log CFU/cm2) occurred after shackling. Counts were reduced at other steps as a result of singeing, washing and chilling operations. However, singed carcasses were recontaminated with Aeromonas and aerobic bacteria during the polishing operation. Aeromonas hydrophila were the most prominent motile aeromonads (74.1%) recovered at the plant. The findings for Aeromonas spp. were similar to those for aerobic bacteria (r2= 0.9995) which suggested that Aeromonas spp. are appropriate indicators for assessing carcass dressing processes. [source]

    Verification of the 2D Tokamak Edge Modelling Codes for Conditions of Detached Divertor Plasma

    V. Kotov
    Abstract The paper discusses verification of the ITER edge modelling code SOLPS 4.3 (B2-EIRENE). Results of the benchmark against SOLPS 5.0 are shown for standard JET test cases. Special two-point formulas are employed in SOLPS 4.3 to analyze the results of numerical simulations. The applied relations are exact in frame of the equations solved by the B2 code. This enables simultaneous check of the parallel momentum and energy balances and boundary conditions. Transition to divertor detachment is analyzed quantitatively as it appears in the simulations in terms of the coupled momentum and energy balance (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Relationship between menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation among African American light smokers

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2007
    Kolawole S. Okuyemi
    ABSTRACT Aims To determine whether African American light smokers who smoked menthol cigarettes had lower cessation when treated with nicotine replacement therapy and counseling. Design Data were derived from a clinical trial that assessed the efficacy of 2 mg nicotine gum (versus placebo) and counseling (motivational interviewing counseling versus Health Education) for smoking cessation among African American light smokers (smoked , 10 cigarettes per day). Participants The sample consisted of 755 African American light smokers. Measurements The primary outcome variable was verified 7-day point-prevalence smoking cessation at 26 weeks follow-up. Verification was by salivary cotinine. Findings Compared to non-menthol smokers, menthol smokers were younger and less confident to quit smoking (P = 0.023). At 26 weeks post-randomization, 7-day verified abstinence rate was significantly lower for menthol smokers (11.2% versus 18.8% for non-menthol, P = 0.015). Conclusions Among African American light smokers, use of menthol cigarettes is associated with lower smoking cessation rates. Because the majority of African American smokers use menthol cigarettes, a better understanding of the mechanism for this lower quit rate is needed. [source]

    The distribution of Voronoi cells generated by Southern California earthquake epicenters

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 2 2009
    Frederic Paik Schoenberg
    Abstract The cells of Voronoi diagrams generated by epicentral locations of Southern California earthquakes are inspected. The tapered Pareto distribution is shown to fit quite well to the distribution of cell areas and perimeters. This same distribution, which has been used to model the distribution of seismic moments, is also a close approximation to the empirical distributions of times and distances between successive earthquakes for the same catalog of Southern California events. Verification is performed using a variety of different windows and sub-sampling procedures in order to confirm that the results are not an artifact of the particular parameters of the selected earthquake catalog. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Verification of skin-based markers for 3-dimensional kinematic analysis of the equine tarsal joint

    Summary Reasons for performing study: Kinematic studies are usually based on tracking markers attached to the skin. However, complex joints, such as the tarsal joint, function in 3-dimensions (3D), and have therefore necessitated application of the invasive bone pin technique, limiting kinematic studies to the research laboratory. This study investigates the feasibility of using skin-based markers for 3D analysis of tarsal joint motion. Hypothesis: Three-dimensional motions of the tarsal joint can be measured with an acceptable degree of accuracy using skin markers. Methods: Retroreflective markers were attached over the tibial and metatarsal segments. Markers were tracked automatically at trot. Three-dimensional skin correction algorithms were used for correction of skin displacement, and 3D motions derived from the corrected (CSD) and uncorrected (USD) skin displacement were compared with data from a previous study in which those motions were described using bone-fixed markers (BFM) by correlation, root mean square errors (RMS) and shape agreement (SA) of the curves. Results: The RMS of BFM and CSD were smaller than those of BFM and USD for all motions. The correlation coefficients of BFM and CSD were higher than those of BFM and USD. SA was good or fair for all motions except internal/external rotation and medial/lateral translation. Conclusions and potential relevance: With appropriate correction for skin movement relative to skeletal landmarks, skin markers can identify tarsal 3D motions for flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, cranial/caudal translation, and proximal/distal translation, allowing analysis and comparison of information between horses during swing and stance phases. [source]

    Response: Verification of etoposide-induced rearrangements

    Jolanta Libura
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Automated Evaluation of Kikuchi Patterns by Means of Radon and Fast Fourier Transformation, and Verification by an Artificial Neural Network,

    R.A. Schwarzer
    Automated crystal orientation measurement (ACOM) in the SEM by interpreting backscatter Kikuchi patterns (see Figure) has become a standard tool of quantitative texture analysis in materials science during the last decade. A Radon transformation of the diffraction pattern, in combination with a 1D fast Fourier transformation, enables the fast extraction of the positions of Kikuchi bands. The high-frequency coefficients of the 1D FFT are used to define pattern quality as a measure of lattice imperfection and residual stress of the real crystal structure. [source]

    A fatigue criterion for general multiaxial loading

    An incremental fatigue damage model is proposed. The model incorporates the critical plane concept in multiaxial fatigue, plastic strain energy and material memory in cyclic plasticity. With an incremental form the model does not require a cycle counting method for variable amplitude loading. The model is designed to consider mean stress and loading sequence effects. Features of the new model are discussed and the determination of material constants is detailed. Verification of the model is achieved by comparing the predictions obtained by using the new model and experimental data of four materials under different loading conditions. [source]

    Evaluation of coalbed methane reservoirs from geophysical log data using an improved fuzzy comprehensive decision method and a homologous neural network

    J. Hou
    The evaluation of coalbed methane reservoirs using log data is an important approach in the exploration and development of coalbed methane reservoirs. Most commonly, regression techniques, fuzzy recognition and neural networks have been used to evaluate coalbed methane reservoirs. It is known that a coalbed is an unusual reservoir. There are many difficulties in using regression methods and empirical qualitative recognition to evaluate a coalbed, but fuzzy recognition, such as the fuzzy comprehensive decision method, and neural networks, such as the back-propagation (BP) network, are widely used. However, there are no effective methods for computing weights for the fuzzy comprehensive decision method, and the BP algorithm is a local optimization algorithm, easily trapped in local minima, which significantly affect the results. In this paper, the recognition method for coal formations is developed; the improved fuzzy comprehensive decision method, which uses an optimization approach for computing weighted coefficients, is developed for the qualitative recognition of coalbed methane reservoirs. The homologous neural network, using a homologous learning algorithm, which is a global search optimization, is presented for the quantitative analysis of parameters for coalbed methane reservoirs. The applied procedures for these methods and some problems related to their application are also discussed. Verification of the above methods is made using log data from the coalbed methane testing area in North China. The effectiveness of the methods is demonstrated by the analysis of results for real log data. [source]

    On Verification and Parameter Design in Hybrid Automaton Using Invariant

    LiLi Wang Non-member
    Abstract Invariants for hybrid automata are determined from predicates that are constant for every reachable state in the automata. These invariants can be used to verify a given specification by exploiting their characteristics. In this paper, a switched system driven by discrete inputs is used as an example of a hybrid dynamical system. For the system, we propose a verification method for a given specification based on the concept of invariants and a design policy of parameters with which the given specification is satisfied. Some numerical and experimental results are provided to show the validity of the proposed method. Copyright © 2009 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Coupled HM analysis using zero-thickness interface elements with double nodes,Part II: Verification and application

    J. M. Segura
    Abstract In a companion Part I of this paper (Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; DOI: 10.1002/nag.735), a coupled hydro-mechanical (HM) formulation for geomaterials with discontinuities based on the finite element method (FEM) with double-node, zero-thickness interface elements was developed and presented. This Part II paper includes the numerical solution of basic practical problems using both the staggered and the fully coupled approaches. A first group of simulations, based on the classical consolidation problem with an added vertical discontinuity, is used to compare both the approaches in terms of accuracy and convergence. The monolithic or fully coupled scheme is also used in an application example studying the influence of a horizontal joint in the performance of a reservoir subject to fluid extraction. Results include a comparison with other numerical solutions from the literature and a sensitivity analysis of the mechanical parameters of the discontinuity. Some simulations are also run using both a full non-symmetric and a simplified symmetric Jacobian matrix. On top of verifying the model developed and its capability to reflect the conductivity changes of the interface with aperture changes, the results presented also lead to interesting observations of the numerical performance of the methods implemented. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Debating the ,Power' of Audit

    Christopher Humphrey
    This paper provides a critical but constructive review of Michael Power's recent text entitled The Audit Society: Rituals of Verification (1997). The paper first summarises the essential ideas put forward by Power with regard to the scale and significance of the Audit Society. It then debates some of Power's central arguments and claims, focusing, among other things, on the causes underlying the rise of the audit society, the definition of audit, the meaning of auditability and the relationship between audit and performance measurment. The paper concludes by considering the possibilities for auditing to serve a more positive role in society than that generally portrayed by Power. [source]

    Verification process and its application to network traffic simulation models

    Ryota Horiguchi
    This paper summarizes a standardized verification process for network traffic simulation models. After the general introduction of philosophy of verification, we explain detailed processes of the verification and its application to several well-known simulation models. "Verification" here means several examination tests of simulation models using virtual data on a simple network so as to confirm their fundamental functions. In the course of model development, the developers have to examine whether the model performance is consistent with the specifications that they intend and also with the well-authorized traffic engineering theory. Because of several constraints in putting the model specifications into the computer programming such as discretizing of time and space and simplifying vehicle behaviors to some degree, the intended model specifications may not be fully achieved in a computer. Therefore, we strongly recommend the verification before applying the models to a real network. [source]

    Congenic Strains of Mice for Verification and Genetic Decomposition of Quantitative Trait Loci for Femoral Bone Mineral Density,

    Kathryn L Shultz
    Abstract Peak femoral volumetric bone mineral density (femoral bone mineral density) in C57BL/6J (B6) 4-month-old female mice is 50% lower than in C3H/HeJ (C3H) and 34% lower than in CAST/EiJ (CAST) females. Genome-wide analyses of (B6 × C3H)F2 and (B6 × CAST)F2 4-month-old female progeny demonstrated that peak femoral bone mineral density is a complex quantitative trait associated with genetic loci (QTL) on numerous chromosomes (Chrs) and with trait heritabilities of 83% (C3H) and 57% (CAST). To test the effect of each QTL on femoral bone mineral density, two sets of loci (six each from C3H and CAST) were selected to make congenic strains by repeated backcrossing of donor mice carrying a given QTL-containing chromosomal region to recipient mice of the B6 progenitor strain. At the N6F1 generation, each B6.C3H and B6.CAST congenic strain (statistically 98% B6-like in genomic composition) was intercrossed to obtain N6F2 progeny for testing the effect of each QTL on femoral bone mineral density. In addition, the femoral bone mineral density QTL region on Chr 1 of C3H was selected for congenic subline development to facilitate fine mapping of this strong femoral bone mineral density locus. In 11 of 12 congenic strains, 6 B6.C3H and 5 B6.CAST, femoral bone mineral density in mice carrying c3h or cast alleles in the QTL regions was significantly different from that of littermates carrying b6 alleles. Differences also were observed in body weight, femoral length, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal circumference among these 11 congenic strains when compared with control littermates; however, these latter three phenotypes were not consistently correlated with femoral bone mineral density. Analyses of eight sublines derived from the B6.C3H-1T congenic region revealed two QTLs: one located between 36.9 and 49.7 centiMorgans (cM) and the other located between 73.2 and 100.0 cM distal to the centromere. In conclusion, these congenic strains provide proof of principle that many QTLs identified in the F2 analyses for femoral bone mineral density exert independent effects when transferred and expressed in a common genetic background. Furthermore, significant differences in femoral bone mineral density among the congenic strains were not consistently accompanied by changes in body weight, femur length, or periosteal circumference. Finally, decomposition of QTL regions by congenic sublines can reveal additional loci for phenotypes assigned to a QTL region and can markedly refine genomic locations of quantitative trait loci, providing the opportunity for candidate gene testing. [source]

    Costly State Verification with Varying Risk Preferences and Liability

    Gaia Garino
    Abstract., In the scenario of loan contracts with costly state verification, we examine how the properties of the set of states, different risk preferences of debtors and varying liability of lenders affect the structure of optimal repayments. In particular, we show that with risk-averse debtors, a general set of states, a constant observation cost and both unlimited and limited lender liability, the debtor is strictly better off revealing the true state of nature when his realized revenue is low, which implies that optimal debtor consumption has a downward jump around the single switch from observed to unobserved states. If the debtor can destroy revenue or if the debtor is risk neutral, this non-monotonicity of consumption disappears. Moreover, given the loan size, there is more monitoring under debtor-risk aversion than risk neutrality. We present simulations showing that a contract with unlimited lender liability and debtor-risk aversion has a higher expected observation cost but a lower variance of consumption than a contract with limited lender liability. Finally, we discuss the problems of commitment to verification and contract renegotiation in this framework. [source]

    Morphological and molecular examination of relationships and epitype establishment of Phacus pleuronectes, Phacus orbicularis, and Phacus hamelii,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    Sylwia Kosmala
    Verification of morphological diagnostic features and the establishment of three epitypes for three species of Phacus Dujardin,Phacus pleuronectes (O. F. Müll.) Dujardin, Phacus orbicularis Hübner, and Phacus hamelii Allorge et Lefèvre,was performed based on literature studies and analysis of morphological (cell shape, cell size, and periplast ornamentation) as well as molecular (18S rDNA) characters. Periplast ornamentation was recognized as a main diagnostic character, distinguishing P. orbicularis from P. pleuronectes and P. hamelii. Phacus orbicularis has struts running perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the strips, while P. pleuronectes and P. hamelii do not. On the SSU rDNA tree, obtained by the Bayesian method, P. orbicularis, P. pleuronectes, and P. hamelii belong to three distinct clades. Some of the phylogenetic relationships are not resolved, but there are at least three Phacus species (P. hamatus, P. platyaulax, P. longicauda; for taxonomic authors, see Introduction) that are more closely related to P. orbicularis than is P. pleuronectes. Phacus hamelii is more closely related to P. ranula and the assemblage of several species of Phacus, which have small cells, than to P. orbicularis or P. pleuronectes. [source]


    C.A. CHU
    ABSTRACT Response surface methodology was used to optimize formulations of chocolate peanut spread. Thirty-six formulations with varying levels of peanut (25-90%), chocolate (5-70%) and sugar (5-55%) were processed using a three-component constrained simplex lattice design. The processing variable, roast (light, medium, dark) was also included in the design. Response variables, measured with consumers (n = 60) participating in the test, were spreadability, overall acceptability, appearance, color, flavor, sweetness and texture/mouthfeel, using a 9-point hedonic scale. Regression analysis was performed and models were built for each significant (p < 0.01) response variable. Contour plots for each attribute, at each level of roast, were generated and superimposed to determine areas of overlap. Optimum formulations (consumer acceptance rating of , 6.0 for all attributes) for chocolate peanut spread were all combinations of 29-65% peanut, 9-41% chocolate, and 17-36% sugar, adding up to 100%, at a medium roast. Verification of two formulations indicated no difference between predicted and observed values. [source]

    Verification of a distortion in the microstructure of GaN detected by EXAFS using ab initio density functional theory calculations

    Nicholas Dimakis
    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements on a series of epitaxially grown GaN samples have shown a distortion in the microstructure of GaN. More specifically the central N atom is 4-fold coordinated but the four Ga atoms are not equidistant. It has been shown that 2.9 to 3.5 of them (depending on the growth conditions) are found in the expected from XRD distance of 1.94 Å and the remaining are at a distance longer by approximately 15%. Second derivative calculation of the conformation energy using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) is used to investigate if the symmetric GaN cluster as given by XRD is the most energetically favorable configuration and if not which distorted structure corresponds to the most energetically favorable one. A very good agreement between DFT results and experimental XAFS spectra has been found. Generalization this technique to other dislocated clusters is also discussed. [source]

    Forecast Verification: a Practitioner's Guide in Atmospheric Sciences

    Kuldeep Kumar
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Shocked quartz grains in the polymict breccia of the Granby structure, Sweden,-Verification of an impact

    Carl Alwmark
    In this study, drill core samples of a sedimentary breccia from the Granby structure have been investigated for microscopic shock metamorphic evidence in an attempt to verify the impact genesis of the structure. The finding of multiple sets of decorated planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz grains in these samples provides unambiguous evidence that the structure is impact derived. Furthermore, the orientation of the PDFs, e.g., , {101}, , {101} and r, z {101}, is characteristic for impact deformation. The fact that a majority of the PDFs are decorated implies a water-bearing target. The shocked quartz grains can be divided into two groups; rounded grains found in the breccia matrix likely originated from mature sandstone, and angular grains in fragments from crystalline target rocks. The absence of melt particles provides an estimated maximum shock pressure for the sedimentary derived quartz of 15,20 GPa and the frequency distribution of PDF orientations in the bedrock quartz implies pressures of the order of 10 GPa. [source]

    Assimilating humidity pseudo-observations derived from the cloud profiling radar aboard CloudSat in ALADIN 3D-Var

    Andrea Storto
    Abstract This paper describes an experimental procedure for assimilating CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) observations in ALADIN 3D-Var through the use of humidity pseudo-observations derived from a one-dimensional Bayesian analysis. Cloud data are considered as binary occurrences (,cloud' vs ,no-cloud'), which makes the approach feasible to be extended to other cloudiness observations, and to any other binary observation in general. A simple large-scale condensation scheme is used for projecting the prior information from a Numerical Weather Prediction model into cloud fraction space. Verification over a 1 month assimilation test period indicates a clear benefit of the pseudo-observation assimilation scheme for the limited CloudSat CPR data set, especially in terms of improved skill scores for dynamical parameters such as geopotential and wind. Copyright © 2008 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Verification of literature-derived SARs for skin irritation and corrosion

    M. Hulzebos
    Abstract Structural features known to irritate and corrode skin and physical properties associated with skin absorption were used to evaluate the irritation and corrosion potential of chemicals. Chemicals that irritate and corrode skin include organic acids and bases, aldehydes, halogenated esters, and chemicals with reactive groups. The activity of the reactive group decreases when sterically hindered by adjacent substituents or when electrons of the reactive group interfere with electrons of adjacent substituents. The structural features presented are a good basis for the calculation of SAR prediction rules. Also quantitative and qualitative physical conditions are given to predict skin irritation and skin corrosion. [source]

    Atrial Evoked Response Integral for Automatic Capture Verification in Atrial Pacing

    BORIANI, G.,et al.:Atrial Evoked Response Integral for Automatic Capture Verification in Atrial Pacing. Beat-by-beat Autocapture is currently limited to operation in the ventricle with bipolar leads. The authors investigated the integral of the negative-going portion of the atrial evoked response integral (AERI) as a potential resource for verification of atrial capture. Intracardiac electrogram signals were collected from 59 patients (ages 67.8 ± 15.1 years) with bipolar, low polarization atrial leads. The signals were collected over a mean period of 6.1 months (minimum 4 days) after lead implantation. St. Jude Medical Affinity pulse generators were used to perform automatic capture threshold tests while the electrogram signals were recorded by a Model 3510 programming device. These signals were transferred to a personal computer in digital form for later analysis. The AERI was calculated at each programmable pacing voltage until capture was lost. The difference between the polarization integral at loss of capture and evoked response integral with successful capture was sufficient to justify enabling the atrial Autocapture feature in 53 of 59 patients in whom bipolar pacing and unipolar sensing was performed. The authors developed a calibration routine to identify automatically those patients in whom atrial Autocapture could be programmed On, based on the polarization integral at loss of capture, the estimated maximum polarization integral, and the AERI. Preliminary analysis indicated that the AERI is a practical resource for beat-by-beat atrial capture detection when used with low polarization leads. (PACE 2003; 26[Pt. II]:248,252) [source]

    Verification and Inferentialism in Wittgenstein's Philosophy

    José Medina
    First page of article [source]

    Modelling of Shape Memory Alloys and Experimental Verification

    M. Schleich
    Prestrained shape memory alloys change their length when heated above their transformation temperature. This effect can be used to generate high forces in a small workspace, which has particular advantages in actuator design. The optimization and control of the shape memory actuator requires a comprehensive simulation of the material behavior. However, many of the existing models are limited to specific load cases or offer rough approximations only. A material model for shape memory alloys from Seelecke [1] is examined in this paper. This model describes the behavior of a shape memory wire, which is heated by electric current. It is implemented in a simulation program to investigate the actuator output and to improve the performance. Finally, the parameters of the simulation are adapted to experimental results. [source]

    A new method for estimating insolation based on PV-module currents in a cluster of stand-alone solar systems

    Frans Nieuwenhout
    Abstract In order to evaluate the performance of solar home systems (SHSs), data on local insolation is a prerequisite. We present a new method to estimate insolation if direct measurements are unavailable. This method comprises estimation of daily irradiation by correlating photovoltaic (PV) module currents from a number of SHSs, located a few kilometres apart. The method was tested with a 3-year time series for nine SHS in a remote area in Indonesia. Verification with reference cell measurements over a 2-month period showed that our method could determine average daily irradiation with a mean bias error of 1·3%. Daily irradiation figures showed a standard error of 5%. The systematic error in this method is estimated to be around 10%. Especially if calibration with measurements during a short period is possible, the proposed method provides more accurate monthly insolation figures compared with the readily available satellite data from the NASA SSE database. An advantage of the proposed method over satellite data is that irradiation figures can be calculated on a daily basis, while the SSE database only provides monthly averages. It is concluded that the new method is a valuable tool to obtain information on insolation when long-term measurements are absent. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    SAVANT analysis of the microelectronics and photonics testbed solar cell data,

    Robert J. Walters
    Abstract An analysis of solar array data from the Microelectronic and Photonic Testbed (MPTB) space experiment is presented. The data are analyzed using the displacement damage dose (Dd) methodology developed by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as implemented in the Solar Array Verification and Analysis Tool (SAVANT). SAVANT is a WindowsTM -based computer code that predicts the on-orbit performance of a solar cell in a specified Earth orbit. The predicted solar cell performance produced by the SAVANT code are compared with the measured on-orbit data. In addition, the calculated data are compared with onboard dosimeter measurements. The results allow both a validation of the SAVANT code and a comparison of the space environment models with measured on-orbit data. The results show the models to match the measured data within a factor of 2. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Quality assurance within the scope of Good Clinical Practice (GCP),what is the cost of GCP-related activities?

    A survey within the Swedish Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry (LIF)'s members
    Abstract The bureaucracy that the Good Clinical Practice (GCP) system generates, due to industry over-interpretation of documentation requirements, clinical monitoring, data verifications etc. is substantial. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage cost of all such GCP-related activities within phase III clinical trials performed in Sweden in 2005. Method: An electronic questionnaire on ICH GCP-activities and their related costs was sent to 47 of the 60 member companies of the Swedish Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry (LIF). Results: The number of respondents was 29, giving a response rate of 62% and covering 97% (n=250) of phase III trials performed in Sweden in 2005. Approximately 50% of the total budget for a phase III study was reported to be GCP-related. 50% of the GCP-related cost was related to Source Data Verification (SDV). A vast majority (71%) of respondents did not support the notion that these GCP-related activities increase the scientific reliability of clinical trials. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Intraperitoneal Insemination in Mammals: A Review

    JL Yaniz
    Contents This review focuses on factors associated with the development of intraperitoneal insemination in mammals. Findings to date indicate that fertility improves as the sperm cell concentration rises, but that the optimal sperm number differs in each species. Sperm washing before intraperitoneal insemination favours fertility. Peritoneal fluid shows a variable effect on spermatozoa, depending on the hormonal status of the female. The optimal time for insemination appears to be just prior to ovulation. The technique may be performed either through the abdominal or the vaginal wall. Verification of sperm deposition in the proximity of the ovaries improves fertility rates. Although associated with some risk of infection and an immune reaction against spermatozoa, the intraperitoneal technique rarely gives rise to severe anaphylactic shock, peritonitis, adhesion formation and the production of anti-sperm antibodies and these complications may be prevented by adequate sperm pretreatment and antibiotic therapy. The success of intraperitoneal insemination in humans, with results comparable with those of intrauterine insemination in the treatment of infertility, suggest the potential use of this technique in domestic mammals, especially in those in which intrauterine insemination poses practical difficulties. Some of the methods applied in human intraperitoneal insemination, such as confirming the position of the needle in the peritoneal cavity, and sperm pre-treatments might also improve results in domestic species. Conversely, the use of the animal model should help to develop some aspects of this technique in humans. [source]

    Insurance Coverage of Prescription Drugs and the Rural Elderly

    Curt Mueller PhD
    ABSTRACT: Context: Rural impacts of a Medicare drug benefit will ultimately depend on the number of elderly who are currently without drug coverage, new demand by those currently without coverage, the nature of the new benefit relative to current benefits, and benefit design. Purpose: To enhance understanding of drug coverage among rural elderly Medicare beneficiaries and their expenditures for pharmaceuticals. Methods: Estimates of the extent of coverage, expenditures, and sources of drugs were obtained using data are from the 1997 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey and the Pharmacy Verification and Household Components of the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Findings: Three-quarters of the urban elderly had some type of drug coverage in 1997 versus 59% of the elderly in rural areas. Urban residents were more likely to have obtained their drug coverage from an employersponsored supplemental plan, and rural residents were more likely to have self-purchased Medigap drug coverage. Expenditures and use of drugs by Medicare beneficiaries are greater for those with than without coverage, and differences are invariant with respect to geographic location. Coverage under self-purchased supplemental plans appears less generous than under employer-sponsored plans in both rural and urban areas. Rural and urban elderly are more than twice as likely to receive at least 1 prescribed medication through the mail than the general population. Conclusion: A well-designed Medicare drug benefit would be especially beneficial to the rural elderly because relatively more rural elderly currently lack coverage or have less generous coverage than urban beneficiaries. Mail-order distribution may help contain future program expenditures. [source]