Verbal Ability (verbal + ability)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

An examination of the CTONI utilizing Gc-Gf theory: A comparison of the CTONI and WJ-III

Kerry S. Lassiter
The present investigation examined the validity of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI) with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III COG) by administering these instruments in counterbalanced order to 60 college students. Results indicated that the mean CTONI NIQ score was not significantly different from the mean WJ-III COG General Intellectual Ability (GIA) score. However, mean score differences were found between the CTONI NIQ and the WJ-III COG Verbal Ability, Thinking Ability, Comprehension-Knowledge, and Fluid Reasoning cluster scores. Although the correlations between the CTONI and the WJ-III COG cluster scores were generally of small magnitude, the CTONI Geometric Nonverbal IQ composite score demonstrated construct specificity, whereas the CTONI Pictorial Nonverbal IQ scale did not. The implications of the findings are discussed and practitioners are asked to use caution when using this instrument to assess the fluid reasoning abilities of college students. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Hemispheric Surgery in Children with Refractory Epilepsy: Seizure Outcome, Complications, and Adaptive Function

EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2007
Sheikh Nigel Basheer
Summary:,Purpose: To describe seizure control, complications, adaptive function and language skills following hemispheric surgery for epilepsy. Methods: Retrospective chart review of patients who underwent hemispheric surgery from July 1993 to June 2004 with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Results: The study population comprised 24 children, median age at seizure onset six months and median age at surgery 41 months. Etiology included malformations of cortical development (7), infarction (7), Sturge-Weber Syndrome (6), and Rasmussen's encephalitis (4). The most frequent complication was intraoperative bleeding (17 transfused). Age <2 yr, weight <11 kg, and hemidecortication were risk factors for transfusion. Postoperative complications included aseptic meningitis (6), and hydrocephalus (3). At median follow-up of 7 yr, 79% of patients are seizure free. Children with malformations of cortical development and Rasmussen's encephalitis were more likely to have ongoing seizures. Overall adaptive function scores were low, but relative strengths in verbal abilities were observed. Shorter duration of epilepsy prior to surgery was related significantly to better adaptive functioning. Conclusions: Hemispheric surgery is an effective therapy for refractory epilepsy in children. The most common complication was bleeding. Duration of epilepsy prior to surgery is an important factor in determining adaptive outcome. [source]

Intellectual abilities and white matter microstructure in development: A diffusion tensor imaging study

Christian K. Tamnes
Abstract Higher-order cognitive functions are supported by distributed networks of multiple interconnected cortical and subcortical regions. Efficient cognitive processing depends on fast communication between these regions, so the integrity of the connections between them is of great importance. It is known that white matter (WM) development is a slow process, continuing into adulthood. While the significance of cortical maturation for intellectual development is described, less is known about the relationships between cognitive functions and maturation of WM connectivity. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations between intellectual abilities and development of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived measures of WM microstructure in 168 right-handed participants aged 8,30 years. Independently of age and sex, both verbal and performance abilities were positively related to fractional anisotropy (FA) and negatively related to mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD), predominantly in the left hemisphere. Further, verbal, but not performance abilities, were associated with developmental differences in DTI indices in widespread regions in both hemispheres. Regional analyses showed relations with both FA and RD bilaterally in the anterior thalamic radiation and the cortico-spinal tract and in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. In these regions, our results suggest that participants with high verbal abilities may show accelerated WM development in late childhood and a subsequent earlier developmental plateau, in contrast to a steadier and prolonged development in participants with average verbal abilities. Longitudinal data are needed to validate these interpretations. The results provide insight into the neurobiological underpinnings of intellectual development. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

One-year treatment of Alzheimer's disease with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: improvement on ADAS-cog and TMT A, no change or worsening on other tests

Alina Borkowska
Abstract The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning measured by selected psychometric and neuropsychological tools in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) after 1-year treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Seventy-six patients (22 male and 54 female) with a mild to moderate stage of AD, aged 56,86 (mean 68) years, were treated. Forty-seven received donepezil (mean dose 9.3,mg/d) and 29 rivastigmine (mean dose 8.5,mg/d). Cognitive measurements included: the mini mental state examination (MMSE), the Alzheimer disease assessment scale-cognitive (ADAS- cog), the trail making test (TMT) and the Stroop color word interference test. The assessments were made before and after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. A significant improvement in ADAS-cog (p,<,0.001, 83% of patients improved) and a worsening in MMSE (84% of patients worsened, p,<,0.01 after 6 and 12 months) was noted after the 1 year treatment. A majority of patients (57%) improved in the TMT-A (p,<,0.001), measuring psychomotor speed and worsened in the TMT-B (p,<,0.01, after 12 months), and Stroop B test (p,<,0.001), measuring working memory and executive functions, 53% and 61%, respectively. Most patients (83%) did not change their performance in the Stroop A (improvement after 3 months, p,<,0.001, worsening after 6 and 12 months p,<,0.01) test measuring verbal abilities, after 1 year treatment. The results obtained suggest that the treatment with cholinergic drugs may improve global cognitive functioning (ADAS-cog) and psychomotor speed (TMT A), however, such treatment is unable to prevent the deterioration of working memory and executive functions. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Neuropsychologic status at the age 4 years and atopy in a population-based birth cohort

ALLERGY, Issue 9 2009
J. Julvez
Background:, Mental health has been reported to be associated with allergy, but only a few cohort studies have assessed if neurodevelopment predicts atopy. Objective:, To investigate if neurobehavioral status of healthy 4-year-old children was associated with specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) at the same age and skin prick test results 2 years later. Methods:, A population-based birth cohort enrolled 482 children, 422 of them (87%) provided neurobehavioral data, 341 (71%) had specific IgE measured at the age of 4 years; and 395 (82%) had skin prick tests completed at the age of 6 years. Atopy was defined as IgE levels higher than 0.35 kU/l to any of the three tested allergens at the age of 4 or as a positive skin prick test to any of the six tested allergens at the age of 6. McCarthy Scales of Child Abilities and California Preschool Social Competence Scale were the psychometric instruments used. Results:, Twelve percent of children at the age of 4 and 17% at the age of 6 were atopic. Neurobehavioral scores were negatively associated with 6-year-old atopy after adjustment for socio-demographic and allergic factors, A relative risk of 3.06 (95% CI: 1.30,7.24) was associated with the lowest tertile (scorings ,90 points) of the general cognitive scale. Similar results were found for verbal abilities, executive functions, and social competence. Asthma, wheezing, rhinitis, and eczema at the age of 6, but not at the age of 4, were associated with neurodevelopment at the age of 4. Conclusions:, Neuropsychologic functioning and later atopy are negatively associated in preschool age children. [source]

Block Design Performance in the Williams Syndrome Phenotype: A Problem with Mental Imagery?

Emily K. Farran
Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder which, among other characteristics, has a distinctive cognitive profile. Nonverbal abilities are generally poor in relation to verbal abilities, but also show varying levels of ability in relation to each other. Performance on block construction tasks represents arguably the weakest nonverbal ability in WS. In this study we examined two requirements of block construction tasks in 21 individuals with WS and 21 typically developing (TD) control individuals. The Squares tasks, a novel twodimensional block construction task, manipulated patterns by segmentation and perceptual cohesiveness to investigate the first factor, processing preference (local or global), and by obliqueness to examine the second factor, the ability to use mental imagery. These two factors were investigated directly by the Children's Embeded Figures Test (CEFT; Witkin, Oltman, Raskin, & Karp, 1971) and a mental rotation task respectively. Results showed that individuals with WS did not differ from the TD group in their processing style. However, the ability to use mental imagery was significantly poorer in the WS group than the TD group. This suggests that weak performance on the block construction tasks in WS may relate to an inability to use mental imagery. [source]

The effects of age and professional expertise on working memory performance

Elena Cavallini
Differences in professional choice and experience may explain age differences in working memory performance of elderly people. The aim of this study was to examine whether expertise and prolonged practice in verbal and visuo-spatial abilities reduce age differences in laboratory working memory tasks. The effects of age and expertise on working memory performance were examined in three age groups in two different experiments. Firstly, the role of visuo-spatial expertise was analysed by examining age differences in architects. Secondly, people with extensive experience in verbal abilities (literary people) were tested in order to evaluate the effect of professional verbal experience. Architects and literary people outperformed a group of unselected age peers on tasks related to professional expertise only, but not on general working memory tests. There was no interaction between age and experience, suggesting that professional experience does not increase differences between experts and non experts and cannot modulate age-related effects. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Social Information Processing, Moral Reasoning, and Emotion Attributions: Relations With Adolescents' Reactive and Proactive Aggression

William F. Arsenio
Connections between adolescents' social information processing (SIP), moral reasoning, and emotion attributions and their reactive and proactive aggressive tendencies were assessed. One hundred mostly African American and Latino 13- to 18-year-olds from a low-socioeconomic-status (SES) urban community and their high school teachers participated. Reactive aggression was uniquely related to expected ease in enacting aggression, lower verbal abilities, and hostile attributional biases, and most of these connections were mediated by adolescents' attention problems. In contrast, proactive aggression was uniquely related to higher verbal abilities and expectations of more positive emotional and material outcomes resulting from aggression. Discussion focused on the utility of assessing both moral and SIP-related cognitions, and on the potential influence of low-SES, high-risk environments on these findings. [source]

Levels of literacy among juvenile offenders: the incidence of specific reading difficulties

Margaret J. Snowling
Introduction Academic achievement is low among offenders. Yet there is little evidence that prisoners are less literate than the general population. Do they have more dyslexia? This paper considers three definitions of dyslexia to see whether they relate to young offenders' literacy difficulties. Method The reading and spelling skills of 91 15- to 17-year-old male juvenile offenders who were incarcerated are reported, together with assessments of their vocabulary and non-verbal (spatial) skills. Estimates of the prevalence of reading disability are considered in relation to different definitions of dyslexia. Results The regression of literacy skills on non-verbal ability yielded an estimated prevalence of 57% while a more conservative estimate of 43% followed from the regression of literacy skill on verbal ability, and 38% of the sample had specific phonological deficits. Many of the offenders had experienced social and family adversity and reported poor school attendance. Discussion It is proposed that as a group, juvenile offenders are best described as having general verbal deficits encompassing problems of language and literacy. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Interrelations between maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight and sociodemographic factors in the prediction of early cognitive abilities

S. C. J. Huijbregts
Abstract Maternal prenatal smoking, birth weight and sociodemographic factors were investigated in relation to cognitive abilities of 1544 children (aged 3.5 years) participating in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Children's Development. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was used to assess verbal ability, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) block design test to assess visuospatial ability, and the Visually Cued Recall (VCR) task to assess short-term memory. Prenatal smoking was related to performance on the WPPSI-R, the PPVT, and the VCR, although it did not independently predict any cognitive ability after maternal education was taken into account. Birth weight was a more robust predictor of all outcome measures and independently predicted VCR-performance. Birth weight interacted significantly with family income and maternal education in predicting visuospatial ability, indicating a greater influence of birth weight under relatively poor socio-economic conditions. Parenting and family functioning mediated associations between maternal education/family income and cognitive task performance under different birth weight conditions, although there were indications for stronger effects under relatively low birth weight. We conclude that investigations of moderating and mediating effects can provide insights into which children are most at risk of cognitive impairment and might benefit most from interventions. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Serum Lipid Levels and Cognitive Change in Late Life

Chandra A. Reynolds PhD
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of lipids and lipoproteins on longitudinal cognitive performance and cognitive health in late life and to consider moderating factors such as age and sex that may clarify conflicting prior evidence. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A 16-year longitudinal study of health and cognitive aging. PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred nineteen adults from the Swedish Adoption Twin Study of Aging aged 50 and older at first cognitive testing, including 21 twin pairs discordant for dementia. MEASUREMENTS: Up to five occasions of cognitive measurements encompassing verbal, spatial, memory, and perceptual speed domains across a 16-year span; baseline serum lipids and lipoproteins including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (apo)A1, apoB, total serum cholesterol, and triglycerides. RESULTS: The effect of lipids on cognitive change was most evident before age 65. In women, higher HDL-C and lower apoB and triglycerides predicted better maintenance of cognitive abilities, particularly verbal ability and perceptual speed, than age. Lipid values were less predictive of cognitive trajectories in men and, where observed, were in the contrary direction (i.e., higher total cholesterol and apoB values predicted better perceptual speed performance though faster rates of decline). In twin pairs discordant for dementia, higher total cholesterol and apoB levels were observed in the twin who subsequently developed dementia. CONCLUSION: High lipid levels may constitute a more important risk factor for cognitive health before age 65 than after. Findings for women are consistent with clinical recommendations, whereas for men, the findings correspond with earlier age-associated shifts in lipid profiles and the importance of lipid homeostasis to cognitive health. [source]

An 8-Year Prospective Study of the Relationship Between Cognitive Performance and Falling in Very Old Adults

Kaarin J. Anstey PhD
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether cognitive performance, as distinct from cognitive impairment, predicts falling during an 8-year follow-up in a community-based sample of very old adults and to evaluate how cognitive change is associated with falling. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study including three waves of data collected in 1992, 1994, and 2000. SETTING: Population based, with the baseline sample drawn from the electoral roll. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria were completion of at least three cognitive tests at baseline and completion of the falls questionnaire at Wave 6 (N=539). MEASUREMENTS: Assessments of health and medical conditions, visual acuity, cognitive function, functional reach, semitandem stand, and grip strength were conducted in 1992 (baseline), 1994, and 2000. Self-report information on falls in the previous 12 months was obtained on each of these occasions. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between baseline cognitive performance and falling over 8 years, adjusting for sociodemographic, health, and sensorimotor variables. Random effects models were used to assess the relationship between change in cognitive performance and change in fall rate and fall risk over 8 years. RESULTS: Mini-Mental State Examination and verbal reasoning at baseline predicted rate of falling over an 8-year period. Within individuals, declines in verbal ability, processing speed, and immediate memory were associated with increases in rates of falling and fall risk. CONCLUSION: Cognitive performance is associated with falling over 8 years in very old adults and should be assessed in clinical practice when evaluating short- and long-term fall risk. [source]

Capacity of People with Intellectual Disabilities to Consent to Take Part in a Research Study

Linda Dye
Background, Within the context of current legislation relating to mental capacity in adults, the capacity of people with intellectual disabilities to consent to take part in research studies and the impact of different forms of information provision was experimentally investigated. Materials and methods, A questionnaire measure of ability to consent to take part in this research study was administered individually to participants. A total of 102 participants with intellectual disabilities were recruited from three day services for adults with intellectual disabilities. Consent information appertaining to taking part in an actual research project was presented to participants and their capacity assessed using a questionnaire. Three experimental conditions were used: ,,Control (n = 34) , consent information was presented followed by the questionnaire. ,,Section (n = 34) , consent information was broken into sections and the appropriate questions were asked following each section. ,,Photograph (n = 34) , consent information was accompanied by six colour photographs, followed by the questionnaire. Participants also completed measures of memory ability, verbal ability and non-verbal problem-solving ability. Results, Seventeen participants withdrew from the study at some point. Of the remaining 85 participants, no significant differences in ability to consent scores were found between the experimental conditions. Using this measure, only five participants (5.9%) were deemed able to consent, i.e. scored the minimum required on each aspect of consent. Conclusions, The validity and usefulness of the current dichotomous concept of consent is challenged as only a small proportion of participants were deemed able to consent. [source]

Readiness for Cognitive Therapy in People with Intellectual Disabilities

Paul Willner
Aims, Cognitive therapies are increasingly being offered by clinical psychologists to people with intellectual disabilities. This paper reviews some of the factors that influence people's readiness to engage in cognitive therapy. Literature review, Limited verbal ability, psychological-mindedness (particularly in relation to the understanding of emotions and the mediating role of cognitions), and self-efficacy, are all likely to present significant barriers. There may also be motivational barriers to treatment, including the functionality of some psychological presentations, maladaptive beliefs promoting resistance to change, the intellectually challenging nature of cognitive therapy, and external factors such as inappropriate settings. Engagement with therapy can be promoted by involving carers to support the therapy, but carers may themselves display a range of limitations of ability and motivation similar to those displayed by clients, which need to be recognized, and where possible addressed, in order for their involvement to be effective. Recommendations, If barriers to treatment are recognized, significant steps can be taken to increase accessibility. In addition to simplifying the delivery of therapy, there is also scope to simplify the model; this point is illustrated by case examples, and some principles for formalizing modifications to standard procedures are suggested. As barriers to treatment can often be surmounted, a decision whether or not to offer cognitive therapy should be derived from a comprehensive formulation, and should never be based solely on a client's performance on tests of cognitive ability. [source]

Ego Development and the Ethics of Care and Justice: The Relations Among Them Revisited

Eva E. A. Skoe
ABSTRACT This study examined the links among ego development and the ethics of care and justice in 144 Norwegian men and women, 15 to 48 years old, taking into consideration age, sex, education, and verbal intelligence. As expected, the relationship between Loevinger's model of ego development and care-based moral reasoning as measured with Skoe's Ethic of Care Interview (ECI) was significantly stronger than the one between ego development and justice as measured with Rest's Defining Issues Test (DIT). Both ethics correlated significantly with verbal ability. Analyses showed that beyond its overlap with verbal intelligence, the variance shared between the ECI and ego development was substantial. By contrast, when verbal intelligence was controlled, the DIT was not significantly related to ego development or to the care ethic. [source]

Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Japanese Association for Adolescent Psychotherapy, 16 November 2002, Tokyo, Japan

Article first published online: 28 AUG 200
Inpatient treatment of obsessive,compulsive disorder in a child and adolescent psychiatry ward M. USAMI National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kohnodai Hospital, Chiba, Japan This is a case report of a 13-year-old-boy (2nd grade in junior high school). His father had poor communication; his mother was a very fragile woman. The boy had been overprotected by his parents, as long as he responded to their expectations. He did not have any other siblings. He played well with his friends since he was young, and did not have problems until the 1st term (from April to July) of 1st grade in junior high school. However, in September he started to have difficulties going well with his friends, and going to school. He spent most of his time in his room, and began to repeat checking and hand-washing frequently. Even at midnight, he forced his mother to touch the shutter from outside of the house for many times. He also ritually repeated to touch his mother's body, after he licked his hands, for over an hour. He became violent, when his parents tried to stop him. In April, year X, his parents visited our hospital for the first time. From then, his mother could not tolerate her son's coerciveness any longer. His father explained to the boy that ,your mother has been hospitalized', and she started to live in the next room to the boy's without making any noise. After 3 months he noticed that his mother was not hospitalized, and he got very excited. He was admitted to our hospital with his family and relatives, in October, year X. At the initial stage of hospitalization he showed distrust and doubt towards the therapist and hospital. He had little communication with other boys and did not express his feelings. Therefore, there was a period of time where he seemed to wonder whether he could trust the treatment staff or not. During his interviews with his therapist he repeated only ,I'm okay' and did not show much emotional communication. For the boy, exposing himself was equivalent to showing his vulnerability and incompleteness. Therefore, the therapist considered that he was trying to denying his feelings to avoid this. The therapist set goals for considering his own feelings positively and expressing them appropriately. Also, the therapist carried out behavioral restrictions towards him. He hardly had any emotional communication with the staff, and his peer relationship in the ward was superficial. Therefore, he gradually had difficulty spending his time at the end of December On the following day in which he and the therapist decided to return to his house for the first time, he went out of the ward a few days before without permission. From thereon it was possible for him to share feelings such as hostility and aggression, dependence and kindness with the therapist. The therapist changed his role from an invasive one to a more protective one. Then, his unsociability gradually faded. He also developed good peer relationships with other boys in the ward and began to express himself feeling appropriately. He was also able to establish appropriate relations with his parents at home, and friends of his neighborhood began to have normal peer relationships again. During childhood and adolescence, boys with obsessive,compulsive disorder are known to have features such as poor insight and often involving their mothers. We would like to present this case, through our understanding of dynamic psychiatry throughout his hospitalization, and also on the other therapies that were performed. Psychotherapy with a graduate student that discontinued after only three sessions: Was it enough for this client? N. KATSUKI Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Before and after the psychotherapy, SWT was administrated in this case. Comparing these two drawings, the therapist was provided with some ideas of what kind of internal change had taken place inside this client. Referring to the changes observed, we would like to review the purposes and the ways of the psychotherapy, as well as the adequacy of the limited number of the sessions (vis-a-vis result attained.) Also we will discuss later if any other effective ways could be available within the capacities of the consulting system/the clinic in the university. Case: Ms. S Age 24 years. Problems/appeal: (i) awkwardness in the relationship with the laboratory colleagues; (ii) symptoms of sweating, vomiting and quivering; and (iii) anxiety regarding continuing study and job hunting. Diagnosis: > c/o PTSD. Psychotherapeutic setting: At the therapy room in the clinic, placed at the university, 50 min-session; once a week; paralleled with the medical treatment. Process: (1) Since she was expelled from the study team in the previous year, it has become extremely difficult for her to attend the laboratory (lab) due to the aforementioned symptoms. She had a feeling of being neglected by the others. When the therapist suggested that she compose her mental confusions in the past by attending the therapy room, she seemed to be looking forward to it, although she said that she could remember only a few. (2) She reported that she overdosed on sedatives, as she could not stop irritating. She was getting tough with her family, also she slashed the mattress of her bed with a knife for many times. She complained that people neither understood nor appreciated her properly. and she said that she wanted revenge on the leader of the lab by punishing him one way or other. (3) Looking back the previous session, she said ,I had been mentally mixed up at that time, but I feel that now I can handle myself, as I stopped the medication after consulting the psychiatrist. According to what she said, when she disclosed the occurrences in the lab to her mother, she felt to be understood properly by her mother and felt so relieved. and she also reported that she had been sewing up the mattress which she slashed before, without any reason. She added, " although I don't even know what it means, I feel that this work is so meaningful to me, somehow". Finally, she told that she had already made her mind to cope with the situation by herself from now on, although it might result in a flinch from the real solution. Situations being the above, the session was closed. Swt: By the remarkable changes observed between the two drawings, the meanings of this psychotherapy and its closure to the client would be contemplated. Question of how school counselors should deal with separation attendant on students' graduation: On a case in which the separation was not worked through C. ASAHARA Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan Although time limited relationship is one of the important characteristics in school counseling, the question of separation attendant on it has not been much discussed based on specific cases. This study focuses on the question of separation through looking at a particular case, in which the separation was not worked through, and halfway relationship continued even after the student's graduation and the counselor's resignation. I was a part time school counselor at a junior high school in Tokyo. The client was a 14-year-old female student, who could not go to her classroom, and spent a few hours in a sick bay when she came to school. She was in the final grade and there was only half a year left before graduation when we first met, and we started to see each other within a very loose structure. As her personality was hyper-vigilant and defensive, it took almost 2 months before I could feel that she was nearer. Her graduation was the first occasion of separation. On that occasion, I found that there had been a discrepancy between our expectations; while I took it for granted that our relationship would end with the graduation, she expected to see me even after she graduated, and she actually came up to see me once in a while during the next year. A year later, we faced another occasion of separation, that was my resignation. Although I worried about her, all I have done for her was to hand a leaflet of a counseling office, where I work as a part time counselor. Again I could not refer to her feelings or show any concrete directions such as making a fixed arrangement. After an occasional correspondence for the next 10 months (about 2 years after her graduation), she contacted me at the counseling office asking for a constant counseling. Why could I not deal with both occasions? and how did that affect the client thereafter? There were two occasions of separation. At the time of the client's graduation, I seemed to be enmeshed in the way of separation that is peculiar to the school setting. In general in therapeutic relationship, mourning work between counselor and client is regarded as being quite important. At school, however, separation attendant on graduation is usually taken for granted and mourning work for any personal relationship tends to be neglected. Graduation ceremony is a big event but it is not about mourning over one's personal relationships but separation from school. That may be why I did not appreciate how the client counted on our relationship. At the time of my resignation I was too worried about working through a change from very loose structure which is peculiar to the school setting to a usual therapeutic structure (fees are charged, and time, place are fixed). That is why I did nothing but give her a leaflet. In this way, we never talked about her complex feelings such as sadness or loneliness, which she was supposed to experience on separation. Looking at the aforementioned process from the client's viewpoint, it can be easily imagined that she could not accept the fact of separation just because she graduated. and later, she was forced to be in double-bind situation, in which she was accepted superficially (handed a leaflet), while no concrete possibility was proposed concerning our relationship (she could never see me unless she tries to contact me.) As a result, she was left alone and at a loss whether she could count on me or not. The halfway situation or her suspense was reflected in her letter, in which she appeared to be just chatting at first sight, but between the lines there was something more implying her sufferings. Above discussion suggests that in some case, we should not neglect the mourning work even in a school setting. To whom or how it is done is the next theme we should explore and discuss in the future. For now, we should at least be conscious about the question of separation in school setting. Study of the process of psychotherapy with intervals for months M. TERASHIMA Bunkyo Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan This is a report on the process of psychotherapy of an adolescent girl who showed manic and depressive state. At the time of a depressed state, she could not go to a college and withdrew into home, and the severe regressive situation was shown. Her therapy began at the age of 20 and she wanted to know what her problem was. The process of treatment went on for 4 years but she stopped coming to sessions for several months because of failure of the therapist. She repeated the same thing twice. After going through these intervals the client began to remember and started to talk about her childhood , suffering abusive force from her father, with vivid impressions. They once were hard for her to accept, but she began to establish the consistent figure of herself from past to present. In this case, it could be thought that the intervals of the sessions had a certain role, with which the client controlled the structure of treatment, instead of an attack against the therapist. Her object relation, which is going to control an object offensively, was reflected in these phenomena. That is, it can be said that the ambivalence about dependency , difficult to depend but desirous of the object , was expressed. Discontinuation of the sessions was the product of the compromise formation brought about the ambivalence of the client, and while continuing to receive this ambivalence in the treatment, the client started to realize discontinuance of her memories and then advanced integration of her self-image. For the young client with conflict to dependence such as her, an interval does not destroy the process of treatment but in some cases it could be considered as a therapeutic element. In the intervals the client could assimilate the matter by herself, that acquired by the sessions. Psychotherapy for a schizoid woman who presented eccentric speech and behaviour M. OGASAWARA Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan Case presentation: A case of a 27-year-old woman at the beginning of therapy. Life history: She had been having a wish for death since she was in kindergarten and she had been feeling strong resistance to do the same as others after school attendance. She had a history of ablutomania from the age of 10,15, but the symptom disappeared naturally. and she said that she had been eliminated from groups that she tried to enter. After graduating a junior college, she changed jobs several times without getting a full-time position. Present history: Scolded by her boy friend for her coming home too late one day, she showed confusion such as excitement, self-injury or terror. She consulted a psychiatrist in a certain general hospital, but she presented there eccentric behaviours such as tense facial expression, stiffness of her whole body, or involuntary movement of limbs. and because she felt on bad terms with the psychiatrist and she had come to cause convulsion attacks in the examination room, she was introduced to our hospital. Every session of this psychotherapy was held once a week and for approximately 60 min at a time. Treatment process: She sometimes presented various eccentric attitudes, for example overturning to the floor with screaming (1), going down on her knees when entrance at the door (5), entering with a knife in her mouth and hitting the wall suddenly (7), stiffening herself just outside the door without entering the examination room (9), taking out a knife abruptly and putting it on her neck (40), exclaiming with convulsion responding to every talk from the therapist (41), or stiffening her face and biting herself in the right forearm suddenly (52). She also repeated self-injuries or convulsion attacks outside of the examination room in the early period of the therapy. Throughout the therapy she showed hypersensitivity for interpersonal relations, anxiety about dependence, terror for self-assertion, and avoidance for confrontation to her emotional problems. Two years and 6 months have passed since the beginning of this therapy. She ceased self-injury approximately 1 year and 6 months before and her sense of obscure terror has been gradually reduced to some extent. Discussion: Her non-verbal wariness and aggression to the therapist made the sessions full of tension and the therapist felt a sense of heaviness every time. In contrast, she could not express aggression verbally to the therapist, and when the therapist tried to identify her aggression she denied it. Her anxiety, that she will be thoroughly counterattacked to self-disintegration if she shows aggression to other persons, seems to be so immeasurably strong that she is compelled to deny her own aggression. Interpretations and confrontations by the therapist make her protective, and occasionally she shows stronger resistance in the shape of denial of her problems or conversion symptoms (astasia, aphonia, or involuntary movements) but she never expresses verbal aggression to the therapist. and the therapist feels much difficulty to share sympathy with her, and she expresses distrust against sympathetic approach of the therapist. However, her obvious disturbance that she expresses when she feels the therapist is not sympathetic shows her desire for sympathy. Thus, because she has both strong distrust and desire for sympathy, she is in a porcupine dilemma, which is characteristic of schizoid patients as to whether to lengthen or to shorten the distance between herself and the therapist. This attitude seems to have been derived from experience she might have had during her babyhood and childhood that she felt terror to be counterattacked and deserted when she showed irritation to her mother. In fact, existence of severe problems of the relationship between herself and her mother in her babyhood and childhood can be guessed from her statement. Although she has been repeating experiences to be excluded from other people, she shows no attitude to construct interpersonal relationship actively. On the contrary, by regarding herself to be a victim or devaluating other persons she externalizes responsibility that she herself should assume essentially. The reason must be that her disintegration anxiety is evoked if she recognizes that she herself has problems; that is, that negative things exist inside of her. Therefore, she seems to be inhibited to get depressive position and obliged to remain mainly in a paranoid,schizoid position. As for the pathological level, she seems to have borderline personality organization because of frequent use of mechanisms to externalize fantastically her inner responsibility. For her high ability to avoid confronting her emotional problems making the most of her verbal ability, every intervention of the therapist is invalidated. So, it seems very difficult for her to recognize her own problems through verbal interpretations or confrontation by the therapist, for the present. In general, it is impossible to confront self problems without containing negative emotions inside of the self, but her ability seemed to be insufficient. So, to point out her problems is considered to be very likely to result in her confusion caused by persecution anxiety. Although the therapy may attain the stage on which verbal interpretation and confrontation work better some day, the therapist is compelled to aim at promoting her ability to hold negative emotion inside of herself for the time being. For the purpose, the therapist is required to endure the situation in which she brings emotion that makes the therapist feel negative counter-transference and her process to experience that the therapeutic relation itself would not collapse by holding negative emotion. On supportive psychotherapy with a male adolescent Y. TERASHIMA Kitasato University Health Care Center, Kanagawa, Japan Adolescent cases sometimes show dramatic improvements as a consequence of psychotherapy. The author describes how psychotherapy can support an adolescent and how theraputic achievements can be made. Two and a half years of treatment sessions with a male adolescent patient are presented. The patient was a 19-year-old man, living with his family. He had 5 years of experience living abroad with his family and he was a preparatory school student when he came to a mental clinic for help. He was suffering from not being able to sleep well, from difficulties concerning keeping his attention on one thing, and from fear of going to distant places. He could barely leave his room, and imagined the consequence of overdosing or jumping out of a window. He claimed that his life was doomed because his family moved from a town that was familiar to him. At the first phase of psychotherapy that lasted for approximately 1 year, the patient seldom responded to the therapist. The patient was basically silent. He told the therapist that the town he lives in now feels cold or that he wants to become a writer. However, these comments were made without any kind of explanation and the therapist felt it very difficult to understand what the patient was trying to say. The sessions continued on a regular basis. However, the therapist felt very useless and fatigued. Problems with the patient and his family were also present at this phase of psychotherapy. He felt unpleasant at home and felt it was useless to expect anything from his parents. These feelings were naturally transferred to the therapist and were interpreted. However, interpretation seemed to make no changes in the forms of the patient's transference. The second phase of psychotherapy began suddenly. The patient kept saying that he did not know what to talk about. However, after a brief comment made by the therapist on the author of the book he was reading, the patient told the therapist that it was unexpected that the therapist knew anything of his favorite writer. After this almost first interaction between the patient and the therapist, the patient started to show dramatic changes. The patient started to bring his favorite rock CDs to sessions where they were played and the patient and the therapist both made comments on how they felt about the music. He also started asking questions concerning the therapist. It seemed that the patient finally started to want to know the therapist. He started communicating. The patient was sometimes silent but that did not last long. The therapist no longer felt so useless and emotional interaction, which never took place in the first phase, now became dominant. The third phase happened rapidly and lasted for approximately 10 months. Conversations on music, art, literature and movies were made possible and the therapist seldom felt difficulties on following the patient's line of thought. He started to go to schools and it was difficult at first but he started adjusting to the environment of his new part-time jobs. By the end of the school year, he was qualified for the entrance to a prestigious university. The patient's problems had vanished except for some sleeping difficulties, and he did not wish to continue the psychotherapy sessions. The therapist's departure from the clinic added to this and the therapy was terminated. The patient at first reminded the therapist of severe psychological disturbances but the patient showed remarkable progress. Three points can be considered to have played important roles in the therapy presented. The first and the most important is the interpretation by behavior. The patient showed strong parental transference to the therapist and this led the therapist to feel useless and to feel fatigue. Content analysis and here-and-now analysis seemed to have played only a small part in the therapy. However, the therapist tried to keep in contact with the patient, although not so elegant, but tried to show that the therapist may not be useless. This was done by maintaining the framework of the therapy and by consulting the parents when it was considered necessary. Second point is the role that the therapist intentionally took as a model or target of introjection. With the help of behavioral interpretation that showed the therapist and others that it may not be useless, the patient started to introject what seemed to be useful to his well being. It can be considered that this role took some part in the patient going out and to adjust to the new environment. Last, fortune of mach must be considered. The patient and the therapist had much in common. It was very fortunate that the therapist knew anything about the patient's favorite writer. The therapist had some experience abroad when he was young. Although it is a matter of luck that the two had things in common, it can be said that the congeniality between the patient and the therapist played an important role in the successful termination of the therapy. From the physical complaint to the verbal appeal of A's recovery process to regain her self-confidence C. ITOKAWA and S. KAZUKAWA Toyama Mental Health Center, Toyama, Japan This is one of the cases at Toyama Mental Health Center about a client here, we will henceforth refer to her simply as ,A'. A was a second grade high school student. We worked with her until her high school graduation using our center's full functions; counseling, medical examination and the course for autogenic training (AT). She started her counseling by telling us that the reason for her frequent absences from school began because of stomach pains when she was under a lot of stress for 2 years of junior high school, from 2nd grade to 3rd grade. Due to a lack of self confidence and a constant fear of the people around her, she was unable to use the transportation. She would spend a large amount of time at the school infirmary because she suffered from self-diagnosed hypochondriac symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea and a palpitation. She continued that she might not be able to have the self-confidence to sit still to consult me on her feelings in one of our sessions. A therapist advised her to take the psychiatric examination and the use of AT and she actually saw the medical doctor. In counseling (sessions), she eventually started to talk about the abuse that started just after her entering of junior high school; she approached the school nurse but was unable to tell her own parents because she did not trust them. In doing so, she lost the rest of her confidence, affecting the way she looked at herself and thought of how others did. At school she behaved cheerfully and teachers often accused her of idleness as they regarded this girl's absences along with her brightly dyed hair and heavy make-up as her negligent laziness. I, as her therapist, contacted some of the school's staff and let them know of her situation in detail. As the scolding from the teachers decreased, we recognized the improvement of her situation. In order to recover from the missed academic exposure due to her long absence, she started to study by herself. In a couple of months her physical condition improved gradually, saying ,These days I have been doing well by myself, haven't I?' and one year later, her improved mental condition enabled her to go up to Tokyo for a concert and furthermore even to enjoy a short part-time job. She continued the session and the medical examination dually (in tangent) including the consultation about disbelief to the teachers, grade promotion, relationships between friends and physical conditions. Her story concentrated on the fact that she had not grown up with sufficiently warm and compassionate treatment and she could not gain any mental refuge in neither her family nor her school, or even her friends. Her prospects for the future had changed from the short-ranged one with no difficulty to the ambitious challenge: she aimed to try for her favorite major and hoped to go out of her prefecture. But she almost had to give up her own plan because the school forced her to change her course as they recommended. (because of the school's opposition with her own choice). So without the trust of the teachers combined with her low self-esteem she almost gave up her hopes and with them her forward momentum. In this situation as the therapist, I showed her great compassion and discussed the anger towards the school authorities, while encouraging this girl by persuading her that she should have enough self-confidence by herself. Through such sessions, she was sure that if she continued studying to improve her own academic ability by herself she could recognize the true meaning of striving forward. and eventually, she received her parents' support who had seemed to be indifferent to her. At last she could pass the university's entrance exams for the school that she had yearned to attend. That girl ,A' visited our center 1 month later to show us her vivid face. I saw a bright smile on her face. It was shining so brightly. [source]

Annotation: Development of facial expression recognition from childhood to adolescence: behavioural and neurological perspectives

Catherine Herba
Background:, Intact emotion processing is critical for normal emotional development. Recent advances in neuroimaging have facilitated the examination of brain development, and have allowed for the exploration of the relationships between the development of emotion processing abilities, and that of associated neural systems. Methods:, A literature review was performed of published studies examining the development of emotion expression recognition in normal children and psychiatric populations, and of the development of neural systems important for emotion processing. Results:, Few studies have explored the development of emotion expression recognition throughout childhood and adolescence. Behavioural studies suggest continued development throughout childhood and adolescence (reflected by accuracy scores and speed of processing), which varies according to the category of emotion displayed. Factors such as sex, socio-economic status, and verbal ability may also affect this development. Functional neuroimaging studies in adults highlight the role of the amygdala in emotion processing. Results of the few neuroimaging studies in children have focused on the role of the amygdala in the recognition of fearful expressions. Although results are inconsistent, they provide evidence throughout childhood and adolescence for the continued development of and sex differences in amygdalar function in response to fearful expressions. Studies exploring emotion expression recognition in psychiatric populations of children and adolescents suggest deficits that are specific to the type of disorder and to the emotion displayed. Conclusions:, Results from behavioural and neuroimaging studies indicate continued development of emotion expression recognition and neural regions important for this process throughout childhood and adolescence. Methodological inconsistencies and disparate findings make any conclusion difficult, however. Further studies are required examining the relationship between the development of emotion expression recognition and that of underlying neural systems, in particular subcortical and prefrontal cortical structures. These will inform understanding of the neural bases of normal and abnormal emotional development, and aid the development of earlier interventions for children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. [source]

Emotion recognition/understanding ability in hearing or vision-impaired children: do sounds, sights, or words make the difference?

Murray J. Dyck
Background:, This study was designed to assess whether children with a sensory disability have consistent delays in acquiring emotion recognition and emotion understanding abilities. Method:, Younger (6,11 years) and older (12,18 years) hearing-impaired children (HI; n = 49), vision-impaired children (VI; n = 42), and children with no sensory impairment (NSI; n = 72) were assessed with the Emotion Recognition Scales (ERS), which include two tests of the ability to recognize vocal expressions of emotion, two tests of the ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion, and three tests of emotion understanding. Results:, Results indicate that when compared with age-peers, HI children and adolescents have significant delays or deficits on all ERS, but VI children and adolescents are delayed only on emotion recognition tasks. When compared with children group-matched for verbal ability (Wechsler verbal scales), the achievement of HI children on ERS equals or exceeds that of controls; VI children underachieve on an emotion recognition task and overachieve on an emotion vocabulary task compared to verbal ability matched peers. Conclusions:, We conclude that VI children have a specific emotion recognition deficit, but among HI children, performance on emotion recognition and emotion understanding tasks reflects delayed acquisition of a broad range of language-mediated abilities. [source]

The Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics of Children With Low Working Memory

Tracy Packiam Alloway
This study explored the cognitive and behavioral profiles of children with working memory impairments. In an initial screening of 3,189 five- to eleven-year-olds, 308 were identified as having very low working memory scores. Cognitive skills (IQ, vocabulary, reading, and math), classroom behavior, and self-esteem were assessed. The majority of the children struggled in the learning measures and verbal ability. They also obtained atypically high ratings of cognitive problems/inattentive symptoms and were judged to have short attention spans, high levels of distractibility, problems in monitoring the quality of their work, and difficulties in generating new solutions to problems. These data provide rich new information on the cognitive and behavioral profiles that characterize children with low working memory. [source]

Peer Deviancy Training and Peer Coercion: Dual Processes Associated With Early-Onset Conduct Problems

James Snyder
The prospective relationships of conduct problems and peer coercion and deviancy training during kindergarten (mean age = 5.3 years) to overt and covert conduct problems in third,fourth grade were examined in a sample of 267 boys and girls. Coercion and deviancy training were distinct peer processes. Both were associated with earlier child conduct problems but were differentially associated with child impulsivity, verbal ability, anxiety, peer rejection, and deviant peer affiliation. Coercion by peers predicted overt conduct problems and peer deviancy training and the interaction of deviancy training and coercion predicted covert conduct problems in third,fourth grade. Peer deviancy training occurs in early childhood and may serve as an independent risk mechanism in addition to peer coercion for early-onset, persisting conduct problems. [source]