Velocity Range (velocity + range)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Phenotype and Function of Somatic Primary Afferent Nociceptive Neurones with C-, A,- or A,/,-Fibres

EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
S. N. Lawson
Nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones have fibres that conduct in the C, A, and A,/, conduction velocity range. The properties of nociceptive compared with non-nociceptive somatic afferent dorsal root ganglion neurones appear to fall into two patterns, A and B. Pattern A properties of nociceptive neurones, the more common type, include longer action potential duration and slower maximum rate of fibre firing, as well as a greater expression of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity. The values of pattern A properties appear to be graded according to the conduction velocity group (C, A, or A,/,) of the fibres. The most pronounced forms of A-type properties are expressed by nociceptive neurones with C-fibres, and these become less pronounced in nociceptive neurones with A,-fibres and least pronounced in those with A,/, fibres (C > A, > A,/,). Some of these properties are also expressed in a less extreme but similarly graded manner through C, A, and A,/, groups of non-nociceptive low threshold mechanoreceptive (LTM) neurone. The less common pattern B properties of nociceptive neurones have similar values in C-, A,- and A,/,-fibre nociceptive neurones but these clearly differ from LTM units with C-, A,- and A,/,-fibre conduction velocities. These features of nociceptive neurones include consistently larger action potential overshoots and longer after-hyperpolarisation durations in nociceptive than in LTM neurones. [source]


Exergetic performance assessment of a pilot-scale heat pump belt conveyor dryer

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESEARCH, Issue 3 2010
Zafer Erbay
Abstract In this study, olive leaves were dried in a pilot-scale heat pump (HP) belt conveyor dryer as a thin layer. Drying experiments were carried out at the drying air temperature range of 45,55C with the drying air velocity range of 0.5,1.5,m,s,1. The performance of the system and the process was evaluated using exergy analysis method. The exergy loss and flow diagram (the so-called Grassmann diagram) of the dryer system was presented to give quantitative information regarding the proportion of the exergy input that is dissipated in the various system components. Effects of the drying air temperature and the velocity on the performance of the drying process were discussed. The actual coefficient of performance values were obtained to be 2.37 for the HP unit and 2.31 for the overall system, respectively. The most important component of the system for improving the efficiency was determined to be the compressor. Exergetic efficiencies of the drying of olive leaves were in the range of 67.45,81.95%. It was obtained that they increased as the drying air temperature decreased and the drying air velocity increased. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Transient fluidization and segregation of binary mixtures of particles

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 11 2000
A. Marzocchella
Fluidization of binary mixtures of particles belonging to group B of the Geldart classification of powders was studied. Beds tested were prepared by mixing in different proportions particles with almost equal density (,2,500 kg/m3) and dissimilar size (125 ,m silica sand and 500 ,m glass beads). Experiments were carried out using a segmented fluidization column equipped with multiple pressure transducers. Experimental procedures included continuous monitoring of pressure drop at different locations along the bed during quasi-steady or stepwise changes of gas superficial velocity, and characterization of particle-size distributions in each segment of the fluidization column after fluidization of the bed for given times. Three ranges of gas superficial velocity were recognized for each solids mixture. At low velocity the bed behaves as a fixed bed. At high velocity, it is fully and steadily fluidized. In an intermediate velocity range, transient fluidization takes place: an initially uniform fluidized bed eventually undergoes segregation, giving rise to a defluidized bottom layer rich in the coarser solids and to a "supernatant" fluidized layer where finer particles prevail. The thresholds between these velocity ranges are rather sharp and were characterized as functions of initial bed composition. Rates at which the defluidized solids layer builds up from initially uniform beds, and the ultimate compositions of the defluidized bottom and fluidized top layers are characterized for beds with different compositions at variable gas superficial velocity. [source]


A computational study of the porosity effects in silica monolithic columns

JOURNAL OF SEPARATION SCIENCE, JSS, Issue 10-11 2004
Piotr Gzil
Abstract We report on a theoretical study of the influence of the through-pore porosity on the main chromatographic performance parameters (reduced theoretical plate height, flow resistance, and separation impedance) of silica monoliths. To investigate this problem devoid of any structural uncertainties, computer-generated structural mimics of the pore geometry of silica monolithic columns have been studied. The band broadening in these synthetic monoliths was determined using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software package. Three widely differing external porosities (, = 0.38, , = 0.60, and , = 0.86) are considered and are compared on the basis of an identical intra-skeleton diffusivity (D s = 510,10m2/s), internal porosity (,int = 0.5), and for the same phase retention factor (k = 1.25). Since the data are obtained for perfectly ordered structures, the calculated plate heights and separation impedances constitute the ultimate performance ever to be expected from a monolithic column. It is found that, if silica monoliths could be made perfectly homogeneous, domain size-based reduced plate heights as small as h min , 0.8 (roughly independent of the porosity) and separation impedances as small as Emin , 130 (, = 0.60) and Emin , 40 (, = 0.86) should be achievable with pure water as the working fluid. The data also show that, although the domain size is a much better reduction basis than the skeleton size, the former is still not capable of bringing the van Deemter curves of different porosity columns into perfect agreement in the C term dominated velocity range. It is found that, in this range, large porosity monoliths can be expected to yield smaller domain size-based reduced plate heights than small porosity monoliths. [source]


Subcritical Crack Growth in Lead Zirconate Titanate

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 7 2004
William S. Oates
Subcritical crack growth in terms of velocity,stress intensity factor (v,K) curves in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) were experimentally characterized on poled and unpoled compact tension specimens. The poled specimens were tested under open- and short-circuit electrical boundary conditions, which resulted in an increase in fracture toughness by 0.2 MPam1/2 for the accessible velocity range (v= 10,9 to 10,4 m/s) in the open-circuit case. Subcritical crack growth of unpoled specimens was obtained under ambient (relative humidity = 35%) and dry (relative humidity , 0.02%) conditions over a regime in stress intensity factor of 0.5 MPam1/2. [source]


Stick-slip in the presence of a normal vibration

LUBRICATION SCIENCE, Issue 3 2002
M. Krallis
Abstract This paper presents a dynamic analysis of a contact system subjected to an applied normal vibration. The tangential motion of the system is found to exhibit stick-slip behaviour dependent on the applied vibration, even in the absence of a difference in static and kinetic friction or a negative gradient in the friction-velocity relation. The analysis leads to the development of a criterion for stick-slip in the form of an equation defined in terms of the system and input parameters. This criterion is also presented graphically and is assessed through a series of experiments. The analysis and measurements show that stick-slip occurs for a significantly wider drive velocity range when the normal vibration applied is near the natural frequency of the drive system. In addition, when stick-slip occurs in the presence of a normal vibration, the frequency of stick-slip is found to lock in to the frequency of the applied vibration. [source]


Revisiting the origin of the high metallicities of sub-damped Lyman-alpha systems,

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY: LETTERS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2009
Miroslava Dessauges-Zavadsky
ABSTRACT Sub-damped Lyman-alpha systems (sub-DLAs) have previously been found to exhibit a steeper metallicity evolution than the classical damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs), evolving to close to solar metallicity by z, 1. From new high-resolution spectra of 17 sub-DLAs, we have increased the number of measurements of [Fe/H] at z < 1.7 by 25 per cent and compiled the most complete literature sample of sub-DLA and DLA abundances to date. We find that sub-DLAs are indeed significantly more metal-rich than DLAs, but only at z < 1.7; the metallicity distributions of sub-DLAs and DLAs at z > 1.7 are statistically consistent. We also present the first evidence that sub-DLAs follow a velocity width,metallicity correlation over the same velocity range as DLAs, but the relation is offset to higher metallicities than the DLA relation. On the basis of these results, we revisit the previous explanation that the systematically higher metallicities observed in sub-DLAs are indicative of higher host galaxy masses. We discuss the various problems that this interpretation encounters and conclude that in general sub-DLAs are not uniquely synonymous with massive galaxies. We rule out physically related sources of bias (dust, environment, ionization effects) and examine systematics associated with the selection and analysis of low-redshift sub-DLAs. We propose that the high metallicities of sub-DLAs at z < 1.7 that drives an apparently steep evolution may be due to the selection of most low-redshift sub-DLAs based on their high Mg ii equivalent widths. [source]


H2O maser and a plasma obscuring torus in the radio galaxy NGC 1052

ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue 2-3 2009
S. Sawada-Satoh
Abstract We present multi-frequency simultaneous VLBA observations at 15, 22 and 43 GHz towards the nucleus of the nearby radio galaxy NGC 1052. These three continuum images reveal a double-sided jet structure, whose relative intensity ratios imply that the jet axis is oriented close to the sky plane. The steeply rising spectra at 15,43 GHz at the inner edges of the jets strongly suggest that synchrotron emission is absorbed by foreground thermal plasma. We detected H2O maser emission in the velocity range of 1550,1850 km s,1, which is redshifted by 50,350 km s,1 with respect to the systemic velocity of NGC 1052. The redshifted maser gas appears projected against both sides of the jet, similar to the H I seen in absorption. The H2O maser gas is located where the free-free absorption opacity is large. This probably implies that the masers in NGC 1052 are associated with a circumnuclear torus or disk as in the nucleus of NGC 4258. Such circumnuclear structure can be the sense of accreting onto the central engine ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Transient fluidization and segregation of binary mixtures of particles

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 11 2000
A. Marzocchella
Fluidization of binary mixtures of particles belonging to group B of the Geldart classification of powders was studied. Beds tested were prepared by mixing in different proportions particles with almost equal density (,2,500 kg/m3) and dissimilar size (125 ,m silica sand and 500 ,m glass beads). Experiments were carried out using a segmented fluidization column equipped with multiple pressure transducers. Experimental procedures included continuous monitoring of pressure drop at different locations along the bed during quasi-steady or stepwise changes of gas superficial velocity, and characterization of particle-size distributions in each segment of the fluidization column after fluidization of the bed for given times. Three ranges of gas superficial velocity were recognized for each solids mixture. At low velocity the bed behaves as a fixed bed. At high velocity, it is fully and steadily fluidized. In an intermediate velocity range, transient fluidization takes place: an initially uniform fluidized bed eventually undergoes segregation, giving rise to a defluidized bottom layer rich in the coarser solids and to a "supernatant" fluidized layer where finer particles prevail. The thresholds between these velocity ranges are rather sharp and were characterized as functions of initial bed composition. Rates at which the defluidized solids layer builds up from initially uniform beds, and the ultimate compositions of the defluidized bottom and fluidized top layers are characterized for beds with different compositions at variable gas superficial velocity. [source]