Velocity Maps (velocity + map)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Measurement of the spatial distribution of fluvial bedload transport velocity in both sand and gravel

Colin D. Rennie
Abstract Maps are presented of the spatial distribution of two-dimensional bedload transport velocity vectors. Bedload velocity data were collected using the bottom tracking feature of an acoustic Doppler current pro,ler (aDcp) in both a gravel-bed reach and a sand-bed reach of Fraser River, British Columbia. Block-averaged bedload velocity vectors, and bedload velocity vectors interpolated onto a uniform grid, revealed coherent patterns in the bedload velocity distribution. Concurrent Helley-Smith bedload sampling in the sand-bed reach corroborated the trends observed in the bedload velocity map. Contemporaneous 2D vector maps of near-bed water velocity (velocity in bins centered between 25 cm and 50 cm from the bottom) and depth-averaged water velocity were also generated from the aDcp data. Using a vector correlation coef,cient, which is independent of the choice of coordinate system, the bedload velocity distribution was signi,cantly correlated to the near-bed and depth-averaged water velocity distributions. The bedload velocity distribution also compared favorably with variations in depth and estimates of the spatial distribution of shear stress. Published in 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Determination of transmural, endocardial, and epicardial radial strain and strain rate from phase contrast MR velocity data

Jana G. Delfino PhD
Abstract Purpose To develop a method for computing radial strain (,) and strain rate (SR) from phase contrast magnetic resonance (PCMR) myocardial tissue velocity data. Materials and Methods PCMR tissue velocity maps were acquired at basal and mid-short-axis slices in the myocardium in 10 healthy volunteers. An algorithm for computing radial strain and SR from PCMR tissue velocity data was developed. PCMR strain values were compared to values computed independently from contours drawn on cine steady-state free procession (SSFP) images. Peak endocardial and epicardial strain and SR values from PCMR data were compared. Results Excellent agreement was observed between peak strain values computed by PCMR and cine SSFP contours (38.1 5.4% vs. 38.1 6.2%; P = not significant [NS]). The presence of an endocardial-epicardial gradient was demonstrated in both strain and SR: peak endocardial values were larger than peak epicardial values in the basal and mid-short-axis slices (P < 0.05). Conclusion This study presents a method for determining radial strain and SR values from PCMR velocity data. This technique illustrates a difference in strain and SR across the myocardium with peak endocardial values being greater than peak epicardial values. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

In vivo quantitative three-dimensional motion mapping of the murine myocardium with PC-MRI at 17.6 T

Volker Herold
Abstract This work presents a method that allows for the assessment of 3D murine myocardial motion in vivo at microscopic resolution. Phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 17.6 T was applied to map myocardial motion in healthy mice along three gradient directions. High-resolution velocity maps were acquired at three different levels in the murine myocardium with an in-plane resolution of 98 ,m, a slice thickness of 0.6 mm, and a temporal resolution of 6 ms. The applied PC-MRI method was validated with phantom experiments that confirmed the correctness of the method with deviations of <1.7%. Myocardial in-plane velocities between 0.5 cm/s and 2.2 cm/s were determined for the healthy murine myocardium. Through-plane velocities of 0.1,0.83 cm/s were measured. Velocity data was also used to calculate the myocardial twist angle during systole at different slices in the short-axis view. Magn Reson Med, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The SAURON project , VIII.

OASIS/CFHT integral-field spectroscopy of elliptical, lenticular galaxy centres
ABSTRACT We present high spatial resolution integral-field spectroscopy of 28 elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies from the SAURON representative survey obtained with the OASIS spectrograph during its operation at the Canada,France,Hawaii Telescope. These seeing-limited observations explore the central 8 10 arcsec2 (typically 1 kpc diameter) regions of these galaxies using a spatial sampling four times higher than SAURON (0.27-arcsec versus 0.94-arcsec spatial elements), resulting in almost a factor of 2 improvement in the median point spread function. These data allow accurate study of the central regions to complement the large-scale view provided by SAURON. Here we present the stellar and gas kinematics, stellar absorption-line strengths and nebular emission-line strengths for this sample. We also characterize the stellar velocity maps using the ,kinemetry' technique, and derive maps of the luminosity-weighted stellar age, metallicity and abundance ratio via stellar population models. We give a brief review of the structures found in our maps, linking also to larger-scale structures measured with SAURON. We present two previously unreported kinematically decoupled components (KDCs) in the centres of NGC 3032 and NGC 4382. We compare the intrinsic size and luminosity-weighted stellar age of all the visible KDCs in the full SAURON sample, and find two types of components: kiloparsec-scale KDCs, which are older than 8 Gyr, and are found in galaxies with little net rotation; and compact KDCs, which have intrinsic diameters of less than a few hundred parsec, show a range of stellar ages from 0.5 to 15 Gyr (with 5/6 younger than 5 Gyr), are found exclusively in fast-rotating galaxies, and are close to counter-rotating around the same axis as their host. Of the seven galaxies in the SAURON sample with integrated luminosity-weighted ages less than 5 Gyr, five show such compact KDCs, suggesting a link between counter-rotation and recent star formation. We show that this may be due to a combination of small sample size at young ages, and an observational bias, since young KDCs are easier to detect than their older and/or corotating counterparts. [source]