Vehicle Safety (vehicle + safety)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

All-Terrain Vehicle Safety and Use Patterns in Central Illinois Youth

John W. Hafner MD
Abstract Context: All-terrain vehicles' (ATVs) popularity and associated injuries among children are increasing in the United States. Currently, most known ATV use pattern data are obtained from injured youth and little documented data exist characterizing the typical ATV use patterns and safety practices among American children in general. Purpose: To describe the typical ATV safety and use patterns of rural youth. Methods: A cross-sectional anonymous mail survey was conducted of youth participants (ages 8-18) in the 4-H Club of America in four Central Illinois counties. Questions examined ATV use patterns, safety knowledge, safety equipment usage, crashes, and injuries. Findings: Of 1,850 mailed surveys, 634 were returned (34% response rate) with 280 surveys (44% of respondents) eligible for analysis. Respondents were principally adolescent males from farms or rural locations. Most drove ,1 day per week (60.2%) and used ATVs for recreation (36%) or work (22.6%) on farms and/or private property (53.4%). Most never used safety gear, including helmets (61.4%), and few (14.6%) had received safety education. Of the 67% who experienced an ATV crash, almost half (44%) were injured. Children with safety training had fewer crashes (P= .01), and those riding after dark (P= .13) or without adult supervision (P= .042) were more likely injured. Conclusions: ATV use is common in a rural 4-H population. Most child ATV users were adolescent boys, had little safety training and did not use safety equipment or helmets. ATV injury prevention efforts should focus on these areas. [source]

Rule,based reasoning and neural network perception for safe off,road robot mobility

EXPERT SYSTEMS, Issue 4 2002
Edward Tunstel
Operational safety and health monitoring are critical matters for autonomous field mobile robots such as planetary rovers operating on challenging terrain. This paper describes relevant rover safety and health issues and presents an approach to maintaining vehicle safety in a mobility and navigation context. The proposed rover safety module is composed of two distinct components: safe attitude (pitch and roll) management and safe traction management. Fuzzy logic approaches to reasoning about safe attitude and traction management are presented, wherein inertial sensing of safety status and vision,based neural network perception of terrain quality are used to infer safe speeds of traversal. Results of initial field tests and laboratory experiments are also described. The approach provides an intrinsic safety cognizance and a capacity for reactive mitigation of robot mobility and navigation risks. [source]

Preventive medicine beyond 65

Lionel S. Lim
Preventive health care in adults aged 65 and older is essential to ensure that quality of life is maintained with longevity. The first half of this article will focus on the two major causes of mortality in the US adult population: cancer and cardiovascular disease. We will address current screening and chemoprevention issues pertaining to breast, cervical, colorectal, prostate and skin cancer. For cardiovascular disease prevention, we will discuss the importance of screening for and treating hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and the use of aspirin chemoprophylaxis and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. In the latter half, we will discuss other aspects of preventive health care including fall prevention, motor vehicle safety, immunizations and screening issues. Health screening can help detect conditions like osteoporosis, subclinical thyroid disease, hearing impairment, nutritional status, and oral and dental problems. Finally, we will also address psychosocial health issues that affect older people including dementia, depression, elder abuse, lifestyle habits and advanced directives. Our recommendations are based on the latest available evidence and include the US Preventive Services Task Force and other leading health professional organizations. [source]

Nonfatal work-related motor vehicle injuries treated in emergency departments in the United States, 1998,2002

Guang X. Chen MD
Abstract Background Current data on nonfatal work-related motor vehicle injuries are limited and fragmented, often excluding government workers, self-employed workers, and workers on small farms. This study seeks to bridge the present data gap by providing a national profile of nonfatal work-related motor vehicle injuries across all industries and occupations. Methods Study subjects were people who suffered nonfatal work-related motor vehicle injuries and were treated in a hospital emergency department in the United States. Subjects were identified from a stratified probability sample of emergency departments. National estimates and rates were computed. Results From 1998 to 2002, the average annual rate of nonfatal work-related motor vehicle injuries was 7 injuries per 10,000 full-time equivalents. The rate was three times higher in men than in women. The rates were higher in workers 15,19 years of age and in workers 70 years or older. Justice, public order, and safety workers had the largest number of injuries, and taxicab service employees had the highest injury rate of all industries. Truck drivers had the largest number of injuries, and police and detectives, public service employees had the highest injury rate of all occupations. Conclusion Future efforts need to develop and enhance the use of surveillance information at the federal and state level for work-related nonfatal motor vehicle injuries. Prevention efforts need to address occupational motor vehicle safety for both commercial truck/bus drivers and workers who are not commercial drivers but who drive light motor vehicles on the job. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:698,706, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The Effect of State Regulations on Motor Vehicle Fatalities for Younger and Older Drivers: A Review and Analysis

David C. Grabowski
Policymakers have had a long-standing interest in improving the motor vehicle safety of both younger and older drivers. Although younger and older drivers share the distinction of having more crashes and fatalities per mile driven than other age groups, the problems posed by these two groups stem from different origins and manifest in different ways. A number of state-level policies and regulations may affect the number of motor vehicle crashes and fatalities in these two high-risk groups. A critical review of the existing literature in regard to the risk factors and the effects of various policy measures on motor vehicle crashes in these two high-risk populations provides direction for policymakers and high-priority areas of interest for the research community. [source]