Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Terms modified by Vegetative

  • vegetative cell
  • vegetative community
  • vegetative compatibility
  • vegetative compatibility group
  • vegetative compatibility groups
  • vegetative cover
  • vegetative cycle
  • vegetative development
  • vegetative growth
  • vegetative organ
  • vegetative phenology
  • vegetative propagation
  • vegetative reproduction
  • vegetative spread
  • vegetative stage
  • vegetative state
  • vegetative storage protein
  • vegetative tissue
  • vegetative trait

  • Selected Abstracts

    Lack of Interaction between Extreme High-Temperature Events at Vegetative and Reproductive Growth Stages in Wheat

    B. Wollenweber
    Abstract Increased climatic variability and more frequent episodes of extreme conditions may result in crops being exposed to more than one extreme temperature event in a single growing season and could decrease crop yields to the same extent as changes in mean temperature. The developmental stage of the crop exposed to increased temperatures will determine the severity of possible damage experienced by the plant. It is not known whether or not the damaging effects of heat episodes occurring at different phenological stages are additive. In the present study, the interaction of high-temperature events applied at the stages of double ridges and anthesis in Triticum aestivum (L.) cv. Chablis was investigated. Biomass accumulation of control plants and that of plants experiencing high temperatures during the double-ridge stage were similar and were reduced by 40 % when plants were subjected to a heat event at anthesis. Grain number on the main and side tillers declined by 41 %, and individual grain weight declined by 45 % with heat stress applied at the double-ridge stage and anthesis or at anthesis alone. The harvest index was reduced from 0.53 to 0.33. Nitrogen contents in leaves were reduced by 10 % at the double-ridge stage and by 25 % at anthesis. The maximum rates of CO2 assimilation increased with heat stress at the double-ridge stage and higher rates were maintained throughout the growing season. The results clearly indicate that an extreme heat event at the double-ridge stage does not affect subsequent growth or the response of wheat to heat stress at anthesis. [source]

    Validation of plant functional types across two contrasting landscapes

    Michael Kleyer
    Disturbance; Fertility; Logistic regression; Trait; Urban landscape Abstract. The validation of plant functional type models across contrasting landscapes is seen as a step towards the claim that plant functional types should recur regionally or even globally. I sampled the vegetation of an urban landscape on a range of sites representing gradients of resource supply and disturbance intensity. A group of plants with similar attributes was considered a ,functional type', if the species significantly co-occurred in a certain segment of the gradient plane of resource supply and disturbance intensity. Vegetative and regeneration traits were considered. A similar study was performed in a nearby agricultural landscape (Kleyer 1999). The logistic regression models from the urban landscape were applied to the data set of the agricultural landscape and vice versa. Although the overall environment of the two landscapes was very different, recurrent patterns of several functional types were found. At high fertility and high disturbance levels, annual species predominated with a persistent seed bank, high seed output, and short vertical expansion. When disturbances changed from below-ground to above-ground, the sexual regeneration mode was replaced by the vegetative mode, while vertical expansion remained low. At medium disturbance intensities, the vertical expansion and vegetative regeneration increased with fertility, while the seed bank remained mostly transient to short-term persistent and lateral expansion and sexual regeneration was intermediate. At low disturbances and low resource supplies, seed bank longevity, and vertical and lateral expansion tended to be long. Diversity of groups of plants with similar attributes was highest at intermediate disturbance levels and low fertility. These results correspond with Grime's humped-back model and Connell's intermediate disturbance hypothesis. [source]

    Phenology of the environmental weed Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) along altitudinal and disturbance gradients in the Snowy Mountains, Australia

    Frances Mary Johnston
    This study examined the phenology of the weed Achillea millefolium over a growing season in the Snowy Mountains. Vegetative and reproductive characteristics of plants in 1 m2 quadrats were compared among sites at four different altitudes (medium and high montane, low and high subalpine) and three types of infrastructure (primary road, secondary road and building, total 12 sites). Altitude, infrastructure and time of year did not affect percentage cover of vegetation. Flowering started earlier and lasted longer in the low montane sites compared to high subalpine sites. The type of infrastructure only affected the number of reproductive structures at the peak of flowering, with A. millefolium growing next to buildings having two to three times more inflorescences per m2 than along primary and secondary road verges. At the peak for each reproductive stage, there was an average of 1.47 developing inflorescences, 21 inflorescences in bud, 24 inflorescences in flower, 4 inflorescences setting seed, and 3 releasing seed. Based on the maximum number of inflorescences present at any time at each site, there was an average of 36 inflorescences, giving an estimate potential seed production of 51 400 seed per one m2 for A. millefolium in the Snowy Mountains. If the climate changes in the Snowy Mountains as predicted, then it is likely that yarrow will produce more inflorescences and seed in the higher altitude sites. [source]

    Defense mechanisms against grazing: a study of trypsin inhibitor responses to simulated grazing in the sedge Carex bigelowii

    OIKOS, Issue 9 2007
    Åsa Lindgren
    Trypsin inhibitors have been suggested to constitute an inducible defense in the sedge Carex bigelowii, and some former studies suggest that this might be a cause for the cyclic population dynamics in many alpine and arctic small mammals, for example lemmings (Lemmus lemmus). We investigated this further by using a method of simulated grazing (clipping) at different intensities, in three different habitats with varying resource availability, with different harvest times (hours after clipping), and two different stages of ramets (reproductive/vegetative) in a study from the Swedish mountain range. Our results do not indicate that C. bigelowii has an inducible defense constituted by an increase in trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), but rather that the amount of soluble plant proteins (SPP) is lowered in wounded plants. The responses were somewhat different in the three habitats, with ramets growing in the marsh showing the highest ratio of TIA to SPP, due to low amounts of SPP. We did not find any significant effects of harvest time, or of the stage of the ramet that could support the hypothesis of an inducible defense. To conclude, we could not find any evidence for an inducible defense consisting of trypsin inhibitors in Carex bigelowii ramets, but we did find variations in the amount of SPP that may have nutritional consequences for herbivores. [source]

    Plant profilin isovariants are distinctly regulated in vegetative and reproductive tissues

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 1 2002
    Muthugapatti K. Kandasamy
    Abstract Profilin is a low-molecular weight, actin monomer-binding protein that regulates the organization of actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotes, including higher plants. Unlike the simple human or yeast systems, the model plant Arabidopsis has an ancient and highly divergent multi-gene family encoding five distinct profilin isovariants. Here we compare and characterize the regulation of these profilins in different organs and during microspore development using isovariant-specific monoclonal antibodies. We show that PRF1, PRF2, and PRF3 are constitutive, being strongly expressed in all vegetative tissues at various stages of development. These profilin isovariants are also predominant in ovules and microspores at the early stages of microsporogenesis. In contrast, PRF4 and PRF5 are late pollen-specific and are not detectable in other cell types of the plant body including microspores and root hairs. Immunocytochemical studies at the subcellular level reveal that both the constitutive and pollen-specific profilins are abundant in the cytoplasm. In vegetative cell types, such as root apical cells, profilins showed localization to nuclei in addition to the cytoplasmic staining. The functional diversity of profilin isovariants is discussed in light of their spatio-temporal regulation during vegetative development, pollen maturation, and pollen tube growth. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 52:22,32, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Neurotoxicity of methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDMA; ecstasy) in humans: how strong is the evidence for persistent brain damage?

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2006
    E. Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
    ABSTRACT Background The popular dance drug ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: MDMA and some analogues) causes selective and persistent neurotoxic damage of central serotonergic neurones in laboratory animals. Serotonin plays a role in numerous functional systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Consequently, various abnormalities including psychiatric, vegetative, neuroendocrine and cognitive disorders could be expected in humans following MDMA-induced neurotoxic brain damage. Aims In recent years, the question of ecstasy-induced neurotoxicity and possible functional sequelae has been addressed in several studies with drug users. The aim of this paper was to review this literature and weigh the strength of the evidence for persistent brain damage in ecstasy users. Methods We used Medline to view all available publications on ,ecstasy' or ,MDMA'. All available studies dealing with ecstasy users entered this analysis. Findings and conclusions Despite large methodological problems the bulk of evidence suggests residual alterations of serotonergic transmission in MDMA users, although at least partial restitution may occur after long-term abstinence. However, functional sequelae may persist even after longer periods of abstinence. To date, the most consistent findings associate subtle cognitive, particularly memory, impairments with heavy ecstasy use. However, the evidence cannot be considered definite and the issues of possible pre-existing traits or the effects of polydrug use are not resolved. Recommendations Questions about the neurotoxic effects of ecstasy on the brain remain highly topical in light of its popularity among young people. More longitudinal and prospective studies are clearly needed in order to obtain a better understanding of the possible long-term sequelae of ecstasy use in humans. [source]

    Cross-species divergence of the major recognition pathways of ubiquitylated substrates for ubiquitin/26S proteasome-mediated proteolysis

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2010
    Antony S. Fatimababy
    The recognition of ubiquitylated substrates is an essential element of ubiquitin/26S proteasome-mediated proteolysis (UPP), which is mediated directly by the proteasome subunit RPN10 and/or RPN13, or indirectly by ubiquitin receptors containing ubiquitin-like and ubiquitin-associated domains. By pull-down and mutagenesis assays, we detected cross-species divergence of the major recognition pathways. RPN10 plays a major role in direct recognition in Arabidopsis and yeast based on the strong affinity for the long and K48-linked ubiquitin chains. In contrast, both the RPN10 and RPN13 homologs play major roles in humans. For indirect recognition, the RAD23 and DSK2 homologs (except for the human DSK2 homolog) are major receptors. The human RAD23 homolog is targeted to the 26S proteasome by the RPN10 and RPN13 homologs. In comparison, Arabidopsis uses UIM1 and UIM3 of RPN10 to bind DSK2 and RAD23, respectively. Yeast uses UIM in RPN10 and LRR in RPN1. Overall, multiple proteasome subunits are responsible for the direct and/or indirect recognition of ubiquitylated substrates in yeast and humans. In contrast, a single proteasome subunit, RPN10, is critical for both the direct and indirect recognition pathways in Arabidopsis. In agreement with these results, the accumulation of ubiquitylated substrates and severe pleiotropic phenotypes of vegetative and reproductive growth are associated with the loss of RPN10 function in an Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant. This implies that the targeting and proteolysis of the critical regulators involved are affected. These results support a cross-species mechanistic and functional divergence of the major recognition pathways for ubiquitylated substrates of UPP. Structured digital abstract ,,A list of the large number of protein-protein interactions described in this article is available via the MINT article ID MINT-7307429 [source]

    Genome-wide identification, classification, evolutionary expansion and expression analyses of homeobox genes in rice

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 11 2008
    Mukesh Jain
    Homeobox genes play a critical role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. In the present study, we identified a total of 107 homeobox genes in the rice genome and grouped them into ten distinct subfamilies based upon their domain composition and phylogenetic analysis. A significantly large number of homeobox genes are located in the duplicated segments of the rice genome, which suggests that the expansion of homeobox gene family, in large part, might have occurred due to segmental duplications in rice. Furthermore, microarray analysis was performed to elucidate the expression profiles of these genes in different tissues and during various stages of vegetative and reproductive development. Several genes with predominant expression during various stages of panicle and seed development were identified. At least 37 homeobox genes were found to be differentially expressed significantly (more than two-fold; P < 0.05) under various abiotic stress conditions. The results of the study suggest a critical role of homeobox genes in reproductive development and abiotic stress signaling in rice, and will facilitate the selection of candidate genes of agronomic importance for functional validation. [source]

    Population variation in Persicaria salicifolia (Brouss. ex Willd.) Assenov (Polygonaceae) in Nigeria

    FEDDES REPERTORIUM, Issue 7-8 2002
    A. E. Ayodele Dr.
    Study of six living population samples and herbarium specimens of Persicaria salicifolia from Nigeria revealed considerable variability in vegetative and floral characters. Two subspecies, one of which is a new one (subsp. nova, p. 516), are recognised. Experimental cultivation showed that the combination of distinguishing characters for each subspecies remains intact under uniform conditions in the botanical nursery. Variabilität der Population von Persicaria salicifolia (Brouss. ex Willd.) Assenov (Polygonaceae) in Nigeria Studien an sechs lebenden Populationsproben und Herbar-Proben von Persicaria salicifolia aus Nigeria erbrachten eine beachtliche Variabilität der vegetativen und floralen Eigenschaften. Zwei Unterarten, eine von ihnen neu (subsp. nova) wurden verzeichnet. Kulturversuche zeigten, dass die Kombination der kennzeichnenden Merkmale jeder Unterart unter gleichen Bedingungen in einer botanischen Anzucht unverändert bleiben. [source]

    Histochemical localization of secretion and composition of the essential oil in Melittis melissophyllum L. subsp. melissophyllum from Central Italy

    Filippo Maggi
    Abstract The distribution and morphology of the secretory structures in Melittis melissophyllum L. subsp. melissophyllum (Lamiaceae) were studied for the first time by light and scanning electron microscopy. The indumentum of the vegetative and reproductive organs includes non-glandular hairs and peltate (type A) and capitate (types B and C) glandular trichomes. Histochemical techniques enabled specific location of the site of essential oil accumulation in the type A peltate hairs. In order to confirm the occurrence of the 1-octen-3-ol chemotype in central Italy, six populations growing in different places were analysed for the essential oil composition by GC,FID and GC,MS. In all populations, 1-octen-3-ol was detected as the major volatile component, representing 56.3,70.6% of the total oils. To date, these percentages are the highest detected in a plant essential oil. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Volatile constituents of essential oils isolated at different growth stages from three Conyza species growing in Greece

    O. Tzakou
    Abstract The essential oils isolated at vegetative, flowering and flowering,fruiting stages of three Conyza species growing in Greece were analysed by GC,MS; 54 constituents were identified. The oils of C. albida were rich in limonene (10.0,21.1%), germacrene D (10.5,20.2%) and cis -lachnophyllum ester (8.8,36.5%). The oils of C. bonariensis were rich in limonene (8.3,15.1%), (E)- , -ocimene (11.5,18.9%), cis -lachnophyllum ester (10.8,21.2%) and matricaria ester (9.4,17.5%). The oils of C. canadensis were rich in limonene (50.0,70.3%) and (E)- , -ocimene (4.0,7.5%). The oils showed significant variations among the growth stages. These variations can be used for distinguishing the three species. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Chemical variability of Artemisia vulgaris L. essential oils originated from the Mediterranean area of France and Croatia

    I. Jerkovic
    Abstract The essential oils of Artemisia vulgaris L. originating from France and Croatia were subjected to detailed GC,MS analysis in order to determine possible similarities and differences between them and their chemical compositions, depending on the stage of development. Plant materials were collected in Provence (France) and Dalmatia (Croatia) at four different stages of development: vegetative (June), buds (July), ,owering (August) and seeding (September). Comparison of the chemical composition and content, depending on phenological stages in both localities, shows qualitative similarity, but also the noticeable difference in the amounts of most components. First, the chemical composition of main compounds is very different; Croatian oils are rich in hydrocarbons, which are absent or present in low amounts in French oils. Also, with regard to the yield of essential oils, the yields from Croatian oils were higher (0.09,0.61%) than these from French oil (0.04,0.15%) at each development stage, respectively. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dual ant attraction in the Neotropical shrub Urera baccifera (Urticaceae): the role of ant visitation to pearl bodies and fruits in herbivore deterrence and leaf longevity

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    H. P. DUTRA
    Summary 1This study investigated the protective role of ants against phytophagous insects on Urera baccifera (L.) Gaudich. Ants (22 species) visit shrubs of U. baccifera throughout the year and forage especially on leaves, where they harvest pearl bodies, and on fruiting branches, where they collect fleshy fruits. The main leaf herbivores are the butterflies Smyrna blomfildia (Fruhstorfer) and Urbanus esmeraldus (Butler), and the moth Pleuroptya silicalis (Guené). 2The proportion of vegetative (no flowers or fruits) individuals of U. baccifera occupied by ants greatly surpassed that of neighbouring plant species lacking food rewards, consistent with the hypothesis that pearl bodies act as ant attractants. Ant visitation to vegetative individuals of U. baccifera increased larval mortality of S. blomfildia, suggesting that ants attracted to pearl bodies reduce herbivore survival. Fruits were also demonstrated to play an important role in ant attraction by U. baccifera. Ant visitation to pearl body-producing shrubs of non-myrmecophytic Piper amalago L. with U. baccifera fruits attached was significantly higher than to P. amalago plants with an attached leaf of U. baccifera. 3Ant-exclusion experiments showed that ants effectively reduce the incidence of lepidopteran larvae on the plants. In both 2003 and 2004, herbivores were more abundant on ant-excluded than on ant-visited shrubs of U. baccifera. Additionally, in both years ant-excluded plants had significantly faster leaf abscission rates compared with ant-visited plants. 4So far, all ant,plant systems with dual food rewards involve extrafloral nectar as one of the attractants. This study with U. baccifera is the first to report food bodies and fruits as ant attractants in a non-symbiotic ant,plant interaction. This facultative system is also unique in that herbivore deterrence caused by pearl body- and fruit-harvesting ants can also add to leaf longevity. [source]

    Seasonal nitrogen storage and remobilization in the forb Rumex acetosa

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    U. Bausenwein
    Summary 1,The contribution of N storage and remobilization to the vegetative and reproductive growth of the forb Rumex acetosa was quantified using 15N labelling techniques with plants derived from semi-natural grasslands in Scotland. 2,The contribution of remobilized N to the total N in the new above-ground tissues was highest at the beginning of the growing season at 58%. New leaves and reproductive organs contained equal amounts of remobilized N. 3,During early vegetative growth, the taproot was the main source of remobilized N, whereas during reproductive growth, N was additionally remobilized from fine roots and leaves. 4,Free amino acids (mainly arginine and glutamine) and proteins were identified as the main storage compounds in the taproots. The protein pool did not show any seasonal variations that indicated the existence of a vegetative storage protein, indicating that such proteins are not a necessary component of N storage/remobilization in all species. 5,The ability to store and remobilize N provides a mechanism for growth in the spring when the availability of soil N is low, and means that growth depends upon environmental conditions during more than one year. [source]

    Fungal alkaloids in populations of endophyte-infected Festuca rubra subsp. pruinosa

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2007
    B. R. Vázquez-de-Aldana
    Abstract Festuca rubra subsp. pruinosa is a grass that grows on coastal cliffs along the Atlantic coast of Europe. Asymptomatic plants of this species are systemically infected by the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. It is not known whether the alkaloids, ergovaline and peramine, are produced by the endophyte in F. rubra subsp. pruinosa. Plants from four populations were collected from the northern coast of Galicia (Spain) and examined for the presence of fungal endophytes. Ergovaline and peramine concentrations were analysed over two consecutive years, at two plant growth stages, and in different types of plant tissues. Infected plants of F. rubra subsp. pruinosa contained ergovaline but not peramine. Ergovaline was detected in 0·80 of the plants, with concentrations ranging from 0·05 to 1·9 ,g g,1 dry matter. The differences in ergovaline concentration between different types of plant tissues (vegetative and reproductive), plant populations and sampling dates were not statistically significant. [source]

    Demographic variation and biomass allocation of Agropyron cristatum grown on steppe and dune sites in the Hunshandake Desert, North China

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2005
    R. Z. Wang
    Abstract Demographic and biomass allocation patterns of Agropyron cristatum were measured on steppe and dune sites in the Hunshandake desert of North China in 2001 and 2002. Total plant population, reproductive shoot densities and its differentiation rates were significantly higher in the steppe sites in both years. Plant heights for both vegetative and reproductive shoots were greater in the year with the higher rainfall. The dune sites had a higher biomass allocation to vegetative shoots and roots, while the steppe sites had a higher biomass allocation to reproductive shoots and seed production. It is suggested that the population demography and biomass allocation of the species responded to the differences in the soil variables in the steppe and dune sites. [source]

    Forage and biomass feedstock production from hybrid forage sorghum and sorghum,sudangrass hybrids

    GRASSLAND SCIENCE, Issue 4 2008
    Brad Venuto
    Abstract As the bioenergy industry expands, producers choosing to shift current forage crop production to dedicated biomass crops can benefit from growing lower risk multipurpose crops that maximize management options. Hybrid forage sorghums (HFS) and sorghum,sudangrass hybrids (SSG) are capable of impressive biomass yields and tolerance to environmental stress. Multiple vegetative harvests (ratoon harvests) of sorghum are possible and there are photoperiod-sensitive sorghums that remain vegetative. However, the response of newer HFS and SSG cultivars to harvest management practices designed for forage or cellulosic feedstock production has not been fully investigated in all environments. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine biomass production and quality characteristics of a genetically diverse range of HFS, SSG and sudangrass cultivars and evaluate their interaction with harvest system; and (ii) provide data to aid selection of sorghum cultivars for both forage and biofuel uses. Mean yield across all entries and years for a single late season harvest was 27.1 Mg ha,1 of dry matter per year. Mean total yield for a first harvest plus a ratoon crop was 25.5 Mg ha,1 of dry matter per year. However, entries varied for yield and interacted with harvest system. Mean caloric value was 16.5 Gj Mg,1 and modest differences were observed among cultivars evaluated. The best performing entry (cv. Tentaka) yielded 40.3 Mg ha,1 of dry matter for a single late season harvest, demonstrating the biomass potential of existing sorghum cultivars, specifically those possessing photoperiod- and/or thermosensitive genotypes. [source]

    Improving Drought Tolerance by Exogenous Application of Glycinebetaine and Salicylic Acid in Sunflower

    M. Hussain
    Abstract Water shortage is a severe threat to the sustainability of crop production. Exogenous application of glycinebetaine (GB) and salicylic acid (SA) has been found very effective in reducing the adverse affects of drought stress. This study was conducted to examine the possible role of exogenous GB and SA application in improving the yield of hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under different irrigation regimes. There were three levels of irrigation, viz. control (normal irrigations), water stress at vegetative stage (irrigation missing at vegetative stage) and water stress at flowering stage (irrigation missing at flowering stage). GB and SA were applied exogenously at 100 and 0.724 mm, respectively, each at the vegetative and at the flowering stage. Control plants did not receive application of GB and SA. Water stress reduced the head diameter, number of achene, 1000-achene weight, achene yield and oil yield. Nevertheless, exogenous GB and SA application significantly improved these attributes under water stress. However, drought stress increased the free leaf proline and GB, and were further increased by exogenous application of GB and SA. However, exogenous GB application at the flowering stage was more effective than other treatments. Oil contents were also reduced under water stress; however, GB and SA application could not ameliorate the negative effect of water stress on achene oil contents. The effects of water stress and foliar application of GB were more pronounced when applied at the flowering stage than at the vegetative stage. Moreover, exogenous GB application was only beneficial under stress conditions. [source]

    Response of pea (Pisum sativum L.) to mepiquat chloride under varying application doses and stages

    E. Elkoca
    Abstract Grown as a monoculture, peas (Pisum sativum L.) exhibit severe lodging after flowering and lodging causes yield reductions considerable. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dose (untreated, 25, 50, 75 and 100 g a.i. ha,1) and stage (late vegetative, early blooming and early pod filling) of mepiquat chloride (MC) application on the growth, lodging control, seed yield and yield parameters of pea (Pisum sativum L.) under field conditions in Erzurum, Turkey in 2002 and 2003. Application doses of 25, 50, 75 and 100 g a.i. ha,1 significantly reduced stem height by 5.3 %, 7.2 %, 7.5 % and 6.4 % and increased stem width by 7.5 %, 12.7 %, 12.3 % and 15.7 % respectively, when compared with the untreated control, and thereby reduced the tendency of the crop to lodging. Increases of the seed yield under different application doses of MC ranged between 13.7 % and 20.1 % over the untreated control. However, in all parameters investigated, except for stem width, higher application doses of MC gave no clear advantages compared with the application dose of 25 g a.i. ha,1. Seed yield was also significantly influenced by application stage of MC and application at early blooming stage of crop, MC significantly increased seed yield by 11.4 % and 10.2 % when compared with the late vegetative and the early pod filling stages respectively. Furthermore, the interaction of application dose and stage was significant, and spraying of pea plants with 25 g a.i. ha,1 MC at early blooming stage has the most beneficial effects on the characters evaluated. [source]

    Response of Black Nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.) to Phosphorus Application

    M. M. A. Khan
    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of phosphorus (P) on the vegetative and reproductive growth of black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.). Single superphosphate was applied at 0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75 g P/pot containing 3.5 kg of soil. Seeds were sown directly in pots and plant samples were taken at fortnightly intervals for recording growth and yield parameters. In addition, the solasodine content in fruit and N, P and K levels in leaves were also estimated. Most parameters were significantly influenced by P, with0.45 g/pot generally proving optimal. The data also established that the berries should be harvested between 160 and 190 days (days after sowing), preferably at 175 days for maximum fruit yield and solasodine production. Most parameters showed consistent and positive correlations with leaf P content. Interestingly, the correlation between leaf P content at 40 days and solasodine yield at 175 days was highly significant (r = 0.888), implying that the former is predictive of the latter. Thus, if low leaf P content was noted at 40 days corrective measures like foliar application or top dressing may be adopted to increase the leaf P content to ensure maximum solasodine at harvest. Zusammenfassung Es wurde ein Gefäßexperiment mit Nachtschatten (Solanum nigrum L.) durchgeführt, um den Einfluß von Phosphor (P) auf das vegetative und reproduktive Wachstum zu untersuchen. Einfach-Superphosphat wurde mit Mengen von 0, 0,15, 0,30, 0,45, 0,60 und 0,75 gP/Gefäß mit 3,5 kg Boden angewendet. Die Samen wurden direkt in die Gefäße ausgesät und die Pflanzenproben wurden 14-tägig für Untersuchungen hinsichtlich Wachstum und Ertragsparameter genommen. Zusätzlich wurde der Solasodine-Gehalt in der Frucht sowie N, P und K in den Blättern bestimmt. Die meisten Parameter waren sig-nifikant beeinflußt durch P, wobei sich 0,45 g/Gefäß als optimal erwies. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß die Beeren 160,190 d (Tage nach der Aussaat), am günstigsten 175 Tage, für maximalen Fruchtertrag und Solasodine-Produktion zu ernten sind. Die meisten Parameter zeigten konsistente und positive Korrelationen mit dem Blatt-P-Gehalt. Es ist interessant, daß die Korrelation zwischen Blatt-P-Gehalt nach 40 Tagen sowie Solasodine-Ertrag nach 175 Tagen hochsignifikant war (r = 0,888), was für eine Zeitvoraussage genutzt werden kann. Es erscheint daher möglich, falls geringer Blatt-P-Gehalt nach 40 Tagen festgestellt wird, Blattanwendungen oder Düngungen zur Erhöhung des Blatt-P-Gehaltes vorzunehmen, um ein Maximum an Solasodine zur Ernte zu erreichen. [source]

    Can grazing response of herbaceous plants be predicted from simple vegetative traits?

    Sandra Díaz
    Summary 1,Range management is based on the response of plant species and communities to grazing intensity. The identification of easily measured plant functional traits that consistently predict grazing response in a wide spectrum of rangelands would be a major advance. 2,Sets of species from temperate subhumid upland grasslands of Argentina and Israel, grazed by cattle, were analysed to find out whether: (i) plants with contrasting grazing responses differed in terms of easily measured vegetative and life-history traits; (ii) their grazing response could be predicted from those traits; (iii) these patterns differed between the two countries. Leaf mass, area, specific area (SLA) and toughness were measured on 83 Argentine and 19 Israeli species. Species were classified by grazing response (grazing-susceptible or grazing-resistant) and plant height (< or > 40 cm) as well as by life history (annual or perennial) and taxonomy (monocotyledon or dicotyledon). 3,Similar plant traits were associated with a specific response to grazing in both Argentina and Israel. Grazing-resistant species were shorter in height, and had smaller, more tender, leaves, with higher SLA than grazing-susceptible species. Grazing resistance was associated with both avoidance traits (small height and leaf size) and tolerance traits (high SLA). Leaf toughness did not contribute to grazing resistance and may be related to selection for canopy dominance. 4,Plant height was the best single predictor of grazing response, followed by leaf mass. The best prediction of species grazing response was achieved by combining plant height, life history and leaf mass. SLA was a comparatively poor predictor of grazing response. 5,The ranges of plant traits, and some correlation patterns between them, differed markedly between species sets from Argentina and Israel. However, the significant relationships between plant traits and grazing response were maintained. 6,The results of this exploratory study suggest that prediction of grazing responses on the basis of easily measured plant traits is feasible and consistent between similar grazing systems in different regions. The results challenge the precept that intense cattle grazing necessarily favours species with tough, unpalatable, leaves. [source]

    Pemphigoid vegetans: a case report and review of the literature

    Jinah Kim
    Pemphigoid vegetans is an exceptionally rare intertriginous variant of bullous pemphigoid characterized by vegetative and purulent lesions present in the groin, axillae, thighs, hands, eyelids and perioral regions. The clinical, histopathological and immunofluorescent profile of a new case of pemphigoid vegetans in a 79-year-old man is reported. Our patient had papillomatous plaques with pustules in the bilateral inguinal folds, which clinically resembled pemphigus vegetans. Also suggesting pemphigus vegetans, an initial skin biopsy showed eosinophilic spongiosis, while a second biopsy showed histological and immunological features diagnostic of pemphigoid. Because only a few cases of pemphigoid vegetans have been reported in the literature, clinical and morphological data are scant. Most reported cases were successfully treated with topical antibiotics or steroids; therefore, appropriate diagnosis of this rare lesion will assist management. [source]

    Demographic analysis of dormancy and survival in the terrestrial orchid Cypripedium reginae

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    Summary 1We use capture-recapture models to estimate the fraction of dormant ramets, survival and state transition rates, and to identify factors affecting these rates, for the terrestrial orchid Cypripedium reginae. We studied two populations in West Virginia, USA, for 11 years and investigated relationships between grazing and demography. Abe Run's population was small, with moderate herbivory by deer and relatively constant population size. The population at Big Draft was of medium size, with heavy deer grazing, and a sharply declining number of flowering plants up to the spring before our study started, when the population was fenced. 2We observed dormant episodes lasting from 1 to 4 years. At Abe Run and Big Draft, 32.5% and 7.4% of ramets, respectively, were dormant at least once during the study period for an average of 1.6 and 1.3 years, respectively. We estimated the annual fraction of ramets in the dormant state at 12.3% (95% CI 9.5,15.8%) at Abe Run and at 1.8% (95% CI 1.2,2.6%) at Big Draft. Transition rates between the dormant, vegetative and flowering life-states did not vary between years in either population. Most surviving ramets remained in the same state from one year to the next. Survival rates were constant at Abe Run (0.96, 95% CI 0.93,0.97), but varied between years at Big Draft (0.89,0.99, mean 0.95). 3At Big Draft, we found neither a temporal trend in survival after cessation of grazing, nor relationships between survival and the number of spring frost days or cumulative precipitation during the current or the previous 12 months. However, analysis of precipitation on a 3-month basis revealed a positive relationship between survival and precipitation during the spring (March,May) of the previous year. 4Relationship between climate and the population dynamics of orchids may have to be studied with a fine temporal resolution, and considering possible time lags. Capture-recapture modelling provides a comprehensive and flexible framework for demographic analysis of plants with dormancy. [source]

    Heritable variation and genetic correlation of quantitative traits within and between ecotypes of Avena barbata

    Abstract We examined heritable variation for quantitative traits within and between naturally occurring mesic and xeric ecotypes of the slender wild oat (Avena barbata), and in 188 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the ecotypes. We measured a suite of seedling and adult traits in the greenhouse, as well as performance-related traits in field sites native to the two ecotypes. Although the ecotypes were genetically diverged for most traits, few traits showed significant heritable variation within either ecotype. In contrast, considerable heritable variation was released in the recombinant progeny of the cross, and transgressive segregation was apparent in all traits. Heritabilities were substantially greater in the greenhouse than in the field, and this was associated with an increase in environmental variance in the field, rather than a decrease in genetic variance. Strong genetic correlations were evident among the recombinants, such that 22 measured traits could be well represented by only seven underlying factors, which accounted for 80% of the total variation. The primary axis of variation in the greenhouse described a trade-off between vegetative and reproductive allocation, mediated by the date of first flowering, and fitness was strongly correlated with this trade-off. Other factors in the greenhouse described variation in size and in seedling traits. Lack of correlation among these factors represents the release of multivariate trait variation through recombination. In the field, a separate axis of variation in overall performance was found for each year/site combination. Performance was significantly correlated across field environments, but not significantly correlated between greenhouse and field. [source]

    Phenotypic Plasticity of Life History Characteristics: Quantitative Analysis of Delayed Reproduction of Green Foxtail (Setaria viridis) in the Songnen Plain of China

    Hai-Yan Li
    Abstract Green foxtail (Setaria viridis L.) is a common weed species in temperate regions. Research on the effect of delayed reproduction on the phenotypic plasticity and regularity of the vegetative and reproductive growth is of vital significance for understanding population regulation and control of the weed in the growing season. Green foxtail seeds were sown every 10 days from 25 June to 24 August of 2004. The growth and production metrics were measured via harvesting tufts and statistical analysis was carried out. The results showed that the reproductive tillers, seed number, seed biomass and one thousand-seed weight of plants at the first sowing (25 June) approximately increased 28.8, 7 827.0, 1 104.0 and 12.3 times compared with that at the last sowing (24 August), respectively. Total tillers, reproductive tillers and height increased linearly as the reproductive period delayed, however, biomass increased exponentially. Quadratic equations best explained the relationships between the delayed reproductive period and seed number, inflorescence length, one thousand-seed weight, seed biomass. Based on the quantity and quality of seed production, weeding young seedlings emerging before July can be the most effective weed-control strategy in the Songnen Plain. [source]

    Reproductive Allocation Patterns in Different Density Populations of Spring Wheat

    Jing Liu
    Abstract The effects of increased intraspecific competition on size hierarchies (size inequality) and reproductive allocation were investigated in populations of the annual plant, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum). A series of densities (100, 300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2) along a gradient of competition intensity were designed in this experiment. The results showed that average shoot biomass decreased with increased density. Reproductive allocation was negatively correlated to Gini coefficient (R2 = 0.927), which suggested that reproductive allocation is inclined to decrease as size inequality increases. These results suggest that both vegetative and reproductive structures were significantly affected by intensive competition. However, results also indicated that there were different relationships between plant size and reproductive allocation pattern in different densities. In the lowest density population, lacking competition (100 plants/m2), individual reproductive allocation was size independent but, in high density populations (300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2), where competition occurred, individual reproductive allocation was size dependent: the small proportion of larger individuals were winners in competition and got higher reproductive allocation (lower marginal reproductive allocation; MRA), and the larger proportion of smaller individuals were suppressed and got lower reproductive allocation (higher MRA). In conclusion, our results support the prediction that elevated intraspecific competition would result in higher levels of size inequality and decreased reproductive allocation (with a negative relationship between them). However, deeper analysis indicated that these frequency- and size-dependent reproductive strategies were not evolutionarily stable strategies. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    Raquel Carmona
    In the fall, when 61% of the fronds of the Gelidium sesquipedale (Clem.) Born. et Thur. population located in Albufeira (southern Portugal) were reproductive, about 90% of these fronds were tetrasporophytes, whereas an equal percentage of female and male gametophytes was found (5%). The comparison of physiological performances of the reproductive phases (males, females and tetrasporophytes) did not reveal a physiological advantage of tetrasporic fronds. There were no significant differences either in the photosynthesis, nitrogen uptake, nitrate reductase activity, or biochemical composition of adult fronds. On the other hand, vegetative recruitment and spore production in the laboratory were significantly different. The re-attachment to calcareous substrate and the subsequent rhizoidal growth were faster in tetrasporophytes. Particular levels of temperature, rather than irradiance, had an important effect on the phase differences in the spore release, attachment, and germination rates. Significant results were the higher release of carpospores at all irradiances at 17°C, and the higher attachment percentage of carpospores at 13°C versus tetraspores. Under higher temperatures (21°C), tetraspores showed higher attachment rates while carpospores germinated more. G. sesquipedale cystocarps released carpospores for 2 months, while tetrasporangia stopped shedding tetraspores after 1 month, resulting in a 3-fold higher production of carpospores than tetraspores. Results showed that vegetative and spore recruitment may explain the low gametophyte,tetrasporophyte ratio of the studied population of G. sesquipedale as opposed to the physiological performance of phases. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
    An approximately 16-kb fragment of the Trichodesmium sp. IMS101 (a nonheterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium) "conventional"nif gene cluster was cloned and sequenced. The gene organization of the Trichodesmium and Anabaena variabilis vegetative (nif 2) nitrogenase gene clusters spanning the region from nif B to nif W are similar except for the absence of two open reading frames (ORF3 and ORF1) in Trichodesmium. The Trichodesmium nif EN genes encode a fused Nif EN polypeptide that does not appear to be processed into individual Nif E and Nif N polypeptides. Fused nif EN genes were previously found in the A. variabilis nif 2 genes, but we have found that fused nif EN genes are widespread in the nonheterocystous cyanobacteria. Although the gene organization of the nonheterocystous filamentous Trichodesmium nif gene cluster is very similar to that of the A. variabilis vegetative nif 2 gene cluster, phylogenetic analysis of nif sequences do not support close relatedness of Trichodesmium and A. variabilis vegetative (nif 2) nitrogenase genes. [source]


    Erik R. Lee
    ABSTRACT: A dynamic, compartmental, simulation model (WETLAND) was developed for the design and evaluation of constructed wetlands to optimize nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control. The model simulates the hydrologic, nitrogen, carbon, dissolved oxygen (DO), bacteria, vegetative, phosphorous, and sediment cycles of a wetland system. Written in Fortran 77, the WETLAND models both free-water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SSF) wetlands, and is designed in a modular manner that gives the user the flexibility to decide which cycles and processes to model. WETLAND differs from many existing wetland models in that the interactions between the different nutrient cycles are modeled, minimizing the number of assumptions concerning wetland processes. It also directly links microbial growth and death to the consumption and transformations of nutrients in the wetland system. The WETLAND model is intended to be utilized with an existing NPS hydro-logic simulation model, such as ANSWERS or BASINS, but also may be used in situations where measured input data to the wetland are available. The model was calibrated and validated using limited data from a FWS wetland located at Benton, Kentucky. The WETLAND predictions were not statistically different from measured values for of five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorous. Effluent DO predictions were not always consistent with measured concentrations. A sensitivity analysis indicated the most significant input parameters to the model were those that directly affected bacterial growth and DO uptake and movement. The model was used to design a hypothetical constructed wetland in a subwatershed of the Nomini Creek watershed, located in Virginia. Two-year simulations were completed for five separate wetland designs. Predicted percent reductions in BOD5 (4 to 45 percent), total suspended solids (85 to 100 percent), total nitrogen (42 to 56 percent), and total phosphorous (38 to 57 percent) were similar to levels reported by previous research. [source]

    Predictors of plant phenology in a diverse high-latitude alpine landscape: growth forms and topography

    Marianne Iversen
    Abstract Question: Different plant growth forms may have distinctly different functioning in ecosystems. Association of phenological patterns with growth form will therefore help elucidate the role of phenology in an ecosystem. We ask whether growth forms of common vascular plants differ in terms of vegetative and flowering phenology, and if such phenological differences are consistent across environmental gradients caused by landscape-scale topography. Location: A high-latitude alpine landscape in Finnmark County, Norway (70°N). Methods: We assessed vegetative and flowering phenology repeatedly in five growth forms represented by 11 common vascular plant species across an altitudinal gradient and among differing slope aspects. Results: Species phenology clustered well according to growth form, and growth form strongly explained variation in both flowering and vegetative phenology. Altitude and aspect were poor predictors of phenological variation. Vegetative phenology of the growth forms, ranked from slowest to fastest, was in the order evergreen shrubs [source]