Vector Mosquito (vector + mosquito)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Characterization of the Hox gene cluster in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2000
Martin P. Devenport
SUMMARY The Hox genes play a central role in regulating development and are involved in the specification of cell fates along the anteroposterior axis. In insects and vertebrates, these genes are clustered and organized in an arrangement that is largely conserved across evolutionary lineages. By exploiting the sequence conservation of the homeobox, orthologues of the Hox genes Sex combs reduced (Scr ,), fushi tarazu (ftz,), Antennapedia (Antp), Ultrabithorax (Ubx,), and abdominal-A (abd-A) have been isolated from the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. These genes were first identified in Drosophila, where they achieve a high level of functional complexity, in part, by the use of alternative promoters, polyadenylation sites, and splicing to generate different protein isoforms. Preliminary analyses of the Anopheles Hox genes suggest that they do not achieve their functional complexity in the same manner. Using a combination of in situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes and chromosome walking, the Anopheles Hox genes have been localized to a single cluster in the region 19D,E on chromosome 2R, a situation distinct from that of Drosophila where the Hox complex is split into two clusters. This study, therefore, provides a framework for future comparative analyses of the structure, organization, and expression of developmental regulatory genes between the lower and higher Diptera. Moreover, the genes that have been isolated enhance the genetic and physical maps of chromosome 2R in this medically important mosquito species. [source]


Gene structure and expression of nanos (nos) and oskar (osk) orthologues of the vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus

INSECT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
J. Juhn
Abstract The products of the maternal-effect genes, nanos (nos) and oskar (osk), are important for the development of germ cells in insects. Furthermore, these genes have been proposed as candidates for donating functional DNA regulatory sequences for use in gene drive systems to control transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens. The nos and osk genes of the cosmopolitan vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, encode proteins with domains common to orthologues found in other mosquitoes. Expression analyses support the conclusion that the role of these genes is conserved generally among members of the nematocera. Hybridization in situ analyses reveal differences in mRNA distribution in early embryos in comparison with the cyclorraphan, Drosophila melanogaster, highlighting a possible feature in the divergence of the clades each insect represents. [source]


Identification of a distinct family of genes encoding atypical odorant-binding proteins in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

INSECT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
P. X. Xu
Abstract We performed a genome-wide analysis for candidate odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (Ag). We identified fifty-seven putative genes including sixteen genes predicted to encode distinct, higher molecular weight proteins that lack orthologues in Drosophila. Expression analysis indicates that several of these atypical AgOBPs are transcribed in chemosensory organs in adult and immature stages. Phylogenetic analysis of the Anopheles and Drosophila OBP families reveals these proteins fall into several clusters based on sequence similarity and suggests the atypical AgOBP genes arose in the mosquito lineage after the divergence of mosquitoes and flies. The identification of these AgOBP genes is the first step towards determining their biological roles in this economically and medically important insect. [source]


Paradoxical effects of sublethal exposure to the naturally derived insecticide spinosad in the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti

PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE (FORMERLY: PESTICIDE SCIENCE), Issue 3 2009
Gloria E Antonio
Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that spinosad, a mixture of two tetracyclic macrolide compounds produced during the fermentation of a soil actinomycete, may be suitable for controlling a number of medically important mosquito species, including the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. The authors determined the effects of a 1 h exposure to a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of spinosad in the larval stage on the wing length, longevity and reproductive capacity of the adult survivors. RESULTS: The LC50 of spinosad for a wild-caught population of Ae. aegypti from Chiapas, southern Mexico, was estimated to be 0.06 mg AI L,1 in late third instars. Paradoxically, the female survivors of exposure to this concentration were significantly larger (as determined by wing length) laid more eggs, but were slightly less fertile than control females. This was probably due to elimination of the smaller and more susceptible fraction of mosquito larvae from the experimental population following spinosad treatment. Male survivors, in contrast, were significantly smaller than controls. No significant differences were detected in the adult longevity of treated and control insects of either sex. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in reproductive capacity of spinosad-treated females did not compensate for mortality in the larval stage and would be unlikely to result in population increase in this mosquito under the conditions that were employed. Sustained-release formulations would likely assist in minimizing the occurrence of sublethal concentrations of this naturally derived product in mosquito breeding sites. Copyright 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Insecticide resistance in vector mosquitoes in China

PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE (FORMERLY: PESTICIDE SCIENCE), Issue 11 2006
Feng Cui
Abstract Because of their special behaviour, physiology and close relationship with humans, mosquitoes act as one of the most important vectors of human diseases, such as filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, dengue and malaria. The major vector mosquitoes are members of the Culex, Aedes and Anopheles genera. Insecticides play important roles in agricultural production and public health, especially in a country with a huge human population, like China. Large quantities of four classes of insecticides, organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids, are applied annually to fields or indoors in China, directly or indirectly bringing heavy selection pressure on vector populations. The seven major species of vector mosquito in China are the Culex pipiens L. complex, C. tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Anopheles sinensis Wied., A. minimus Theobald, A. anthropophagus Xu & Feng, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti L., and all have evolved resistance to all the above types of insecticide except the carbamates. The degree of resistance varies among mosquito species, insecticide classes and regions. This review summarizes the resistance status of these important vector mosquitoes, according to data reported since the 1990s, in order to improve resistance management and epidemic disease control, and to communicate this information from China to the wider community. Copyright 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Insect immunity and its implication in mosquito,malaria interactions

CELLULAR MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
George Dimopoulos
Summary Insects' resistance to infectious agents is essential for their own survival and also for the health of the plant, animal and human populations with which they closely interact. Several of the major human diseases are spread by insects and are rapidly expanding as a result of the development of insecticide resistance in vectors and drug resistance in parasites. A vector insects' permissiveness to a pathogen, and hence the spread of the disease, will largely depend on the compatibility of the molecular interactions between the two species and the capability of the insect immune system to recognize and kill the pathogen. The innate immune system comprises a variety of components and mechanisms that can discriminate between different microorganisms and mount specific responses to control pathogenic infections. An impressive body of knowledge on the insects' innate immunity has been generated from studies in the model organism Drosophila. These studies are now guiding the exploration of the immune system in the vector mosquito of human malaria, Anopheles, and its implication in the elimination of parasites. Anopheles immune responses have been linked to parasite losses and some refractory mosquitoes can kill all parasites through specific defence mechanisms. The recently sequenced Drosophila and Anopheles genomes provide a detailed and comparative view on their immune gene repertoires that in combination with post-genomic analyses is used to further dissect the complex mechanisms of Plasmodium killing in the mosquito. [source]


Evaluation of Ssp I polymerase chain reaction assay in the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus and its application in the transmission studies of lymphatic filariasis

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 7-8 2002
S. L. Hoti
The evaluation of the assay was carried out using pools of vector mosquitoes collected from areas under filariasis survey and control trial projects, in comparison with the standard dissection and microscopy technique. In the filariasis survey area the infection rate as determined by the dissection and microscopy technique was 0.89% whereas it was 1.7% by PCR assay. In the Bacillus sphaericus trial area the infection rates as assessed by the conventional technique were 6.6 and 4.5% in the treated and check areas, respectively, whereas those obtained by the PCR assay were 4.7 to 2.2%. Although the infection rates determined by the PCR assay are slightly higher or lower than the rates obtained by the conventional technique, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.451 for filariasis survey area, and P=0.203 and 0.161 for B. sphaericus trial area). When the pool size of Cx. quinquefasciatus was increased to 50 the sensitivity of the PCR was affected. The changes in infection rates as influenced by the antifilarial chemotherapy were similar when determined by PCR assay and the standard method. The major advantage of the PCR assay over the conventional technique is that thousands of mosquitoes can be processed within a short duration and this attribute has potential application in rapid assessment of disease prevalence and monitoring of the transmission dynamics. [source]


Insecticide resistance spectra and resistance mechanisms in populations of Japanese encephalitis vector mosquitoes, Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus, in Sri Lanka

MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
S. H. P. P. Karunaratne
Summary Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Cx. gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae), both vectors of Japanese encephalitis, were collected in 1984 and 1998 from two disease endemic localities in Sri Lanka: Anaradhapura and Kandy. Using wild-caught adult mosquitoes from light traps, log dosage-probit mortality curves for insecticide bioassays were obtained for three insecticides: malathion (organophosphate), propoxur (carbamate) and permethrin (pyrethroid). LD50 values showed that, in 1998, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was ,100-fold more resistant to malathion and 10-fold more resistant to propoxur than was Cx. gelidus. This difference was attributed to Cx. tritaeniorhynchus breeding mostly in irrigated rice paddy fields, where it would have been exposed to pesticide selection pressure, whereas Cx. gelidus breeds in other types of aquatic habitats less prone to pesticide applications. Resistance in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus increased between 1984 and 1998, whereas Cx. gelidus remained predominantly susceptible. Propoxur inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (the target site of organophosphates and carbamates) indicated that in 1998, frequencies of insensitive AChE-based resistance were 9% in Cx. gelidus and 2,23% in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, whereas in 1984 this resistance mechanism was detected only in 2% of the latter species from Anaradhapura. The AChE inhibition coefficient (ki) with propoxur was 1.86 0.24 105 m,1 min,1 for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus from Anaradhapura in 1998. Both species were tested for activity levels of detoxifying glutathione S-trans- ferases (GSTs) and malathion-specific as well as general carboxylesterases. High activities of GSTs and carboxylesterases were detected in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus but not Cx. gelidus. Malathion-specific carboxylesterase was absent from both species. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved two elevated general carboxylesterases, CtrEst,1 and CtrEst,1, from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and none from Cx. gelidus. CtrEst,1 was the most intensely staining band. Gel inhibition experiments showed that both elevated esterases were inhibited by organophosphates and carbamates but not by pyrethroids. The major elevated esterase CtrEst,1 was partially purified (15-fold) by sequential Q-Sepharose and phenyl Sepharose column chromatography. The bimolecular rate constant (ka) and the deacylation rate constant (k3) for the malaoxon/ enzyme interaction were 9.9 1.1 103 m,1 min,1 and 3.5 0.05 10,4m,1 min,1, respectively, demonstrating that the role of this enzyme in organophosphorus insecticide resistance is sequestration. [source]


Insecticide resistance in vector mosquitoes in China

PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE (FORMERLY: PESTICIDE SCIENCE), Issue 11 2006
Feng Cui
Abstract Because of their special behaviour, physiology and close relationship with humans, mosquitoes act as one of the most important vectors of human diseases, such as filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, dengue and malaria. The major vector mosquitoes are members of the Culex, Aedes and Anopheles genera. Insecticides play important roles in agricultural production and public health, especially in a country with a huge human population, like China. Large quantities of four classes of insecticides, organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids, are applied annually to fields or indoors in China, directly or indirectly bringing heavy selection pressure on vector populations. The seven major species of vector mosquito in China are the Culex pipiens L. complex, C. tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Anopheles sinensis Wied., A. minimus Theobald, A. anthropophagus Xu & Feng, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti L., and all have evolved resistance to all the above types of insecticide except the carbamates. The degree of resistance varies among mosquito species, insecticide classes and regions. This review summarizes the resistance status of these important vector mosquitoes, according to data reported since the 1990s, in order to improve resistance management and epidemic disease control, and to communicate this information from China to the wider community. Copyright 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]