Varied Diet (varied + diet)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Nutritional consequences of a change in diet from native to agricultural fruits for the Samoan fruit bat

ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2000
Suzanne L. Nelson
The Samoan fruit bat Pteropus samoensis Peak, an endemic flying fox that inhabits the Samoan archipelago, prefers to forage on native fruit species. This species has recently been subjected to extreme population threats including hunting and severe storms, as well as large-scale habitat degradation. If habitat destruction continues at its present rate, P. samoensis may be forced to forage more within an agricultural matrix. In this study, we analyzed sixteen species of native fruits and four species of agricultural fruits for five organic components and eight minerals to test whether native fruits provided a higher quality diet or more varied diet than agricultural fruits. Within native fruits, we also focused on four species of figs, because these fruits are often considered an important food item for tropical frugivores. Overall, native fruits provided more variation and had higher average values for several nutrients than agricultural fruits. Native fruits were especially high in biologically important minerals (calcium, iron, and sodium), and provided up to 5 times more calcium, 10.5 times more iron, and 8 times more sodium than agricultural fruits. Figs were found to be an especially rich source of many nutrients, particularly for calcium. Thus. P. samoensis. a sequential specialist, may be better able to adjust its diet to obtain higher levels of minerals when consuming a variety of native fruits than when restricted to the consumption of only agricultural fruits. These findings suggest a need to preserve native habitat and to create parks to sustain the long term health and viability of P. samoensis. [source]

Head and neck cancer in India , review of practices for prevention policy

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 7 2009
A Mishra
India, with a population of over a billion is likely to increase global concern on cancer, particularly that of head and neck. The increasing immigration of Indians is likely to influence other parts of the world and an analysis of cancer-related practices could serve as a model for defining cancer-prevention strategies across the globe. The objective of this study was to review the anti- and pro-carcinogenic practices in India pertaining to head and neck cancer. The published literature on practices, compounds/chemicals/crude reparations related to the head and neck cancer in India was retrieved for analysis, while unauthentic or local information was discarded. The anti-carcinogenic practices prevalent in India consisted of classically varied diet being predominantly vegetarian, along with spices, condiments, beverages etc. The pro-carcinogenic practices predominantly include all shades of alcoholism and tobacco intake. Moreover, the diverse culture of the country reflects unique regional practices. The enormous diversity in practices related to head and neck cancer in India is very unique and interesting. Cancer prevention strategies need to focus on these trends to define a better global prevention. [source]

Docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesis and dietary contingency: Encephalization without aquatic constraint

Bryce A. Carlson
Reconstructing evolutionary processes in the distant past is necessarily an inductive endeavor, typically appealing to numerous considerations thought to be relevant to the veracity of a particular conclusion. In this respect, it is essential that the considerations invoked to support hypotheses are in turn well-established truths. It is with these concerns that we sought to examine the nutritional, physiological, and archeological premises underlying the perspective that access to an aquatic diet rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n -3) was critical to human brain evolution (Carlson and Kingston [2007]: Am J Hum Biol 19:132,141). In our report investigating links between omega-3 (n -3) fatty acids and hominin encephalization, we concluded that the regular consumption of aquatic resources rich in preformed DHA may not have been essential given a varied diet of wild terrestrial foods (Carlson and Kingston [2007]). This assessment was based primarily on evidence of potential physiological adaptations in modern humans to ensure sufficient availability of DHA during critical periods of brain growth. While modern human physiology provides critical information regarding DHA as a constraint in evolving a large brain, it is also important to consistently contextualize interpretations within a framework of eclectic foraging diets rather than nutritionally limited modern agricultural populations or even modern foragers. We contend that current interpretations of Pleistocene hominin nutritional ecology do not uniquely support a shore-based foraging niche as claimed by Cunnane et al. ([2007]: Am J Hum Biol, 19:578,581). Specific issues raised in response to our article by Cunnane et al. and Joordens et al. ([2007]: Am J Hum Biol, 19:582,584) are addressed here. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 19:585,588, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Quality of Diets Consumed by Older Rural Adults

Mara Z. Vitolins Dr.P.H.R.D
Older adults residing in rural communities are at risk for low dietary quality because of a variety of social, physical and environmental circumstances. Minority elders are at additional risk because of poorer health status and lower socioeconomic status. This study evaluated the food group intake of 130 older (>70 years) African American (34%), European American (36%), and Native American (30%) residents of two rural communities in central North Carolina. An interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Food items were classified into food groups similar to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Guide Pyramid and the National Cancer Institutés 5 A Day for Better Health program. None of the survey participants met minimum intake recommendations and most over-consumed fats, oils, sweets and snacks. African Americans and Native Americans consumed fewer servings of meats, fruits and vegetables, and fats, oils, sweets and snacks than European Americans. African American men consumed the fewest servings of fruits and vegetables of all gender/ethnic groups. Consumption of fats, oils and sweets was greatest among those 85 years and older and was more common among denture users. National strategies to educate the public about the importance of consuming a varied diet based on the recommendations presented in national nutrition education campaigns may not be reaching older adults in rural communities, particularly minority group members. [source]