Vascular Resistance (vascular + resistance)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Vascular Resistance

  • coronary vascular resistance
  • forearm vascular resistance
  • peripheral vascular resistance
  • pulmonary vascular resistance
  • renal vascular resistance
  • systemic vascular resistance
  • total vascular resistance

  • Terms modified by Vascular Resistance

  • vascular resistance index

  • Selected Abstracts

    Percutaneous Closure of a Large PDA in a 35-Year-Old Man with Elevated Pulmonary Vascular Resistance

    John S. Hokanson MD
    ABSTRACT The presence of a large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may result in significant pulmonary hypertension, which may not be reversible. We present the case of a 35-year-old man with pulmonary hypertension who had successful percutaneous closure of a large PDA with an Amplatzer muscular ventricular septal defect occluder and resolution of his pulmonary hypertension. The use of prior balloon test occlusion of the PDA suggested that the procedure would be successful, despite the lack of an immediate fall in the pulmonary artery pressure. [source]

    Noninvasive Estimation of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance in Pulmonary Hypertension

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2009
    Navin Rajagopalan M.D.
    Background: Determination of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in patients with suspected or known pulmonary hypertension (PH) requires right heart catheterization. Our purpose was to use Doppler echocardiography to estimate PVR in patients with PH. Methods: Patient population consisted of 52 patients (53 ± 12 years; 35 females) who underwent Doppler echocardiography and right heart catheterization within 24 hours of each other. The ratio of peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV) and right ventricular outflow time-velocity integral (VTIRVOT) was measured via transthoracic echocardiography and correlated to invasively determined PVR. A linear regression equation was generated to determine PVR by echocardiography based upon the TRV/VTIRVOT ratio. PVR by echocardiography was compared to invasive PVR using Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Significant correlation was demonstrated between TRV/VTIRVOT and PVR by catheterization (r = 0.73; P < 0.001). However, Bland-Altman analysis showed that agreement between PVR determined by echocardiography and invasive PVR was poor (bias = 0; standard deviation = 4.3 Wood units). In a subset of patients with invasive PVR < 8 Wood units (26 patients), correlation between TRV/VTIRVOT and invasive PVR was strong (r = 0.94; P < 0.001). In these patients, agreement between PVR by echocardiography and invasive PVR was satisfactory (bias = 0; standard deviation = 0.5 Wood units). There was no correlation between TRV/VTIRVOT and invasive PVR in patients with PVR > 8 Wood units (n = 26; r = 0.17). Conclusion: While TRV/VTIRVOT correlates significantly with PVR, using it to estimate PVR in a PH patient population cannot be recommended. [source]

    Low Systemic Vascular Resistance After Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Incidence, Etiology, and Clinical Importance

    T. Carrel M.D.
    The etiology is not completely elucidated and the clinical importance remains speculative. Methods: In this prospective clinical trial, we assessed the incidence of postoperative low systemic vascular resistance in 800 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve replacement. We have attempted to identify the predictive factors responsible for the presence of low systemic vascular resistance and we have examined the subsequent postoperative outcome of those patients who developed early postoperative vasoplegia. The severity of vasoplegia was divided into three groups according either to the value of systemic resistance and/or the dose of vasoconstrictive agents necessary to correct the hemodynamic. Results: Six hundred twenty-five patients (78.1%) did not develop vasoplegia, 115 patients (14.4%) developed a mild vasoplegia, and 60 patients (7.5%) suffered from severe vasoplegia. Low systemic vascular resistance did not affect hospital mortality but was the cause for delayed extubation and prolonged stay on the intensive care unit IICU). Logistic regression analysis identified temperature and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, total cardioplegic volume infused, reduced left ventricular function, and preoperative treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors, out of 25 parameters, as predictive factors for early postoperative vasoplegia. Conclusion. The occurrence of low systemic vascular resistance following cardiopulmonary bypass is as high as 21.8%. The etiology of this clinical condition is most probably multifactorial. Mortality is not affected by vasoplegia, but there is a trend to higher morbidity and prolonged stay in the ICU. [source]

    Acetylcholine- and ergonovine-induced coronary microvascular spasm reflected by increased coronary vascular resistance and myocardial lactate production

    Masashi Horimoto M.D.
    Abstract Diagnosis of coronary microvascular spasm remains largely speculative because it has been mostly based on chest pain and electrocardiographic ST-segment shift with slow filling of contrast medium into the coronary artery. A patient with resting chest pain and normal coronary angiograms underwent provocative tests with intracoronary acetylcholine (ACh) and ergonovine. During the tests, coronary diameter and flow velocity in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery were measured with quantitative coronary angiography and intracoronary Doppler guide wire, respectively. Vascular resistance of the LAD and lactate production were determined separately. With injections of 100 ,g of ACh and 20 ,g of ergonovine, chest pain occurred with ST-segment elevation in the precordial leads in the absence of epicardial coronary spasm. Coronary vascular resistance increased by 2.2- and 1.6-fold of the baseline value with ACh and ergonovine, respectively. Myocardial lactate production was noted during the ST-segment elevation. Coronary microvascular spasm was verified by the increment in coronary vascular resistance and myocardial lactate production with concomitant ST-segment elevation in the presence of normal coronary angiograms. [source]

    Meconium aspiration syndrome: a role for phospholipase A2 in the pathogenesis?

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 4 2001
    P KääpäArticle first published online: 2 JAN 200
    The pathophysiology of neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), often resulting in severe respiratory failure, is complex and still largely unclear. Factors involved in the propagation of acute lung injury after perinatal aspiration of meconium include obstruction of the airways, ventilation/perfusion mismatch, increase of the pulmonary vascular resistance and a rapidly developing parenchymal and alveolar inflammatory reaction with associated surfactant dysfunction. Conclusion: Although the early pulmonary inflammatory response is believed to play a central pathogenetic role in the meconium-induced acute lung damage, its initiating mechanisms are still poorly defined. However, increasing evidence indicates a direct toxic effect of meconium. [source]

    Cardiovascular function in the heat-stressed human

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
    C. G. Crandall
    Abstract Heat stress, whether passive (i.e. exposure to elevated environmental temperatures) or via exercise, results in pronounced cardiovascular adjustments that are necessary for adequate temperature regulation as well as perfusion of the exercising muscle, heart and brain. The available data suggest that generally during passive heat stress baroreflex control of heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity are unchanged, while baroreflex control of systemic vascular resistance may be impaired perhaps due to attenuated vasoconstrictor responsiveness of the cutaneous circulation. Heat stress improves left ventricular systolic function, evidenced by increased cardiac contractility, thereby maintaining stroke volume despite large reductions in ventricular filling pressures. Heat stress-induced reductions in cerebral perfusion likely contribute to the recognized effect of this thermal condition in reducing orthostatic tolerance, although the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is not completely understood. The combination of intense whole-body exercise and environmental heat stress or dehydration-induced hyperthermia results in significant cardiovascular strain prior to exhaustion, which is characterized by reductions in cardiac output, stroke volume, arterial pressure and blood flow to the brain, skin and exercising muscle. These alterations in cardiovascular function and regulation late in heat stress/dehydration exercise might involve the interplay of both local and central reflexes, the contribution of which is presently unresolved. [source]

    Protein-Losing Enteropathy after Fontan Operation

    Jack Rychik MD
    ABSTRACT Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a poorly understood and enigmatic disease process affecting patients with single ventricle after Fontan operation. In those afflicted, PLE after Fontan operation results in significant morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of the disease is unknown; however, a proposed mechanism incorporates a combination of phenomena including: (1) altered hemodynamics, specifically low cardiac output; (2) increased mesenteric vascular resistance; (3) systemic inflammation; and (4) altered enterocyte basal membrane glycosaminoglycan make-up. A paradigm for the clinical management of PLE after Fontan operation is proposed. [source]

    Identifying Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Navin Rajagopalan MD
    The significance of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is unknown. Our purpose was to quantify LV function in PH patients by measuring LV myocardial performance index (MPI) and correlating it with invasively determined hemodynamic variables. The authors prospectively measured LV MPI via transthoracic echocardiography in 50 patients with PH (53±11 years; 35 women) who also underwent right heart catheterization within 1 day of echocardiography. For comparative purposes, LV MPI was also measured in 15 healthy volunteers who served as controls. LV MPI was significantly increased in the PH group compared with controls (0.62±0.27 vs 0.36±0.08; P<.001), indicating worse LV dysfunction despite that LV ejection fraction was not significantly different between the groups (58%±4% vs 60%±3%). LV MPI demonstrated significant correlations with invasively determined mean pulmonary artery pressure (r=.50; P<.001), pulmonary vascular resistance (r=.57; P<.001), and cardiac index (r=,.64; P<.001). By receiver operating characteristic analysis, LV MPI >0.75 predicted cardiac index <2 L/min/m2 with 89% sensitivity and 78% specificity (area under the curve, 0.89). In a multivariate model, LV MPI was independently associated with cardiac index (P<.01). Patients with PH demonstrate abnormal LV function as quantified by elevated LV MPI, which correlates significantly with pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac index. [source]

    Correlation of Tricuspid Annular Velocities With Invasive Hemodynamics in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Navin Rajagopalan
    The authors performed tissue Doppler imaging of the tricuspid annulus in patients with pulmonary hypertension to assess its correlation with invasive indices of right ventricular function. The study population consisted of 32 patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension who underwent pulsed tissue Doppler imaging of the tricuspid annulus and right heart catheterization. Peak systolic (Sa), early diastolic (Ea), and late diastolic (Aa) velocities of the lateral tricuspid annulus were measured and correlated with hemodynamic variables. Peak Sa demonstrated excellent correlation with hemodynamic variables, including cardiac index (r=0.78; P<.001), pulmonary vascular resistance (r=,0.79; P<.001), and transpulmonary gradient (r=,0.72; P<.001). Peak Sa <10 cm/s predicted cardiac index <2.0 L/min/m2 with 89% sensitivity and 87% specificity. In conclusion, tissue Doppler imaging of the tricuspid annulus is a complementary method to assess right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertensive patients. [source]

    Blunted Hemodynamic Response and Reduced Oxygen Delivery With Exercise in Anemic Heart Failure Patients With Systolic Dysfunction

    Jennifer Listerman MD
    Anemic heart failure patients with systolic dysfunction are known to have reduced exercise capacity. Whether this is related to poor hemodynamic adaptation to anemia is not known. Peak exercise oxygen consumption (VO2) and hemodynamics at rest and peak exercise were assessed among 209 patients and compared among those who were (n=90) and were not (n=119) anemic. Peak VO2 was significantly lower among anemic patients (11.7±3.3 mL/min/kg vs 13.4±3.1 mL/min/kg; P=.01). At rest, right atrial pressure was higher (10±5 mm Hg vs 8±4 mm Hg; P=.02) and venous oxygen saturation lower (62%±8% vs 58%±10%; P<.01) among anemic patients. At peak exercise, anemic patients had a higher wedge pressure (27±9 mm Hg vs 24±10 mm Hg; P=.04). No significant differences in stroke volume, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, or oxygen saturation were noted between the 2 groups. In conclusion, the relative hemodynamic response to exercise among anemic heart failure patients appears blunted and may contribute to worse exercise tolerance. [source]

    The role of the ,-adrenergic receptor in the leg vasoconstrictor response to orthostatic stress

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    M. Kooijman
    Abstract Aim:, The prompt increase in peripheral vascular resistance, mediated by sympathetic ,-adrenergic stimulation, is believed to be the key event in blood pressure control during postural stress. However, despite the absence of central sympathetic control of the leg vasculature, postural leg vasoconstriction is preserved in spinal cord-injured individuals (SCI). This study aimed at assessing the contribution of both central and local sympathetically induced ,-adrenergic leg vasoconstriction to head-up tilt (HUT) by including healthy individuals and SCI, who lack central sympathetic baroreflex control over the leg vascular bed. Methods:, In 10 controls and nine SCI the femoral artery was cannulated for drug infusion. Upper leg blood flow (LBF) was measured bilaterally using venous occlusion strain gauge plethysmography before and during 30° HUT throughout intra-arterial infusion of saline or the non-selective ,-adrenergic receptor antagonist phentolamine respectively. Additionally, in six controls the leg vascular response to the cold pressor test was assessed during continued infusion of phentolamine, in order to confirm complete ,-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine. Results:, During infusion of phentolamine HUT still caused vasoconstriction in both groups: leg vascular resistance (mean arterial pressure/LBF) increased by 10 ± 2 AU (compared with 12 ± 2 AU during saline infusion), and 13 ± 3 AU (compared with 7 ± 3 AU during saline infusion) in controls and SCI respectively. Conclusion:, Effective ,-adrenergic blockade did not reduce HUT-induced vasoconstriction, regardless of intact baroreflex control of the leg vasculature. Apparently, redundant mechanisms compensate for the absence of sympathetic ,-adrenoceptor leg vasoconstriction in response to postural stress. [source]

    Nitric oxide, superoxide and renal blood flow autoregulation in SHR after perinatal L -arginine and antioxidants

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2007
    M. P. Koeners
    Abstract Aim:, Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide are considered to be regulatory in renal blood flow (RBF) autoregulation, and hence may contribute to development of hypertension. To extend our previous observations that dynamic NO release is impaired in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) we investigated, firstly, if superoxide dependency of RBF autoregulation is increased in SHR and, secondly, if the beneficial effect of perinatal supplementation in SHR is partly as a result of early correction of RBF autoregulation. We hypothesized that perinatal supplementation by restoring dynamic NO release and/or decreasing superoxide dependency and would improve life-long blood pressure regulation. Methods:, Autoregulation was studied using stepwise reductions in renal perfusion pressure in anaesthetized male SHR, SHR perinatally supplemented with arginine and antioxidants (SHRsuppl) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), prior to and during i.v. N, -nitro- l -arginine (NO synthase inhibitor) or tempol (superoxide dismutase mimetic). Results:, Spontaneously hypertensive rat displayed a wider operating range of RBF autoregulation as compared with WKY (59 ± 4 vs. 33 ± 2 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.01). Perinatal supplementation in SHR decreased mean arterial pressure, renal vascular resistance and the operating range of RBF autoregulation (43 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.01). In addition autoregulation efficiency decreased. RBF autoregulation characteristics shifted towards those of normotensive WKY. However, dynamic NO release was still impaired and no clear differences in superoxide dependency in RBF autoregulation between groups was observed. Conclusion:, Perinatal supplements shifted RBF autoregulation characteristics of SHR towards WKY, although capacity of the SHRsuppl kidney to modulate NO production to shear stress still seems impaired. The less strictly controlled RBF as observed in perinatally supplemented SHR could result in an improved long-term blood pressure control. This might partly underlie the beneficial effects of perinatal supplementation. [source]

    Central and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations to exercise in endurance-trained children

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2002
    ABSTRACT Stroke volume (SV) response to exercise depends on changes in cardiac filling, intrinsic myocardial contractility and left ventricular afterload. The aim of the present study was to identify whether these variables are influenced by endurance training in pre-pubertal children during a maximal cycle test. SV, cardiac output (Doppler echocardiography), left ventricular dimensions (time,movement echocardiography) as well as arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistances were assessed in 10 child cyclists (VO2max: 58.5 ± 4.4 mL min,1 kg,1) and 13 untrained children (UTC) (VO2max: 45.9 ± 6.7 mL min,1 kg,1). All variables were measured at the end of the resting period, during the final minute of each workload and during the last minute of the progressive maximal aerobic test. At rest and during exercise, stroke index was significantly higher in the child cyclists than in UTC. However, the SV patterns were strictly similar for both groups. Moreover, the patterns of diastolic and systolic left ventricular dimensions, and the pattern of systemic vascular resistance of the child cyclists mimicked those of the UTC. SV patterns, as well as their underlying mechanisms, were not altered by endurance training in children. This result implied that the higher maximal SV obtained in child cyclists depended on factors influencing resting SV, such as cardiac hypertrophy, augmented myocardium relaxation properties or expanded blood volume. [source]

    5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced microvascular pressure transients in lungs of anaesthetized rabbits

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2001
    N. Sen
    We determined lung microvascular pressure transients induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), by the micropuncture technique. We mechanically ventilated anaesthetized (halothane 0.8%), open-chested rabbits, in which we recorded pulmonary artery (PA), left atrial (LA) and carotid artery pressures and cardiac output. For 4-min periods of stopped ventilation, we constantly inflated the lung with airway pressure of 7 cmH2O, then micropunctured the lung to determine pressures in arterioles and venules of 20,25 ,m diameter. An intravenous bolus infusion of 5HT (100 ,g), increased total pulmonary vascular resistance by 59%. Prior to 5HT infusion, the arterial, microvascular and venous segments comprised 30, 50 and 19% of the total pulmonary vascular pressure drop, respectively. However 14 s after 5HT infusion, the PA-arteriole pressure difference (arterial pressure drop) increased 46%, while the venule-LA pressure difference (venous pressure drop) increased >100%. The arteriole,venule pressure difference (microvascular pressure drop) was abolished. The increase in the arterial pressure drop was maintained for 4.8 min, whereas the increased venous pressure drop reverted to baseline in <1 min. We conclude that in the rabbit lung in situ, a 5HT bolus causes sustained arterial constriction and a strong but transient venous constriction. [source]

    Sustained increase in arterial blood pressure and vascular resistance induced by infusion of arachidonic acid in rats

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2000
    The haemodynamic responses to arachidonic acid (AA) have been investigated in seven groups of anaesthetized rats. Sodium arachidonate was infused intravenously for 4 or 20 min, and arterial blood pressure was recorded continuously. Cardiac output and organ blood flow were measured by microspheres. Infusion of arachidonate caused first a fast drop in arterial blood pressure, thereafter it increased steadily for 5,15 min towards a pressure about 25 mmHg above control level. The high pressure was maintained for at least 1 h. Repeated infusions of arachidonate gave similar responses. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase by indomethacin prevented the initial pressure drop to arachidonate, but not the sustained increase in pressure. Arterial pressure, total vascular resistance and blood flow in the kidneys, adrenals and spleen were significantly reduced, whereas cardiac output was not changed 4 min after start infusion of arachidonate. However, average blood pressure was significantly increased 22 and 35 min after start infusion (from 103.9 ± 2.9 to 128.1 ± 6.1 and 135.8 ± 4.6 mmHg). Mean vascular resistance increased simultaneously (from 3.5 ± 0.2 to 4.7 ± 0.4 and 5.2 ± 0.4 mmHg 100 mL,1), while cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate were maintained or slightly reduced. The renal blood flow was significantly lowered (from average 4.9 ± 0.1 to 3.3 ± 0.2 and 4.0 ± 0.2 mL min,1). Indomethacin did not prevent the changes in vascular resistance or organ blood flow recorded after 20,35 min. On the other hand, inhibition of both cyclo-oxygenase, lipoxygenase and the cytochrome P450 pathways by eicosatetrayonic acid (ETYA) normalized all haemodynamic parameters. Likewise, the rise in pressure was prevented by 17-octadecynoic acid (17-ODYA), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 enzyme activity. Thus, arachidonate infusion caused a transient decrease, and then a sustained increase in arterial pressure and vascular resistance, and a long-lasting reduction in renal blood flow, possibly owing to release of a cytochrome P450 dependent vasoconstrictor metabolite of AA. [source]

    Forearm vascular and neuroendocrine responses to graded water immersion in humans

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2000
    The hypothesis that graded expansion of central blood volume by water immersion to the xiphoid process and neck would elicit a graded decrease in forearm vascular resistance was tested. Central venous pressure increased (P < 0.05) by 4.2 ± 0.4 mmHg (mean ± SEM) during xiphoid immersion and by 10.4 ± 0.5 mmHg during neck immersion. Plasma noradrenaline was gradually suppressed (P < 0.05) by 62 ± 8 and 104 ± 11 pg mL,1 during xiphoid and neck immersion, respectively, indicating a graded suppression of sympathetic nervous activity. Plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin were suppressed by 1.5 ± 0.5 pg mL,1 (P < 0.05) during xiphoid immersion and by 2.0 ± 0.5 pg mL,1 during neck immersion (P < 0.05 vs. xiphoid immersion). Forearm subcutaneous vascular resistance decreased to the same extent by 26 ± 9 and 28 ± 4% (P < 0.05), respectively, during both immersion procedures, whereas forearm skeletal muscle vascular resistance declined only during neck immersion by 27 ± 6% (P < 0.05). In conclusion, graded central blood volume expansion initiated a graded decrease in sympathetic nervous activity and AVP-release. Changes in forearm subcutaneous vascular resistance, however, were not related to the gradual withdrawal of the sympathetic and neuroendocrine vasoconstrictor activity. Forearm skeletal muscle vasodilatation exhibited a more graded response with a detectable decrease only during immersion to the neck. Therefore, the forearm subcutaneous vasodilator response reaches saturation at a lower degree of central volume expansion than that of forearm skeletal muscle. [source]

    Subclinical vascular alterations in young adults with type 1 diabetes detected by arterial tonometry

    I. Barchetta
    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a very high prevalence of atherosclerotic disease. Aims of this study were to determine arterial compliance parameters in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients as an expression of early pre-clinical endothelial dysfunction and to evaluate the impact of glucose exposure parameters such as the duration of diabetes and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) on the risk of developing alterations in vascular compliance. Methods 23 patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes (mean age: 32.78 ± 9.06 years, mean disease duration: 10.78 ± 7.51 years, mean HbA1c levels: 7.7 ± 1.9) and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (mean age: 32.3 ± 8.51 years) were recruited. In these subjects, we evaluated arterial compliance by calibrated tonometry (HDI/PulsewaveŌ CR-2000). Parameters included the following: large artery elasticity (C1), small artery elasticity (C2), systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and total vascular impedance (TVI). Results Patients with longer duration of T1D (>10 years) showed significant alterations in C2 (4.97 ± 2.7 mL/mmHg × 100) and in SVR (1464.67 ± 169.16 dina × s × cm,5) when compared with both healthy individuals (C2: 8.28 ± 2.67 mL/mmHg × 100, p = 0.001; SVR: 1180.58 ± 151.55 dina × s × cm,5, p = 0.01) and patients with recent-onset disease (,10 years) (C2: 10.02 ± 3.6 mL/mmHg × 100, p < 0.001; SVR: 1124.18 ± 178.5 dina × s × cm,5, p < 0.000). Both disease duration and HbA1c independently predicted impaired arterial compliance. Conclusions Young adult T1D patients with no signs of disease complication have detectable vessel wall abnormalities, particularly of small arteries, suggestive of hyperglycaemia-related early endothelial dysfunction. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Higher arterial stiffness, greater peripheral vascular resistance and lower blood flow in lower-leg arteries are associated with long-term hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients with normal ankle-brachial index

    Eiji Suzuki
    Abstract Background Higher arterial stiffness and greater peripheral vascular resistance reduce blood flow in lower-leg arteries and contribute to the development of ischaemic limb in diabetic patients even without peripheral artery occlusive disease. The aim of this study was to clarify whether these vascular parameters are associated with long-term hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients. Methods We examined 45 type 2 diabetic patients and 38 age-matched nondiabetic subjects without peripheral artery occlusive disease assessed by ankle-brachial index consecutively admitted to our hospital, and followed them over a 3-year period (3.7 ± 0.7 years) with no vasodilative medication. Blood flow and resistive index, a measure of peripheral vascular resistance, at the popliteal artery were evaluated using gated two-dimensional cine-mode phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured to assess arterial stiffness. Results At baseline, consistent with our previous report, diabetic patients showed higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (p < 0.0001) and resistive index (p < 0.0001) and lower flow volume (p = 0.0044) than those of nondiabetic subjects. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that duration of diabetes, mean HbA1c during the study, use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and change per year in resistive index were identified as significant independent variables predicting change per year in blood flow (r2 = 0.733, p < 0.0001) in diabetic patients. Mean HbA1c during the study was positively correlated with changes per year in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (p = 0.00007) and resistive index (p = 0.0014) and was negatively correlated with that in blood flow (p < 0.0001) in diabetic patients. Conclusions Long-term hyperglycaemia is a major cause of impaired peripheral circulation in lower-leg arteries in diabetic patients without peripheral artery occlusive disease. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Effects of Antihypertensive Treatment on the Doppler-Derived Myocardial Performance Index in Patients with Hypertensive Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Results from the Swedish Irbesartan in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Investigation Versus Atenolol (SILVHIA)

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2009
    Stefan Liljedahl M.D.
    Objectives: To investigate the effects of antihypertensive treatment on the Doppler-derived myocardial performance index (MPI) in patients with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy. Methods: The MPI was measured at baseline and after 48 weeks of antihypertensive treatment in 93 participants of the SILVHIA trial, where individuals with primary hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy were randomized to double blind treatment with either irbesartan or atenolol. Results: Antihypertensive treatment lowered MPI (mean difference ,0.03 ± 0.01, P = 0.04). Changes in MPI by treatment were associated with changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (,-coefficient ,0.35 P = 0.005), stroke volume/pulse pressure (reflecting arterial compliance, ,-coefficient ,0.39 P < 0.001) and peripheral vascular resistance (,-coefficient 0.28 P < 0.04). Furthermore, there was a borderline significant association between changes in MPI and changes in E-wave deceleration time (reflecting diastolic function, ,-coefficient 0.23, P = 0.06). No associations were found between changes in MPI and changes in blood pressure, E/A-ratio, left ventricular mass index, relative wall thickness or heart rate. A stepwise multivariable regression model confirmed the association between changes in MPI and changes in ejection fraction and stroke volume/pulse pressure (all P < 0.05), as well as the trend for E-wave deceleration time (P = 0.08), but not in the case of peripheral vascular resistance. Conclusion: The MPI exhibited a modest decrease after 48 weeks of antihypertensive treatment in patients with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy. Changes in MPI were associated with changes in left ventricular function and vascular compliance, rather than with changes in left ventricular remodeling or blood pressure. [source]

    Noninvasive Estimation of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance in Pulmonary Hypertension

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2009
    Navin Rajagopalan M.D.
    Background: Determination of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in patients with suspected or known pulmonary hypertension (PH) requires right heart catheterization. Our purpose was to use Doppler echocardiography to estimate PVR in patients with PH. Methods: Patient population consisted of 52 patients (53 ± 12 years; 35 females) who underwent Doppler echocardiography and right heart catheterization within 24 hours of each other. The ratio of peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV) and right ventricular outflow time-velocity integral (VTIRVOT) was measured via transthoracic echocardiography and correlated to invasively determined PVR. A linear regression equation was generated to determine PVR by echocardiography based upon the TRV/VTIRVOT ratio. PVR by echocardiography was compared to invasive PVR using Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Significant correlation was demonstrated between TRV/VTIRVOT and PVR by catheterization (r = 0.73; P < 0.001). However, Bland-Altman analysis showed that agreement between PVR determined by echocardiography and invasive PVR was poor (bias = 0; standard deviation = 4.3 Wood units). In a subset of patients with invasive PVR < 8 Wood units (26 patients), correlation between TRV/VTIRVOT and invasive PVR was strong (r = 0.94; P < 0.001). In these patients, agreement between PVR by echocardiography and invasive PVR was satisfactory (bias = 0; standard deviation = 0.5 Wood units). There was no correlation between TRV/VTIRVOT and invasive PVR in patients with PVR > 8 Wood units (n = 26; r = 0.17). Conclusion: While TRV/VTIRVOT correlates significantly with PVR, using it to estimate PVR in a PH patient population cannot be recommended. [source]

    Incorporation of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance Measurement into Standard Echocardiography: Implications for Assessment of Pulmonary Hypertension

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 10 2007
    Kimberly B. Ulett B.S
    Doppler estimation of pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) from tricuspid regurgitation velocity is a simple approach to the detection of pulmonary hypertension but may be influenced by right ventricular stroke volume. We sought the clinical utility of incorporating Doppler calculation of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) into determination of pulmonary hypertension in 578 consecutive patients with tricuspid regurgitation. Right atrial pressure was estimated from vena caval dimensions and collapsibility. Pulmonary hypertension was classified on the basis of a) PASP >35mmHg, b) age-/gender normalized PASP, c) PVR >2 Wood units. The mean PASP was 40 ± 13 mmHg and PVR was 1.9 ± 0.8 Wood units. Standard PASP identified pulmonary hypertension in 58%, compared with 36% by age-/gender normalized PASP (P < 0.0001), and 31% by PVR (P < 0.0001). Of patients who had pulmonary hypertension by PASP, 33% were reclassified as normal on the basis of PVR and 6% were reclassified from normal to pulmonary hypertension. PVR is easy to incorporate into a standard echo exam, and identifies a small group with normal PASP as having PAH, and a larger group of apparently increased PASP as normal. [source]

    Hepatopulmonary Syndrome and Right Ventricular Diastolic Functions: An Echocardiographic Examination

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2006
    Aziz Karabulut M.D.
    Aim: Liver functions are affected in the course of cardiac diseases, and similarly, liver diseases affect cardiac functions. Many studies in the literature have shown that left ventricular systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction may develop during chronic liver disease. However, there are limited studies investigating right ventricular functions during chronic liver diseases. Methods: A total of 84 patients who had no systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction in the left ventricle (LV) were evaluated; 46 patients with liver cirrhosis; 10 (21.74%) cirrhotic patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) (group 1), 36 (78.26) cirrhotic patients without HPS (group 2), and 38 healthy individuals were treated as control. Results: Right ventricular diastolic dysfunction was determined in all patients of group 1 (100%), 26 of group 2 (72.22 %), and 4 of the controls (10.52%) (P < 0.05). Tricuspid deceleration time (dt) was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.05). In addition, right atrium (RA) diameters, right ventricle (RV) diameters, and RV wall thickness were significantly different between the groups (P < 0.05). Pulmonary artery pressure (P < 0.05) and pulmonary vascular resistance (P < 0.05) were also seen to be higher in group 1 than those in group 2 and control group. Conclusions: Right ventricular diastolic dysfunction rate is high in chronic liver diseases. In the presence of HPS, right ventricular diastolic dysfunction is more remarkable in patients than those without HPS. Right ventricular diastolic dysfunction may result in dilatation and hypertrophy in the right heart. [source]

    Acute Cardiac Effects of Nicotine in Healthy Young Adults

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2002
    Catherine D. Jolma M.D.
    Background: Nicotine is known to have many physiologic effects. The influence of nicotine delivered in chewing gum upon cardiac hemodynamics and conduction has not been well-characterized. Methods: We studied the effects of nicotine in nonsmoking adults (6 male, 5 female; ages 23,36 years) using a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Subjects chewed nicotine gum (4 mg) or placebo. After 20 minutes (approximate time to peak nicotine levels), echocardiograms and signal-averaged electrocardiograms (SAECG) were obtained. After 40 minutes, subjects were again given nicotine gum or placebo in cross-over fashion. Standard echocardiographic measurements were made from two-dimensional images. We then calculated end-systolic wall stress (ESWS), shortening fraction (SF), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), velocity for circumferential fiber shortening corrected for heart rate (Vcfc), stroke volume, and cardiac output. P wave and QRS duration were measured from SAECG. Results: Significant differences (P < 0.05) from control or placebo were found for ESWS, mean blood pressure, cardiac output, SVR, heart rate, and P wave duration. No significant changes were seen in left ventricular ejection time (LVET), LV dimensions, SF, contractility (Vcfc), or QRS duration. Conclusions: These results suggest that nicotine chewing gum increases afterload and cardiac output. Cardiac contractility does not change acutely in response to nicotine gum. Heart rate and P wave duration are increased by chewing nicotine gum. [source]

    Cardiopulmonary, blood and peritoneal fluid alterations associated with abdominal insufflation of carbon dioxide in standing horses

    Summary Reasons for performing study: Abdominal insufflation is performed routinely during laparoscopy in horses to improve visualisation and facilitate instrument and visceral manipulations during surgery. It has been shown that high-pressure pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide (CO2) has deleterious cardiopulmonary effects in dorsally recumbent, mechanically ventilated, halothane-anaesthetised horses. There is no information on the effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum on cardiopulmonary function and haematology, plasma chemistry and peritoneal fluid (PF) variables in standing sedated horses during laparoscopic surgery. Objectives: To determine the effects of high pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum in standing sedated horses on cardiopulmonary function, blood gas, haematology, plasma chemistry and PF variables. Methods: Six healthy, mature horses were sedated with an i.v. bolus of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg bwt) and butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg bwt) and instrumented to determine the changes in cardiopulmonary function, haematology, serum chemistry and PF values during and after pneumoperitoneum with CO2 to 15 mmHg pressure for standing laparoscopy. Each horse was assigned at random to either a standing left flank exploratory laparoscopy (LFL) with CO2 pneumoperitoneum or sham procedure (SLFL) without insufflation, and instrumented for measurement of cardiopulmonary variables. Each horse underwent a second procedure in crossover fashion one month later so that all 6 horses had both an LFL and SLFL performed. Cardiopulmonary variables and blood gas analyses were obtained 5 mins after sedation and every 15 mins during 60 mins baseline (BL), insufflation (15 mmHg) and desufflation. Haematology, serum chemistry analysis and PF analysis were performed at BL, insufflation and desufflation, and 24 h after the conclusion of each procedure. Results: Significant decreases in heart rate, cardiac output and cardiac index and significant increases in mean right atrial pressure, systemic vascular resistance and pulmonary vascular resistance were recorded immediately after and during sedation in both groups of horses. Pneumoperitoneum with CO2 at 15 mmHg had no significant effect on cardiopulmonary function during surgery. There were no significant differences in blood gas, haematology or plasma chemistry values within or between groups at any time interval during the study. There was a significant increase in the PF total nucleated cell count 24 h following LFL compared to baseline values for LFL or SLFL at 24 h. There were no differences in PF protein concentrations within or between groups at any time interval. Conclusions: Pneumoperitoneum with CO2 during standing laparoscopy in healthy horses does not cause adverse alterations in cardiopulmonary, haematology or plasma chemistry variables, but does induce a mild inflammatory response within the peritoneal cavity. Potential relevance: High pressure (15 mmHg) pneumoperitoneum in standing sedated mature horses for laparoscopic surgery can be performed safely without any short-term or cumulative adverse effects on haemodynamic or cardiopulmonary function. [source]

    Equine pulmonary and systemic haemodynamic responses to endothelin-1 and a selective ETA receptor antagonist

    Summary Based on previous in vitro studies, we hypothesised that endothelin (ET) would induce vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circululation of the horse and that this action would be mediated via ETA receptors. Pulmonary and systemic haemodynamic responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoactive endogenous peptide, were investigated in 6 conscious, nonsedated horses at rest. Bolus i.v. injections of exogenous ET-1 (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 ,g/kg bwt) caused significant increases in pulmonary (PAP) and carotid (CAP) artery pressures, with peak increases of 79% and 51% for mean PAP and CAP, respectively. The effect of ET-1 on PAP and CAP was rapid and transient for PAP (,10 min) but prolonged for CAP (up to 60 min). ET-1 significantly decreased cardiac output by up to 35% and significantly increased systemic vascular resistance (SVR) by up to 104%. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) showed a trend (P>0.05) to increase with 0.2 and 0.4 ,g/kg bwt ET-1. Infusion of a selective ETA receptor antagonist (TBC11251) completely inhibited the responses to a subsequent bolus of 0.2 ,g/kg bwt ET-1. We conclude that exogenous ET-1 exerts a potent vasoconstrictive action on the pulmonary and systemic circulations of the horse. These effects appear to be mediated largely through ETA receptors in both circulations. Endothelin may play a role in hypertensive conditions in the horse. [source]

    Effects of phlebotomy on haemodynamic characteristics during exercise in Standardbred trotters with red cell hypervolaemia

    Summary Five Standardbred trotters with red cell hypervolaemia (RCHV) were compared before and after removal of approximately 22% (36 ml/kg bwt) of the total blood volume in order to evaluate the haemodynamic responses, haemorheological alterations and oxygen transport during exercise to fatigue. Data were recorded during submaximal exercise at 4 different speeds on a treadmill and then during continued running at the highest speed step until fatigue. Oxygen uptake (V,O2), pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), systemic artery pressure (SAP), heart rate (HR), haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) were measured. Arteriovenous O2 content difference (C(a-v,)O2), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and total systemic resistance (TSR) were calculated. Whole blood and plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were determined with a rotational viscometer. Endoscopy was performed after exercise. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Phlebotomy resulted in a decrease in haematocrit and Hb during the course of exercise. Blood and plasma viscosity were lower and erythrocyte aggregation tendency was higher after phlebotomy. Throughout exercise, including submaximal work and continued running to fatigue, PAP, SAP, PVR, TSR and C(a-v,)O2 were lower after phlebotomy. HR was higher after phlebotomy during submaximal exercise. Oxygen delivery and VO2 were lower after phlebotomy in the period from submaximal exercise to fatigue. Run time to fatigue was shorter after phlebotomy. Four horses showed exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) before phlebotomy and the degree of bleeding was diminished but not abolished after phlebotomy. The reductions in PVR, TSR, PAP and SAP after phlebotomy were probably a result of reduced blood viscosity. In conclusion, although a 22% reduction in blood volume improved the haemodynamic and haemorheological parameters and the degree of EIPH, it was found that RCHV trotters have to rely on high oxygen delivery to the working muscles for maintenance of maximal performance. [source]

    Forearm vasoconstrictor response in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus

    P. J. Van Gurp
    Abstract Background, According to the ,haemodynamic hypothesis', increased tissue perfusion predisposes to microangiopathy in diabetic patients. We hypothesized that the typical haemodynamic changes underlying the increased tissue perfusion can be explained by a decreased sympathetic nerve activity caused by chronic hyperglycaemia. In this study we investigated sympathetic activity in patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and methods, In 15 DM patients (DM duration 6·3 ± 3·8 year; HbA1c 7·9 ± 1·3%) and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (Control), sympathetic nervous system activity was measured at rest (baseline) and during sympathoneural stimulation (lower body negative pressure (LBNP)) by means of interstitial and plasma noradrenaline (NA) sampling and power spectral analysis. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was measured before (baseline) and during a cold pressure test. Forearm blood flow was measured during forearm vascular ,- and ,-adrenergic receptor blockade. Results, At baseline, forearm vascular resistance (FVR), plasma NA concentrations, MSNA and heart rate variability were similar in both groups. LBNP-induced vasoconstriction was significantly attenuated in the DM group compared with the Control group (,FVR: 12 ± 4 vs. 19 ± 3 arbitrary units, P < 0·05). The responses of plasma NA and heart rate variability did not differ. Conclusions,, Baseline FVR and sympathetic nerve activity are normal in patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes. However, the forearm vasoconstrictor response to sympathetic stimulation is attenuated, which cannot be attributed to an impaired sympathetic responsiveness. [source]

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA): the silent transition from an ,uraemic toxin' to a global cardiovascular risk molecule

    D. Fliser
    Abstract Endothelial dysfunction as a result of reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) plays a central role in the process of atherosclerotic vascular disease. In endothelial cells NO is synthesized from the amino acid l -arginine by the action of the NO synthase (NOS), which can be blocked by endogenous inhibitors such as asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Acute systemic administration of ADMA to healthy subjects significantly reduces NO generation, and causes an increase in systemic vascular resistance and blood pressure. Increased plasma ADMA levels as a result of reduced renal excretion have been associated with atherosclerotic complications in patients with terminal renal failure. However, a significant relationship between ADMA and traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as advanced age, high blood pressure and serum LDL-cholesterol, has been documented even in individuals without manifest renal dysfunction. As a consequence, the metabolism of ADMA by the enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) has come into the focus of cardiovascular research. It has been proposed that dysregulation of DDAH with consecutive increase in plasma ADMA concentration and chronic NOS inhibition is a common pathophysiological pathway in numerous clinical conditions. Thus, ADMA has emerged as a potential mediator of atherosclerotic complications in patients with coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, etc., being the culprit and not only an innocent biochemical marker of the atherosclerotic disease process. [source]

    Pregnancy-induced sympathetic overactivity: a precursor of preeclampsia,

    T. Fischer
    Abstract Background, Preeclampsia has been shown to constitute a state of sympathetic overactivity. However, it remains unclear if the sympathetic activity precedes preeclampsia or represents only a secondary phenomenon. To further investigate this issue, we performed a prospective study in pregnant women considered to be at increased risk for preeclampsia owing to preeclampsia during a preceding pregnancy. Materials and methods, Twenty-two women with a history of preeclampsia were longitudinally studied on three occasions: twice during pregnancy (M1: 22 ± 4, M2: 33 ± 5 weeks) and once postpartum (M3: 26 ± 6 weeks postpartum). We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), forearm blood flow, and blood pressure at rest and during reactive hyperaemia after forearm occlusion. Results, At M1 and M2, none of the subjects was hypertensive, however, muscle sympathetic nerve activity levels were significantly augmented, compared with their postpartum values (M1: 21 ± 9, M2: 29 ± 14, M3: 9 ± 5 bursts min,1; P < 0·05). Forearm vascular resistance did not significantly change from M1 through M3 (M1: 16 ± 9, M2: 15 ± 7, M3: 16 ± 7 U; P = NS). Gestational muscle sympathetic nerve activity values did not differ significantly among the subjects with subsequent preeclampsia compared with those who remained normotensive [with preeclampsia (n = 6): M1: 21 ± 5, M2: 27 ± 6, M3: 7 ± 4 bursts min,1; without preeclampsia (n = 16): M1: 21 ± 11, M2: 30 ± 16, M3: 9 ± 6 bursts min,1; P = NS]. Conclusion, Invariably, all women at risk for preeclampisa showed a pregnancy-induced increase in MSNA (pregnancy-induced sympathetic overactivity, PISO), which normalized after delivery. Most importantly, PISO is not necessarily associated with peripheral vasoconstriction and hypertension. Furthermore, only a subset of patients developed preeclampsia later on. Therefore, we hypothesize that PISO constitutes a precursor of preeclampsia which is physiologically compensated for by vasodilating mechanisms, leading to preeclampsia only when they fail. [source]

    Short-term cortisol infusion in the brachial artery, with and without inhibiting 11,-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, does not alter forearm vascular resistance in normotensive and hypertensive subjects

    S. H. M. Van Uum
    Abstract Background Vascular tone is increased in primary hypertension, and glucocorticoids affect vascular tone. Local cortisol availability is modulated by activity of 11,-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11,-HSD). As this activity may be decreased in patients with primary hypertension, vascular sensitivity to cortisol may be increased in these patients. We studied the acute effect of cortisol on forearm vascular resistance (FVR) by infusing cortisol directly into the brachial artery, both with and without inhibition of 11,-HSD, in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Design Twenty normotensive volunteers and 20 patients with primary hypertension participated in the study. After a 10-min infusion of vehicle (glucose 5%), cortisol was infused into the brachial artery in three stepwise increasing doses (3·5, 10·5 and 35 µg per 100 mL of forearm volume), each for 10 min. Next, the participants received placebo or 500 mg glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) orally, and 150 min later the same infusion schedule was repeated. Forearm vascular resistance was measured during the last 5 min of the infused vehicle and of each dose. Arterial and forearm venous plasma samples for measurement of cortisol and cortisone were taken at the end of the infusions of glucose 5% and the highest cortisol dose. Results In both normotensive and hypertensive subjects, neither the infusion of cortisol nor the administration of GA changed FVR. Also 2 h after the cortisol infusion there remained no change in FVR in both the normotensive and hypertensive groups who received placebo. Following the infusion of the highest cortisol dose, total plasma cortisone levels in the venous plasma were decreased compared with levels in the arterial plasma (36 ± 3 and 49 ± 4 nmol L,1, respectively, P < 0·05). The protein-bound venous cortisone was 37·1 ± 4·8 nmol L,1 during the vehicle compared with 23·9 ± 3·7 nmol L,1 during the cortisol infusion (P < 0·01), whereas the free cortisone level was not altered by the cortisol infusion. Conclusions In both normotensive and hypertensive subjects, high-dose cortisol infusion both with and without 11,-HSD inhibition did not change FVR either immediately or after 2 h. We could not demonstrate in vivo 11,-HSD activity in the forearm vascular tissues. When binding of cortisone to CBG is changed, e.g. during cortisol infusion, arterio-venous changes in cortisone cannot reliably be used to assess (alterations in) local 11,-HSD activity. [source]