Vascular Protection (vascular + protection)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Interactions between microvascular and macrovascular disease in diabetes: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications

Andrew J. Krentz
Convention partitions the complications of diabetes into two main subtypes. First are the diabetes-specific microvascular complications of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy; second are the atherothrombotic macrovascular complications that account for the majority of premature deaths. Pathological interactions between microvascular and macrovascular complications, for example, nephropathy and macrovascular disease, are common. Similar mechanisms and shared risk factors drive the development and progression of both small and large vessel disease. This concept has therapeutic implications. Mounting evidence points to the need for multifactorial strategies to prevent vascular complications in subjects with diabetes and/or the metabolic syndrome. We advocate a combined therapeutic approach that addresses small and large vessel disease. Preferential use should be made of drug regimens that (i) maximize vascular protection, (ii) reduce the risk of iatrogenic vascular damage and (iii) minimize the increasing problem of polypharmacy. [source]

Alcohol-Induced Endothelial Changes Are Associated With Oxidative Stress and Are Rapidly Reversed After Withdrawal

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2005
Giorgio Soardo
Abstract: Background: Although heavy alcohol drinkers are at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular events, moderate alcohol intake is associated with reduced incidence of cardiovascular death. This paradox might reflect a dose-related effect of different alcohol intakes on endothelial function and this, in turn, might depend on changes in oxidative stress Methods: We tested the effects of alcohol withdrawal in heavy alcohol consumers and compared the plasma levels of endothelin-1, nitric oxide, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, von Willebrand factor, malondialdehyde, and intracellular glutathione with those of alcoholics that did not modify their alcohol intake and teetotalers. In human endothelial cells that had been cultured for 2 weeks in the presence of different concentrations of ethanol, we assessed the same parameters after withdrawal of ethanol exposure Results: Alcohol increased the levels of endothelin-1, nitric oxide, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and decreased the levels of von Willebrand factor both in vivo and in vitro. These changes were dose dependent, rapidly reversed after withdrawal of exposure, and associated with the presence of increased oxidative stress as indicated by increased levels of both malondialdehyde and intracellular glutathione. Blockade of oxidative stress by incubation of endothelial cells in the presence of oxidants' scavengers prevented the alcohol-induced functional modifications of the endothelium Conclusions: Alcohol affects endothelial function with an effect that is mediated by an activated oxidative stress and is rapidly reversed after withdrawal. Dose-related endothelial responses to different alcohol intakes might translate in either vascular protection or vascular damage. [source]

Review article: gastrointestinal bleeding with low-dose aspirin , what's the risk?

Summary This review examines ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding with low-dose aspirin, focusing on randomized placebo-controlled trials. The single endoscopic trial assessing ulcers showed no significant difference in 12-week ulcer incidence: 6% of 381 given placebo vs. 7% of 387 given 81 mg enteric-coated aspirin. The relative risk of major gastrointestinal bleeding with low-dose aspirin in a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials of vascular protection was 2.07 (95% CI: 1.61,2.66). The absolute rate increase with aspirin above placebo was 0.12% per year (95% CI: 0.07,0.19%) with a number-needed-to-harm of 833 patients (95% CI: 526,1429). A meta-analysis of aspirin 50,1500 mg daily reported an odds ratio for any gastrointestinal bleeding of 1.68 (95% CI: 1.51,1.88) with an number-needed-to-harm at 1 year of 247. The relative risk of hospitalization for upper gastrointestinal bleeding with low-dose aspirin in a large Danish cohort study was 2.6 (95% CI: 2.2,2.9) with an absolute annual incidence of 0.6%. Factors that may increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding include prior history of ulcers or gastrointestinal bleeding, corticosteroid use, anticoagulant therapy and addition of a non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. When determining whether low-dose aspirin is appropriate for an individual patient, the cardiovascular benefit must be weighed against the potential for clinical events such as gastrointestinal bleeding. [source]

The Emerging Role of Flavonoid-Rich Cocoa and Chocolate in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

Mary B. Engler PhD
Cocoa and chocolate have recently been found to be rich plant-derived sources of antioxidant flavonoids with beneficial cardiovascular properties. These favorable physiological effects include: antioxidant activity, vasodilation and blood pressure reduction, inhibition of platelet activity, and decreased inflammation. Increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies using cocoa-derived products and chocolate suggest an important role for these high-flavanol-containing foods in heart and vascular protection. [source]