Vascular Constriction (vascular + constriction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Transient expression of endothelins in the amoeboid microglial cells in the developing rat brain

GLIA, Issue 6 2006
Chun-Yun Wu
Abstract Amoeboid microglial cells (AMC) which transiently exist in the corpus callosum in the postnatal rat brain expressed endothelins (ETs), specifically endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ET3 as revealed by real time RT-PCR. ET immunoreactive AMC occurred in large numbers at birth, but were progressively reduced with age and were undetected in 14 days. In rats subjected to hypoxia exposure, ET immunoexpression in AMC was reduced but the incidence of apoptotic cells was not increased when compared with the control suggesting that this was due to its downregulation that may help regulate the constriction of blood vessels bearing ET-A receptor. AMC were endowed ET-B receptor indicating that ET released by the cells may also act via an autocrine manner. In microglia activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ET-1 mNA expression coupled with that of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was markedly increased; ET-3 mRNA, however, remained unaffected. AMC exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro resulted in increase in both ET-1 and ET-3 mRNA expression. It is suggested that the downregulated ETs expression in vivo of AMC subjected to hypoxia as opposed to its upregulated expression in vitro may be due to the complexity of the brain tissue. Furthermore, the differential ET-1 and ET-3 mRNA expression in LPS and OGD treatments may be due to different signaling pathways independently regulating the two isoforms. The present novel finding has added microglia as a new cellular source of ET that may take part in multiple functions including regulating vascular constriction and chemokines release. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Is Involved in the Effects of Sildenafil on Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling

Zhen Zeng
Pulmonary hypertension is a group of diseases comprising vascular constriction and obstructive changes of the pulmonary vasculature. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, for example, sildenafil, can alleviate vascular remodeling in the monocrotaline pulmonary hypertension model in rats. We investigate the mechanisms of sildenafil on the pulmonary vascular remodeling of pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline (MCT) in rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 200,220 g) were administered with MCT abdominal cavity injection or equivalent volume of normal saline (NS) (which were treated as C group n = 10) to induce pulmonary hypertension model. Fourteen days later, 20 MCT treated rats were randomly fed with sildenafil (25mg/kg/day) or placebo as S, P group (10 rats for each group), respectively. Another 6 weeks later, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), index of right ventricular hypertrophy (RV/LV+S) of all animals were measured under general anesthesia. Pulmonary tissue was collected to investigate pathological features of pulmonary arteries and to measure protein expression of ERK1/ERK2 and MKP1. After 6 weeks, there were significant elevated mPAP and RV/LV+S in both P and S groups. The ratio of wall thickness to vessel diameter in pulmonary arteries with diameters <200 ,m were increased in both P and S groups. But the ratio of wall thickness to vessel diameter was smaller in S group than that in P group. The phosphorylation level of ERK1/ERK2 were elevated in both P and S groups, but the level of phosphorlation ERK1/ERK2 were lower in S group than that in P group. Intriguingly, the expression level of MKP1 was significantly increased in both S and P groups, while it was higher in S group than that in P group. The Sildenafil can decrease mPAP and inhibit the progress of pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension rats. The ERK-MAP kinase signaling pathway might play a role during this process. [source]

4333: How does scleral buckling affect the anterior segment of the eye?

Purpose To describe the modifications produced in the anterior segment of the eye after placing an encircling scleral buckling (SB) in terms of corneal morphology, biomechanics and intraocular pressure. Methods A prospective study of 15 eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent pars plana vitrectomy combined with a scleral buckle (PPV/SB), and 12 eyes with vitreous hemorrhage treated with PPV alone. We measured preoperatively and 1-month after surgery the corneal biomechanical properties using the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA), including corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), intraocular pressure (IOPg), and corneal compensated IOP (IOPcc). Moreover, we defined the corneal morphology by 4 parameters provided by the topographer Orbscan IIz: mean corneal power (dioptres), standard deviation, thinnest point (m), and anterior chamber depth (ACD) (mm). Results Mean CH values were significantly diminished following PPV/SB (p=0.003). We found no significant changes in CRF. IOPg and IOPcc mean values were significantly increased only in the PPV/SB group (p=0.019 and p=0.010, respectively) but not in PPV group (p=0.715 and p=0.273, respectively). In PPV/SB group, IOPcc mean values were significantly higher than IOPg before (p=0.001) and after surgery (p=0.003), but not in the other group. None of the morphological parameters were modified after surgery in any of the two study groups (p>0.05) Conclusion Anterior segment morphology was not modified after placing a SB. Corneal biomechanical properties showed a reduction in CH, probably due to a vascular constriction and reduction of the eye compliance. PPV might be considered a less invasive approach for the repair of noncomplex retinal detachments than PPV/SB. [source]

Existence Of ,1A - and ,1B -Adrenoceptor Subtypes In Canine Mandibular Alveolar Arteries

Yuichi Taguchi
SUMMARY 1. The present study attempted to pharmacologically characterize the , -adrenoceptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction in canine isolated and perfused mandibular alveolar artery (MAA). 2. Noradrenaline (NA) and phenylephrine (PE) induced a strong vasoconstriction in a dose-dependent manner. The PE-induced vascular constriction was significantly inhibited by treatment with prazosin. Xylazine evoked a moderate vascular constriction and the xylazine-induced response was suppressed by rauwolscine. The NA-induced response was partially inhibited by rauwolscine and the remaining response to NA was abolished by subsequent administration of prazosin. 3. Treatment of MAA with WB4101 produced a dose- dependent inhibition of NA-induced vasoconstriction. Pretreatment of tissues with 10 ,mol/L chloroethylclonidine produced a slight and statistically significant inhibition of NA-induced responses. BMY 7378, a selective ,1D -adrenoceptor antagonist, failed to significantly affect vasoconstrictor responses to NA. 4. The present results suggests that: (i) both ,1 - and ,2 -adrenoceptors are involved in vasoconstrictor responses in the canine MAA; and (ii) the ,1 -adrenoceptors involved in the vasoconstrictor responses in the MAA are characterized as mainly of the ,1A - and partially of the ,1B -adrenoceptor subtype. [source]