Vascular Channels (vascular + channel)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Glossal angiomyoma: Imaging findings and endovascular treatment

Franklin A. Marden MD
Abstract Background. An angiomyoma is an uncommon, benign tumor characterized by numerous vascular channels intermixed with bundles of smooth muscle cells. Oral manifestations are quite rare. We describe for the first time the CT, MRI, and angiographic imaging features and successful preoperative endovascular embolization of an angiomyoma of the tongue. The pathologic findings before and after embolization are also described. Methods and Results. A 25-year-old man was seen with a rapidly enlarging tongue mass. Imaging studies revealed the extent and hypervascular nature of this tumor. The diagnosis of angiomyoma was confirmed by histologic examination. Preoperative embolization proved to be helpful in the surgical management of this lesion. Conclusions. Angiomyoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any well-circumscribed, hypervascular, soft tissue tumor in the mouth. In addition, endovascular embolization may be a useful adjunct that facilitates resection. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 1084,1088, 2004 [source]

Fluorescent risedronate analogues reveal bisphosphonate uptake by bone marrow monocytes and localization around osteocytes in vivo

Anke J Roelofs
Abstract Bisphosphonates are effective antiresorptive agents owing to their bone-targeting property and ability to inhibit osteoclasts. It remains unclear, however, whether any non-osteoclast cells are directly affected by these drugs in vivo. Two fluorescent risedronate analogues, carboxyfluorescein-labeled risedronate (FAM-RIS) and Alexa Fluor 647,labeled risedronate (AF647-RIS), were used to address this question. Twenty-four hours after injection into 3-month-old mice, fluorescent risedronate analogues were bound to bone surfaces. More detailed analysis revealed labeling of vascular channel walls within cortical bone. Furthermore, fluorescent risedronate analogues were present in osteocytic lacunae in close proximity to vascular channels and localized to the lacunae of newly embedded osteocytes close to the bone surface. Following injection into newborn rabbits, intracellular uptake of fluorescently labeled risedronate was detected in osteoclasts, and the active analogue FAM-RIS caused accumulation of unprenylated Rap1A in these cells. In addition, CD14high bone marrow monocytes showed relatively high levels of uptake of fluorescently labeled risedronate, which correlated with selective accumulation of unprenylated Rap1A in CD14+ cells, as well as osteoclasts, following treatment with risedronate in vivo. Similar results were obtained when either rabbit or human bone marrow cells were treated with fluorescent risedronate analogues in vitro. These findings suggest that the capacity of different cell types to endocytose bisphosphonate is a major determinant for the degree of cellular drug uptake in vitro as well as in vivo. In conclusion, this study shows that in addition to bone-resorbing osteoclasts, bisphosphonates may exert direct effects on bone marrow monocytes in vivo. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research [source]

Dabska tumor arising in lymphangioma circumscriptum

Patrick O. Emanuel
We describe a case of Dabska tumor (DT) occurring within a large congenital lymphangioma circumscriptum on the thigh of a 14-year-old female. Diagnostic biopsy showed numerous intravascular papillary projections lined by atypical endothelial cells within the anastomosing vascular channels of a lymphangioma circumscriptum. DT is regarded as a vascular tumor of intermediate malignant potential, most probably of lymphatic origin. Although it has been described in pre-existing lymphangiomas, to the best of our knowledge this is the first case to be described in a pre-existing lymphangioma circumscriptum. During a follow-up of 9 years, the lymphangioma circumscriptum has recurred, but there has been no evidence of DT recurrence or metastasis. [source]

Glomus Coccygeum: Report of a Case

A. Rahemtullah
The glomus coccygeum is a vestigial structure related to the canals of Sucquet-Hoyer, an arteriovenous anastomosis surrounded by glomus cells derived from modified smooth muscle and involved in thermoregulation. It is an incidental finding in specimens from the sacral area and may represent a diagnostic challenge to the unaware observer. We present a case of a glomus coccygeum, presenting as a 1.5 mm structure adjacent to a typical pilonidal cyst excised from a 7-month-old boy, that was the subject of a second opinion consultation. The lesion showed small to medium sized clusters of predominantly epithelioid cells with moderate amounts of clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm, intercellular borders and plump, round nuclei with fine chromatin. These cells were closely associated with small vascular channels and nerves. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the epithelioid cells expressed vimentin, muscle-specific actin, neuron-specific enolase, and S-100 protein, were weakly positive for smooth muscle actin, and negative for desmin, synaptophysin and chromogranin. The endothelial cells of the vascular channels were antibody CD31 positive. Recognition of the histological features of glomus coccygeum is important to avoid confusion with glomus tumor and neural or smooth muscle neoplasms in the sacral area. [source]

Hobnail hemangiomas (targetoid hemosiderotic hemangiomas) are true lymphangiomas

Folker E. Franke
Background:, Hobnail hemangioma (targetoid hemosiderotic hemangioma) is a small benign vascular tumor of the superficial and mid-dermis. In contrast to its well-characterized histology, it has been unclear whether this tumor arises from blood vessel endothelial cells (BECs) or lymphatic vessel endothelial cells (LECs). Methods:, We analyzed 10 hobnail hemangiomas by immunohistochemistry, using the recently described lymphatic endothelial cell marker, D2-40. For comparison, CD31, CD34, and ,-smooth muscle actin expression were studied in consecutive sections of the paraffin-embedded tissues. Results:, In all analyzed vessels, D2-40 labeled exclusively LECs, whereas BECs were consistently negative. In contrast to capillary BECs, either neighboring the tumors or intermingled, neoplastic endothelial cells of all 10 hobnail hemangiomas were strongly labeled by D2-40. Conclusions:, The results suggest a lymphatic origin for hobnail hemangiomas. This view is further supported by the CD34 negativity of endothelial cells and the lack of actin-labeled pericytes in hobnail hemangiomas, both characteristic of lymphatic vessels. Moreover, our analysis revealed that microshunts between neoplastic lymphatic vascular channels and small blood vessels occur, explaining some features of hobnail hemangiomas, such as aneurysmatic microstructures, erythrocytes within and beneath neoplastic vascular spaces, inflammatory changes, scarring, and interstitial hemosiderin deposits. [source]

Intestinal haemangiosarcoma in the cat: clinical and pathol Ggical features of four cases

A. Sharpe
The clinical and pathological features of four cases of feline intestinal haemangiosarcoma are described. All cases were in domestic shorthaired cats and the mean age of the animals (n=3) was 13 years. The tumours originated in the colon, small intestine, ileocaecocolic junction or rectum. The rectal tumour was juxtaposed with an adjacent mast cell neoplasm. Metastasis to mesenteric lymph node occurred in two cases, and in one of these cats there was also abdominal seeding. The histopathological appearance was of a spindle cell neoplasm with vascular differentiation in each case. lmmunohistochemical staining for factor VIII-related antigen, an endothelial cell marker, confirmed all four tumours to be of endothelial origin. The neoplastic endothelial cells lining irregular vascular channels were more likely to express the antigen than those forming denser sheets without obvious vascular differentiation. [source]

Kaposi's sarcoma , still an enigma

P Babál
ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an unusual neoplasm that has proved to be an enigma in many ways since its original description in 1872. KS, a vascular tumour that is otherwise rare, is at present the most common neoplasm in patients with AIDS. The lesions contain spindle cells that share features with endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells and are in all likelihood primitive mesenchymal cells that can form vascular channels. These cells are monoclonal in origin indicating therefore that KS is a neoplasm. The presence of a novel type of human herpes virus, KS herpesvirus (KSHV) also called human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV8) in KS lesions support a viral ethiology. KS may be mistaken in the skin for an inflammatory or other lesion, thus skin biopsy is important for correct diagnosis, with the use of immunohistochemistry or molecular biology if needed. Radiation or interferon alpha dominate in the therapeutic approaches. [source]

Laryngeal Angiosarcoma: A Clinicopathologic Study of Five Cases With a Review of the Literature,

Benjamin M. Loos MD
Abstract Objective Primary laryngeal angiosarcoma (LA) is rare without a reported series evaluating these tumors. Study Design/Methods Five patients with LA were retrospectively retrieved from the Otorhinolaryngic Registry of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Results Three men and 2 women, aged 29 to 71 years, presented with hoarseness (n = 4) and hemoptysis (n = 1). Two patients had previous neck radiation. The tumors involved the supraglottis (n = 4) with a mean size of 3.1 cm. Histologically, all tumors had anastomosing vascular channels lined by remarkably atypical endothelial cells protruding into the lumen, frequent atypical mitotic figures, and hemorrhage. All cases tested (n = 4) demonstrated immunoreactivity with antibodies to Factor VIII-RA and CD34. All patients had surgery followed by postoperative radiation (n = 3 patients). Three patients died with disease (mean, 17 mo), whereas one patient is alive with no evidence of disease at 18 years. Conclusions LA is a rare tumor, frequently associated with previous radiation, usually involving the supraglottis with characteristic histomorphologic and immunophenotypic features. LA has a poor prognosis, making appropriate separation from other conditions important. [source]

Multiple hereditary glomangiomas: Successful treatment with sclerotherapy

Kurosh Parsi
SUMMARY Glomangiomas are characterized by cavernous vascular channels surrounded by glomus cells. Multiple glomangiomas, although usually painless, can be a few centimetres in size and appear as blue phlebectatic lesions. Surgical excision of multiple glomangiomas can lead to scarring and recurrences. Laser treatment using vascular lasers and CO2 lasers has been useful in small, superficial lesions. We present the successful sclerotherapy treatment of multiple glomangiomas using sodium tetradecyl sulphate in a 59-year-old man who presented with postoperative recurrence of multiple lesions. [source]

Angiotropism of human prostate cancer cells: implications for extravascular migratory metastasis

Claire Lugassy
OBJECTIVES To report several samples of invasive human prostate cancer showing angiotropism, and to use human prostate cancer cells stably expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) in in vitro and in vivo models to assess the dissemination pathway of prostate cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS Malignant melanoma and prostate carcinoma cells can migrate along anatomical structures such as nerves; previous studies showed that melanoma cells can be perivascular, on the outside of the endothelium, i.e. they are angiotropic, which suggests the hypothesis that melanoma cells also may migrate along vascular channels, termed ,extravascular migratory metastasis' (EVMM). Thus we examined histologically 10 human prostatic carcinoma specimens for the presence of angiotropism. In vitro, the PC-3 prostate cancer cells were co-cultures with capillary-like structures. In vivo, PC-3 cells were implanted on the chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM). RESULTS Histologically, in all 10 cases, angiotropism was detected at least focally within the tumour or at the advancing front of the tumour. In vitro, the PC-3 cells spread along the external surface of the vascular tubules; in vivo, PC-3 cells formed a cuff around some vessels a few millimetres beyond the tumour, showing angiotropism. Histopathology of the CAM confirmed the perivascular location of tumour cells and the absence of tumour cells within the vessel lumina. CONCLUSION The presence of angiotropic tumour cells in human invasive prostate cancers, associated with the angiotropism of GFP prostate cancer cells cultivated in vitro and in vivo in angiogenic models, raises the possibility that some prostate tumour cells may migrate along the external surface of vessels as a mechanism of spread, i.e. EVMM. [source]