Utility Assessment (utility + assessment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Numeracy and the shortcomings of utility assessment in head and neck cancer patients,,

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 5 2004
Seth R. Schwartz MD
Abstract Background. Because survival differences between surgical and nonsurgical treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC) are hard to detect, increasing focus has been placed on quality of life (QOL) differences after treatment. Utility assessment provides insight into QOL. Evidence suggests that a patient's comfort with numerical concepts ("numeracy") may influence utility measures. We hypothesize that patients who are nonnumerate provide inconsistent utility data in QOL studies. Methods. New HNC (n = 18) patients were recruited to participate. Patients completed a numeracy questionnaire, a utility assessment, and a global QOL questionnaire. Higher scores reflect better function. Interviewers rated the functional level of each patient. For both numerate and nonnumerate patients, utility scores were compared with global QOL (good vs poor) and observer-rated function. Results. Half of the patients were numerate. Numerate patients who rated their QOL as good had significantly higher utility scores than did patients with poor global QOL (0.95 vs 0.43, p = .03). In contrast, nonnumerate patients with good QOL had lower utility scores than did patients with poor QOL (0.45 vs 0.77, NS). Utility scores for numerate patients correlated well with observer-rated function (r = 0.41 to r = 0.57), whereas those of nonnumerate patients did not (r = ,0.16 to r = 0.06). Conclusions. QOL evaluation through utility assessment may provide inaccurate and contradictory data about patient functioning for nonnumerate patients. This may confound QOL assessment when interpreting utility data. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 401,407, 2004 [source]


Distribution of Aggregate Utility Using Stochastic Elements of Additive Multiattribute Utility Models

DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 2 2000
Herbert Moskowitz
ABSTRACT Conventionally, elements of a multiattribute utility model characterizing a decision maker's preferences, such as attribute weights and attribute utilities, are treated as deterministic, which may be unrealistic because assessment of such elements can be imprecise and erroneous, or differ among a group of individuals. Moreover, attempting to make precise assessments can be time consuming and cognitively demanding. We propose to treat such elements as stochastic variables to account for inconsistency and imprecision in such assessments. Under these assumptions, we develop procedures for computing the probability distribution of aggregate utility for an additive multiattribute utility function (MAUF), based on the Edgeworth expansion. When the distributions of aggregate utility for all alternatives in a decision problem are known, stochastic dominance can then be invoked to filter inferior alternatives. We show that, under certain mild conditions, the aggregate utility distribution approaches normality as the number of attributes increases. Thus, only a few terms from the Edgeworth expansion with a standard normal density as the base function will be sufficient for approximating an aggregate utility distribution in practice. Moreover, the more symmetric the attribute utility distributions, the fewer the attributes to achieve normality. The Edgeworth expansion thus can provide a basis for a computationally viable approach for representing an aggregate utility distribution with imprecisely specified attribute weights and utilities assessments (or differing weights and utilities across individuals). Practical guidelines for using the Edgeworth approximation are given. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a vendor selection problem. [source]


Numeracy and the shortcomings of utility assessment in head and neck cancer patients,,

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 5 2004
Seth R. Schwartz MD
Abstract Background. Because survival differences between surgical and nonsurgical treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC) are hard to detect, increasing focus has been placed on quality of life (QOL) differences after treatment. Utility assessment provides insight into QOL. Evidence suggests that a patient's comfort with numerical concepts ("numeracy") may influence utility measures. We hypothesize that patients who are nonnumerate provide inconsistent utility data in QOL studies. Methods. New HNC (n = 18) patients were recruited to participate. Patients completed a numeracy questionnaire, a utility assessment, and a global QOL questionnaire. Higher scores reflect better function. Interviewers rated the functional level of each patient. For both numerate and nonnumerate patients, utility scores were compared with global QOL (good vs poor) and observer-rated function. Results. Half of the patients were numerate. Numerate patients who rated their QOL as good had significantly higher utility scores than did patients with poor global QOL (0.95 vs 0.43, p = .03). In contrast, nonnumerate patients with good QOL had lower utility scores than did patients with poor QOL (0.45 vs 0.77, NS). Utility scores for numerate patients correlated well with observer-rated function (r = 0.41 to r = 0.57), whereas those of nonnumerate patients did not (r = ,0.16 to r = 0.06). Conclusions. QOL evaluation through utility assessment may provide inaccurate and contradictory data about patient functioning for nonnumerate patients. This may confound QOL assessment when interpreting utility data. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 401,407, 2004 [source]


Systematic review: patient-centred endpoints in economic evaluations of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 8 2002
N. Vakil
Summary Aim : To perform a systematic review of the economic literature on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease to evaluate (a) the use of patient-centred effectiveness end-points, or (b) the use of patient-centred economic end-points, and the influence of these end-points on the outcome of the model. Methods : Three electronic databases (EMBASE, BIOSIS and Medline) were used, together with a manual search of meeting abstracts for relevant articles. The quality of the studies was determined by the Drummond criteria. Results : Our initial search identified 179 articles and a manual search revealed 78 abstracts and articles. A total of 47 studies (36 fully published articles and 11 abstracts) met the seven Drummond criteria for inclusion in our evaluation. Conclusions : This systematic review demonstrates that many of the published economic evaluations available today take the perspective of the third-party payer and focus on pharmaceutical costs relevant to the third-party payer. Our study also demonstrates that there are a number of costs of illness determinations, such that pharmaceutical costs account for only a small proportion of the total costs of managing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Future economic analyses should consider an evaluation of the patient's desire for complete symptom relief by including cost,utility assessments or willingness to pay data. [source]