Utilisation Patterns (utilisation + pattern)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Analysis of microbial community functional diversity using sole-carbon-source utilisation profiles , a critique

Juliet Preston-Mafham
Abstract Information on functional diversity (metabolic potential) is essential for understanding the role of microbial communities in different environments. Variations of the commercially available BIOLOG bacterial identification system plates are now widely used to assess functional diversity of microorganisms from environmental samples, based on utilisation patterns of a wide range (up to 95) of single carbon sources. There are many problems as well as benefits of using the approach, but the former are often disregarded. Here the basis of the approach is summarised, including type of plate to use, treatment of samples, replication, incubation conditions, monitoring of plates, and statistical analysis. The pros and cons of its use are critically assessed, inherent biases and limitations are pointed out and methodological difficulties are considered. Possible ways of overcoming some of the difficulties are suggested. [source]

The perception and utilisation of social support in times of cultural change: the case of Arabs in Israel

Faisal Azaiza
Arabs in Israel are currently undergoing a modernisation process characterised by a gradual shift from a collectivistic to an individualistic cultural orientation. During such a transition, perceptions and utilisation of social support assume great significance. This article examines perceptions and utilisation patterns of social support networks among Arabs in Israel. The research population consisted of 507 respondents, representative of the Arab population, randomly selected by means of a telephone survey. Findings are discussed within the context of modernisation processes, collectivistic and individualistic cultural orientations, and their association with the perception and utilisation of social support. [source]

Rosuvastatin safety: a comprehensive, international pharmacoepidemiology programme,,

Saga Johansson MD
Abstract Results from clinical trials and clinical practice have shown statins to be generally well tolerated with a low frequency of clinically relevant side effects. Nevertheless, there are rare occasions when adverse events (AEs), sometimes serious, may occur. Rosuvastatin is the newest statin to be approved in the USA and many other countries. As part of the continued assessment of the benefit-risk profile of rosuvastatin, AstraZeneca has developed a progressive, comprehensive pharmacoepidemiology programme to complement safety data obtained from randomised clinical trials and spontaneous reporting systems, which have demonstrated that rosuvastatin has a safety profile in line with comparator statins. This programme comprises nine studies conducted in recognised centres of excellence assessing over 50,000 patients treated with rosuvastatin. It consists of three components: patient characteristics studies (four studies), safety evaluation studies (four studies); and review of data generated from the Prescription-Event Monitoring (PEM) study, designed and run by an independent third party. Patient characteristics studies are designed to describe the characteristics and drug utilisation patterns of new users of rosuvastatin compared with new users of other statins in automated databases. Safety evaluation studies will examine the rates of specific AEs in different cohorts of statin users and determine risk factors for these events using data recorded prospectively in automated databases with case adjudication via medical record review. The independent PEM study will monitor any significant events recorded by general practitioners since starting rosuvastatin treatment. This article is an overview of the rationale and methodology of the rosuvastatin pharmacoepidemiology programme. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The acute,aged care interface: Exploring the dynamics of ,bed blocking'

Catherine M Travers
Objective: To understand the dynamics underlying ,bed-blocking' in Australian public hospitals that is frequently blamed on older patients. Methods: Analysis of primary and secondary data of utilisation patterns of hospital and aged care services by older Australians. Results: A model of the dynamics at the acute,aged care interface was developed, in which the pathway into permanent high-care Residential Aged Care (RAC) is conceptualised as competing queues for available places by applicants from the hospital, the community and from within RAC facilities. The hospital effectively becomes a safety net to accommodate people with high-care needs who cannot be admitted into RAC in a timely manner. Conclusion: The model provides a useful tool to explore some of the issues that give rise to access-block within the public hospital system. Access-block cannot be understood by viewing the hospital system in isolation from other sectors that support the health and well-being of older Australians. [source]