Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Uterus

  • cervix uterus
  • corpus uterus
  • mouse uterus
  • pregnant uterus
  • rat uterus

  • Selected Abstracts

    Color Atlas of Histopathology of the Cervix Uteri

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    H Monaghan
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Bacteriological Findings and Hormonal Profiles in the Postpartum Balady Goats

    M M Ababneh
    Contents Twenty-six Balady goats categorized according to parity into primiparous and pluriparous goats were used to investigate bacterial flora of the genital tract and hormonal profiles during the postpartum (PP) period. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated in pure or mixed culture from the uterus. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from swabs obtained from the vagina and cervix of one primiparous goat. Uteri and cervices but not vaginas were free of bacterial contamination by day 10 PP except for one pluriparous goat with scanty E. coli contamination on day 25 PP. Fluctuating oestradiol 17, (E2) levels demonstrated resumption of follicular activity as early as day 13 PP in both parity groups. Progesterone (P4) levels remained low at basal levels throughout the study period. Higher concentrations of 15-keto-13,14-dihydroprostaglandin F2, (PGFM) were observed during the first week PP compared with the rest of the PP period. PGFM concentrations dropped to low basal level by day 10 PP and remained constantly low throughout the study period. P4, E2 and PGFM profiles were not different between the different parity groups. In conclusion, intrauterine infection is not common in goats with normal kidding. E. coli was the most common intrauterine bacterial isolate. E2 and P4 profiles were consistent with resumption of follicular growth but not ovulation. High PGFM concentrations coincided with the fast regression phase of uterine involution. Hormonal profile and bacterial contamination and clearance were similar to those reported in other related species and not related to parity. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Temporal and Spatial Expression of Tumor-Associated Antigen RCAS1 in Pregnant Mouse Uterus

    Ekaterine Tskitishvili
    Citation Tskitishvili E, Nakamura H, Kinugasa-Taniguchi Y, Kanagawa T, Kimura T, Tomimatsu T, Shimoya K. Temporal and spatial expression of tumor-associated antigen RCAS1 in pregnant mouse uterus. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 63: 137,143 Problem, The tumor-associated antigen RCAS1 (receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells) is considered to play a role in the inhibition of maternal immune response during pregnancy, and participates in the initiation of labor and placental detachment. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of RCAS1 protein in the uteri of normal pregnant mice. Method of study, Uteri with fetuses were collected from pregnant ICR mice on days 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5, and 9.5 p.c., and uterine and placental tissues were obtained separately on days 11.5, 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 p.c. Samples were examined using real-time (RT)-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical analyses. Results, In normal pregnant mice, RCAS1 protein mRNA was significantly increased on day 7.5 p.c. Antigen localization was detected in the placenta, decidua, and fetus. Conclusion, The results of this study suggest the importance of day 7.5 p.c. for RCAS1 protein expression in connection with placentation as a possible target for future in vivo studies. [source]

    Long-Term Sensitivity of Uterus and Hypothalamus/Pituitary Axis to 17,-Estradiol Is Higher Than That of Bone in Rats,

    Reinhold G Erben MD
    Abstract We examined the long-term sensitivity of uterus and bone to low-dose 17,-estradiol in a 4-month experiment in OVX rats and found that a dose of estradiol that fully protected against uterine atrophy did not protect against bone loss. Our results suggest higher estrogen sensitivity of the uterus compared with bone. Introduction: Estrogen is essential for the function of reproductive tissues and for the normal acquisition and maintenance of bone mass in females. This study was designed to examine the long-term sensitivity of the uterus and bone to low-dose estrogen. Materials and Methods: In preliminary experiments, we determined the lowest subcutaneous dose of 17,-estradiol able to fully protect against uterine atrophy in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. This dose was found to be 1.5 ,g/kg, given five times per week. Subsequently, groups of sham-operated (SHAM) or OVX 6-month-old rats (n = 8 each) were subcutaneously injected with vehicle or 1.5 ,g/kg 17,-estradiol five times per week. All animals were killed 4 months after surgery. Serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline were measured as biochemical markers of bone turnover. Bones were analyzed by bone histomorphometry and pQCT. Results and Conclusions: Our study clearly showed that a dose of estradiol that restores physiological estradiol serum levels, fully maintains uterine weight in OVX rats at the SHAM control level, and suppresses serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by 67% relative to OVX vehicle controls does not provide significant protection against OVX-induced bone loss at different cancellous and cortical bone sites. We conclude that the long-term sensitivity of the uterus and the hypothalamus/pituitary axis to 17,-estradiol is higher than that of bone in rats. [source]

    Post-Partum Involution of the Canine Uterus , Gross Anatomical and Histological Features

    DC Orfanou
    Contents We aimed to study the normal puerperium in the bitch. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in nine bitches, each at a different day after normal whelping; their genital tract was subject to gross anatomical examination, as well as to histological examination and electron microscopy scanning. Corpora albicans were evenly distributed in the left and right ovaries and placental sites were evenly distributed among left and right uterine horns. Placental sites were initially of dark green to grey colour, later becoming dark brown; their length and height progressively decreased. Height of the myometrium and diameter of the uterine glands progressively decreased. Trophoblast-like cells were consistently observed at the placental sites and on the surface of the interplacental areas, at all time points where hysterectomy had been performed. It is suggested that involution of the canine genital tract can last up to 3 months and is slow. Continuous (up to D84 post-partum) presence of prominent placental sites should be considered a normal feature of canine uterine post-partum involution. [source]

    Expression of Genes in the Canine Pre-implantation Uterus and Embryo: Implications for an Active Role of the Embryo Before and During Invasion

    S Schäfer-Somi
    Contents The aim of the present study was to assess genes expressed in maternal uterine tissue and pre-implantation embryos which are presumably involved in maternal recognition and establishment of canine pregnancy. For this purpose, 10 pregnant bitches were ovariohysterectomized between days 10 and 12 after mating. Four non-pregnant bitches served as controls. Early pregnancy was verified by flushing the uterine horns with PBS solution. The collected embryos (n = 60) were stored deep-frozen (,80°C). Uterine tissue was excised, snaps frozen in liquid nitrogen and homogenized using TRI Reagent. All embryos from one litter were thawed together and also homogenized in TRI Reagent. RT-PCR was performed to prove mRNA expression of progesterone receptor, key enzymes of the prostaglandin synthesis pathway, selected growth factors, cytokines, immune cell receptors, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP). Only pregnant uteri revealed the presence of mRNA for interferon (IFN)-,, IL-4 and CD-8, which resembles the milieu in humans and other mammalians. Similarly, in day 10 embryos, mRNA for transforming growth factor-,, insulin-like growth factor-1,-2, hepatocyte growth factor, leukaemia inhibitor factor, tumour necrosis factor-,, interleukin-1,,-6,-8, cyclooxygenase-2, CD4+ cells, and MMP-2 and -9 were detected, but not MHC-I or -II. We therefore suppose that the canine embryo, like its human counterpart, actively initiates measures to prevent attacks from the maternal immune system to prepare its own adhesion, nidation, growth and further development. [source]

    Case of Pregnancy in Two Cows with Unicorn Horn of the Uterus either by Artificial Insemination at Ipsilateral or Embryo Transfer at Contralateral Corpus Luteum in the Ovary

    C Moriyama
    Contents Two Holstein heifers and a cow were diagnosed with White Heifer Disease by ultrasonography. Case 1 was a 14 month-old heifer with aplasia of both sides of the uterine horn. In case 2, a primiparous cow and case 3, an 18 month-old heifer, both showed aplasia of the right uterine horn. Case 2 became pregnant by artificial insemination at ipsilateral ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum in the left ovary, while case 3 became pregnant by embryo transfer at 7 days after oestrus with contralateral corpus luteum in the right ovary. [source]

    Immunohistochemical Studies on Oestrogen Receptor Alpha (ER,) and the Proliferative Marker Ki-67 in the Sow Uterus at Different Stages of the Oestrous Cycle

    S Sukjumlong
    Contents In order to better understand physiological changes during the different stages of the oestrous cycle, immunohistochemistry was used in the present study to investigate the distribution of oestrogen receptor alpha (ER,) as well as the proliferative marker Ki-67, in the sow uterus during the oestrous cycle. Uterine samples were collected from multiparous sows with normal reproductive performance at selected stages of the oestrous cycle: at late dioestrus (d 17), prooestrus (d 19), oestrous (d 1), early dioestrus (d 4) and dioestrus (d 11,12), respectively. The tissue samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and subjected to immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against ER, (C-311) and Ki-67 (MM-1). In general, the immunostaining of both ER, and Ki-67 was confined to nuclei of the target cells. Variations were seen, not only at the different stages of the oestrous cycle, but also in the different tissue compartments of the uterus. In the epithelia, the strongest ER, staining and highest amount of positive Ki-67 cells were found at early dioestrus. In the myometrium, the highest levels of staining of both ER, and Ki-67 positive cells were found at pro-oestrus and oestrus. For the proliferative marker, Ki-67, no positive cells were found at dioestrus and late dioestrus in the epithelium and myometrium. In the connective tissue stroma (subepithelial layer), the highest number of ER, positive cells were found at oestrus, which was significantly different compared with other stages (p,0.05), whereas the levels of Ki-67 positive cells were relatively low and did not differ between the stages examined. Significant correlations between the number of ER, positive cells in the stroma and Ki-67 positive cells in the epithelia were observed. This suggests indirect regulatory mechanisms on epithelial proliferation via ER, in the stroma. In conclusion, these findings in the sow uterus show that the presence of ER, as well as Ki-67 protein varies not only between different stages of the oestrous cycle but also between different tissue compartments of the uterus. These findings indicate various regulatory mechanisms and stress the importance of localising ER, and proliferating cells in different uterine tissues. [source]

    Claudin-5 is Restricted to the Tight Junction Region of Uterine Epithelial Cells in the Uterus of Pregnant/Gravid Squamate Reptiles

    Joanna M. Biazik
    Abstract Claudin-5, a tight junctional protein associated with ion and size selectivity, has been found in the uterus of skinks. This study has generated critical information about the molecular assembly of the tight junction at various stages of the reproductive cycle in the skink uterus. Recent studies looking at tight junctional proteins found occludin expression in the tight junction region of uterine epithelial cells in the skink uterus; however, occludin did not disclose any further information about the ions and size of ions permeating across the paracellular pathway. A ,22-kDa claudin-5 band was detected in the uterus of the skinks present in this study and immunohistochemistry revealed that claudin-5 redistributes to the tight junction region of the lateral plasma membrane of uterine epithelial cells in late stage pregnancy/gravidity. This finding indicates that the tight junction becomes more assembled to precisely regulate ion and solute permeation in late stage pregnancy/gravidity. Claudin-5 with its functional role as a molecular sieve due to the formation of ion and size selective pores suggests that permeation of ions smaller than 0.8 kDa are restricted when claudin-5 is redistributed to the tight junction region of the later plasma membrane. This report is the first description of the molecular mechanisms that may be involved in regulating nutrient provision in the reptilian uterus. Anat Rec, 291:547,556, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Temporal and Spatial Expression of Tumor-Associated Antigen RCAS1 in Pregnant Mouse Uterus

    Ekaterine Tskitishvili
    Citation Tskitishvili E, Nakamura H, Kinugasa-Taniguchi Y, Kanagawa T, Kimura T, Tomimatsu T, Shimoya K. Temporal and spatial expression of tumor-associated antigen RCAS1 in pregnant mouse uterus. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 63: 137,143 Problem, The tumor-associated antigen RCAS1 (receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells) is considered to play a role in the inhibition of maternal immune response during pregnancy, and participates in the initiation of labor and placental detachment. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of RCAS1 protein in the uteri of normal pregnant mice. Method of study, Uteri with fetuses were collected from pregnant ICR mice on days 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5, and 9.5 p.c., and uterine and placental tissues were obtained separately on days 11.5, 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 p.c. Samples were examined using real-time (RT)-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical analyses. Results, In normal pregnant mice, RCAS1 protein mRNA was significantly increased on day 7.5 p.c. Antigen localization was detected in the placenta, decidua, and fetus. Conclusion, The results of this study suggest the importance of day 7.5 p.c. for RCAS1 protein expression in connection with placentation as a possible target for future in vivo studies. [source]

    Hysterical Traits Are Not from the Uterus but from the Testis: A Study in Men with Sexual Dysfunction

    Elisa Bandini MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., The relationship between testosterone (T) and psychopathology in subjects with sexual dysfunction has not been completely clarified. Aim., To evaluate the association between T levels and different psychopathological symptoms and traits in men seeking treatment for sexual dysfunction. Methods., A consecutive series of 2,042 heterosexual male patients (mean age 51.8 ± 13) consulting an outpatient clinic for sexual dysfunction was retrospectively studied. Main Outcome Measures., Several hormonal, biochemical, and instrumental parameters were investigated, including testis volume (Prader orchidometr) and penile blood flow (penile Doppler ultrasound). Patients were interviewed, prior to the beginning of any treatment, with the previously validated Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY), and ANDROTEST (a structured interview for the screening of hypogonadism in patients with sexual dysfunction). They also completed the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ) a brief self-reported questionnaire for the screening of the symptoms of mental disorders in nonpsychiatric setting. Results., T levels showed a negative correlation with depressive and anxiety (somatized and phobic) symptoms. Conversely, histrionic/hysterical traits were strongly and positively associated with elevated T. Men with histrionic/hysterical traits had higher androgenization, as suggested by both higher total and free T, higher testis volume and a lower ANDROTEST score. They were also characterized by better self-reported sexual functioning and penile blood flow. Accordingly, when SIEDY scales were considered, SIEDY scale 2 (relational domain) was significantly lower in subjects with histrionic/hysterical traits further indicating a more satisfying sexual relationship. Conclusions., In men consulting for sexual dysfunction, histrionic/hysterical personality is associated with higher androgenization and better sexual functioning. Hysteria, previously considered as a typically feminine psychopathological trait (the uterine theory), should now be considered as an index of better masculine sexual well-being. Bandini E, Corona G, Ricca V, Fisher AD, Lotti F, Sforza A, Faravelli C, Forti G, Mannucci E, and Maggi M. Hysterical traits are not from the uterus but from the testis: A study in men with sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med 2009;6:2321,2331. [source]

    REVIEW ARTICLE: Human NK Cells in Pregnant Uterus: Why There?

    Philippe Le Bouteiller
    Human Natural Killer (NK) cells are present in great number in pregnant uterine mucosa. They must be there for specialized functions, but which ones? This review discusses important recent observations that further contribute to this fascinating debate. Firstly, an array of corroborating findings indicates that uterine NK cell proliferation is synchronized with the cyclic surge of progesterone. Secondly, uterine NK cells are unlikely to exert a direct control on the embryo implantation. Thirdly, these NK cells influence the uterine vascular remodeling in early pregnancy but might not be the single key element that control trophoblast invasion. Finally, uterine NK cells are likely to be an important component of the local maternal immune response to pathogen infections. [source]

    Oxytocin Modulates Nitric Oxide Generation by Human Fetal Membranes at Term Pregnancy

    C. Ticconi
    Problem:, Nitric oxide (NO), an important mediator of the inflammatory response, is involved in several reproductive processes including pregnancy and labor. Uterus, placenta and fetal membranes are significant sources of NO. Presently, there is no information on factors regulating NO production by fetal membranes. Method of study:, Human fetal membranes at term gestation were cultured for 24 hr in the presence of oxytocin. The concentrations of NO metabolites nitrites in culture medium were determined by the Griess reaction. The presence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results:, Oxytocin increased nitrite release by fetal membranes. Messenger ribonucleic acid iNOS expression was also enhanced by oxytocin. These effects were more marked in tissues obtained after labor than before labor. Conclusions:, Oxytocin exerts an overall stimulatory effect on NO release by fetal membranes. This action might be of relevance in the biomolecular processes leading to parturition. [source]

    Dysregulation of the Cytokine Network in the Uterus of the Diabetic Rat

    Insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes is an auto-immune disorder that produces secondary complications in numerous non-immunological systems. Changes in the synthesis and action pattern of several cytokines have been associated with the development of these alterations. Based on the clinical facts that the pregnant and non-pregnant functions of the reproductive system are also disrupted by diabetes, our laboratory has decided to concentrate its research activities on the hypothesis that cytokines may be implicated in the uteropathy and embryopathy associated with the metabolic disorder. This review article summarizes our major findings concerning the synthesis of TNF-, and IL-1, in the uterus of diabetic rats, and in cultures of rodent uterine cells upon their exposure to high concentrations of glucose. The paper also reviews evidence that both the peri-implanting embryo and the epithelial cell layer lining the uterine lumen are targets for the deleterious influence of excess TNF-,. If confirmed in the uterus of diabetic patients, these observations may explain how cytokines contribute to the dysregulation of crucial reproductive events like menstruation and embryo implantation in humans. [source]

    Effects of LPS and IL-6 on Oxytocin Receptor in Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Rat Uterus

    PROBLEM: Little is known regarding the regulation of the timing of parturition. Recent evidence suggests an interaction between the immune system and uterine contractility in late gestation. METHOD: Pregnant rats were treated with LPS in vivo in attempts to establish a model of premature parturition induced by the pro-inflammatory response. Uterine explants were incubated in vitro to determine the effects of IL-6 on uterine synthesis of oxytocin (OT) and its receptor (OTR). RESULTS: LPS injection was quite toxic to pregnant rats and gave extremely variable results. In animals that delivered, there was a marked increase in the uterine concentrations of OTR and OTR mRNA. There was no consistent effect regarding the timing of parturition. IL-6 caused a significant increase in the concentration of OTR mRNA in uterine explants from pregnant rats but not in tissues from non-pregnant animals. CONCLUSION: Rat uterine concentrations of OTR are regulated by IL-6. Pro-inflammatory cytokines may stimulate uterine contractility in late gestation rat uterine tissues through a mechanism involving stimulation of OTR. [source]

    Vaginal Ring and Round Ligament of the Uterus in the Female Cat

    A. Watson
    Summary The peritoneum was examined for the existence of a vaginal ring and the round ligament of the uterus was dissected through the inguinal region in eleven embalmed adult female cats. In all cats, there was no evidence of a peritoneal evagination into the inguinal canal. There was no vaginal ring and no vaginal process. The round ligament of the uterus passed through the inguinal canal and disintegrated in the fascia a short distance beyond the superficial inguinal ring. [source]

    William Hunter's Gravid Uterus: The specimens and plates

    CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 4 2002
    N.A. McCulloch
    Abstract William Hunter's collection of anatomical specimens of the pregnant uterus forms one of the finest displays in the Anatomy Museum at the University of Glasgow. We were interested to know which specimens in the Museum matched the plates in Hunter's The Anatomy of the Human Gravid Uterus Exhibited in Figures (1774). In our investigation we were greatly assisted by Teacher's Catalogue of the Anatomical and Pathological Preparations of Dr William Hunter (1900). Thirteen specimens in the Museum and one from the pathological collection at the Royal Infirmary are represented in Hunter's book. The specimens can be recognized in 25 of its illustrations. A further three specimens may correspond to figures but we could not prove this. With one possible exception, all the specimens matching plates noted in Teacher's catalogue remain in the Museum and one believed missing in Marshall's (1970) revision of the catalogue has been found. Clin. Anat. 15:253,262, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Tissue-specific distribution and whole-body burden estimates of persistent organic pollutants in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    Jennifer E. Yordy
    Abstract Most exposure assessments for free-ranging cetaceans focus on contaminant concentrations measured in blubber, and few data are available for other tissues or the factors governing contaminant distribution among tissues. The goal of this study was to provide a detailed description of the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) within the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) body and assess the role of lipid dynamics in mediating contaminant distribution. Thirteen tissues (brain, blubber, heart, liver, lung, kidney, mammary gland, melon, skeletal muscle, spleen, thyroid, thymus, and testis/uterus) were sampled during necropsy from bottlenose dolphins (n,=,4) and analyzed for lipid and 85 POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Significant correlations between tissue POP concentrations and lipid suggest that distribution of POPs is generally related to tissue lipid content. However, blubber:tissue partition coefficients ranged widely from 0.753 to 6.25, suggesting that contaminant distribution is not entirely lipid-dependent. Tissue-specific and whole-body contaminant burdens confirmed that blubber, the primary site of metabolic lipid storage, is also the primary site for POP accumulation, contributing >90% to the whole-body burdens. Observations also suggest that as lipid mobilizes from blubber, contaminants may redistribute, leading to elevated tissue concentrations. These results suggest that individuals with reduced blubber lipid may be at increased risk for exposure-related health effects. However, this study also provides evidence that the melon, a metabolically inert lipid-rich structure, may serve as an alternate depot for POPs, thus preventing the bulk of blubber contaminants from being directly available to other tissues. This unique physiological adaptation should be taken into consideration when assessing contaminant-related health effects in wild cetacean populations. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:1263,1273. © 2010 SETAC [source]

    Litigation cells: Their incidence and classification in gynecologic smears

    Wei Sun M.D.
    Abstract "Litigation cells" are defined as benign cells which may mimic dysplasia or cancer and might be used by plaintiffs' witnesses to imply that the cytotechnologist or pathologist "missed" cells of dysplasia or cancer. We reviewed 180 cervical smears from 166 patients who had hysterectomy for benign leiomyomas. All smears were performed within 12 months prior to hysterectomy. None of the uteri contained dysplasia or cancer on histologic examination. 90.6% of smears reviewed had at least one cell or cell group with atypia mimicking dysplasia or cancer. These "litigation cells" were classified as follows: parabasal cells, metaplastic squamous cells, degenerated endocervical cells, reactive endocervical cells, endometrial cells, neutrophils, histiocytes, and air-dried cells. Diseases mimicked by these cells included squamous cell carcinoma, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, adenocarcinoma, and glandular dysplasia. These "litigation cells" can be correctly classified by experienced cytotechnologists and cytopathologists and recognized as benign. We recommend that in all cases of alleged malpractice against cytotechnologists and/or pathologists the smears should be reviewed by a panel of individuals trained and experienced in cytopathology. The smears should be reviewed without knowledge of the clinical outcome and in an environment that simulates the normal screening practice. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2002;26:345,348. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Histologic and morphologic effects of valproic acid and oxcarbazepine on rat uterine and ovarian cells

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2010
    Ali Cansu
    Summary Purpose:, To determine the histologic and morphologic effects of valproic acid (VPA) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) on rat uterine and ovarian cells. Methods:, Fifty-six female prepubertal Wistar rats (21,24 days old and weighing between 47.5 and 58.1 g) were divided equally into four groups, which were given drinking water (controls), 300 mg/kg/day of VPA, 100 mg/kg/day of OXC or VPA + OXC via gavage, for 90 days. Ovaries and uteri of rats on proestrous and diestrous phases of estrous cycle were extirpated and placed in a fixation solution. The tissue specimens were assessed with apoptosis (TUNEL) staining protocols, eosinophil counting, and electron microscopic techniques. Results:, In uteri, apoptosis in stroma, mitochondrial swelling, and cristolysis were observed in the VPA group, and OXC led to negative effects on epithelial cell and intracellular edema. In ovaries, both drugs increased apoptosis and intracytoplasmic edema. Organelle structure disruption was also observed in the OXC group. More conspicuous degenerative modifications were determined in the VPA + OXC group. In uteri, the number of TUNEL-positive luminal epithelial cells was 7.20 ± 1.32 in controls, and significantly increased to 29.60 ± 1.58, 34.20 ± 2.53, and 54.80 ± 2.04 in VPA, OXC, and VPA + OXC groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The highest number of TUNEL-positive glandular epithelium cells was observed in the VPA + OXC group; however, the number of TUNEL-positive stroma cells was highest in the VPA group. The highest number of eosinophils in stroma was in the VPA group. Conclusion:, VPA and OXC trigger apoptotic and degenerative effects on rat uterine and ovarian cells. VPA also prevents implantation of embryo to the uterus and causes abortion via endometrial eosinophil infiltration. [source]

    The role of oxytocin and regulation of uterine oxytocin receptors in pregnant marsupials

    Laura J. Parry
    The oxytocin-like peptide of most Australian marsupials is mesotocin, which differs from oxytocin by a single amino acid. This substitution has no functional significance as both peptides have equivalent affinity for and biological activity on the marsupial oxytocin-like receptor. A role for mesotocin in marsupial parturition has been demonstrated in the tammar wallaby where plasma mesotocin concentrations increase less than one minute before birth. Infusion of an oxytocin receptor antagonist at the end of gestation disrupts normal parturition, probably by preventing mesotocin from stimulating uterine contractions. In the absence of mesotocin receptor activation, a peripartum surge in prostaglandins is delayed which suggests a functional relationship between mesotocin, prostaglandin release and luteolysis. Female marsupials have anatomically separate uteri and in monovular species, such as the tammar wallaby, only one uterus is gravid with a single fetus whereas the contralateral uterus remains non-gravid. We have used this unique animal model to differentiate systemic and fetal-specific factors in the regulation of uterine function during pregnancy. The gravid uterus in the tammar wallaby becomes increasingly sensitive to mesotocin as gestation proceeds, with the maximum contractile response observed at term. This is reflected in a large increase in mesotocin receptor concentrations in the gravid uterus, and a downregulation in the non-gravid uterus in late pregnancy. The upregulation in myometrial mesotocin receptors is pregnancy-specific and independent of systemic steroids. One factor that may influence mesotocin receptor upregulation in the gravid uterus in late pregnancy is mechanical stretch of the uterus caused by the growing fetus. Our data highlight that a local fetal influence is more important than systemic factors in the regulation of mesotocin receptors in the tammar wallaby. [source]

    Co-twin control and cohort analyses of body mass index and height in relation to breast, prostate, ovarian, corpus uteri, colon and rectal cancer among Swedish and Finnish twins

    Ellen Lundqvist
    Abstract Associations between anthropometric measures and cancer have been studied previously, but relatively few studies have had the opportunity to control for genetic and early shared environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed 2 twin cohorts from Sweden born 1886,1925 (n = 21,870) and 1926,1958 (n = 30,279) and 1 from Finland born 1880,1958 (n = 25,882) including in total 78,031 twins, and studied the association between BMI and height and risk of prostate, breast, ovarian, corpus uteri, colon and rectal cancer. The cohorts were both analyzed through a co-twin control method and as traditional cohorts. In co-twin control analyses, older obese (BMI , 30 kg/m2) subjects (median age 56 years at baseline) were at higher risk of cancer of the corpus uteri (OR = 3.0; 95% CI 0.9,10.6), colon (OR = 1.9; 95% CI 0.8,4.5) and breast (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.3,4.2). For younger obese women (median age 30 years at baseline), an inverse tendency was observed for breast cancer (OR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.3,1.5, p for trend = 0.05). The tallest women had an increased risk of breast (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3,2.7) and ovarian cancer (OR = 1.7; 95% CI 0.8,3.5). No consistent associations were found for prostate cancer either for BMI or height. There are some suggestions in our study that uncontrolled genetic or early shared environmental factors may affect risk estimates in studies of anthropometric measures and cancer risk, but do not explain observations of increased cancer risks related to BMI or height. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Incidence of bone and soft tissue sarcoma after radiotherapy: A cohort study of 295,712 Finnish cancer patients

    Anna Virtanen
    Abstract Radiotherapy is commonly used for treatment of malignant disease. As a consequence of radiotherapy, an increased risk of developing a second malignant neoplasm has been shown. However, little is known about the effects of radiation on developing sarcoma. The aim of this study was to examine the risk of developing a bone or soft tissue sarcoma after radiotherapy for a first primary cancer. The study population included all the patients with primary cancers of breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, lung, ovary, prostate, rectum and lymphoma diagnosed during 1953,2000 and identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Patients were followed up for subsequent sarcomas. The follow-up yielded 1.5 million person-years at risk and 147 sarcomas. Compared to the national incidence rates, after 10 years of follow-up sarcoma risk was increased among patients who had received neither radiotherapy nor chemotherapy (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 2.0, 95% CI 1.3,3.0), radiotherapy without chemotherapy (SIR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3,4.3), chemotherapy without radiotherapy (SIR 4.9, 95% CI 1.0,14.4), as well as combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy (SIR 3.4, 95% CI 0.4,12.5). For radiotherapy in ages below 55 the SIR was 4.2 (95% CI 2.9,5.8). In the adjusted regression analysis the rate ratio was 1.5 (95% CI 0.9,2.6) for the radiotherapy group. In conclusion, radiotherapy appears to be associated with an increased risk of developing sarcoma especially among younger patients. Further investigation is needed to clarify the dose,response of the preceding ionizing radiation. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Birth characteristics and adult cancer incidence: Swedish cohort of over 11,000 men and women

    Valerie A. McCormack
    Abstract Associations between larger size at birth and increased rates of adult cancer have been proposed but few empirical studies have examined this hypothesis. We investigated overall and site-specific cancer incidence in relation to birth characteristics in a Swedish population-based cohort of 11,166 singletons born in 1915,1929 for whom we have detailed obstetric data and who were alive in 1960. A total of 2,685 first primary cancers were registered during follow-up from 1960 to 2001. A standard deviation (SD) increase in birth weight for gestational age (GA) was associated with (sex-adjusted) increases of 13% (95% CI = 0.03,0.23) in the rates of digestive cancers and of 17% (95% CI = 0.01,0.35) in the rates of lymphatic cancers. Women who had higher birth weights also had increased rates of breast cancer under age 50 years (by 39% per SD increase; 95% CI = 0.09,0.79), but reduced rates (by 24%; 95% CI = 0.07,0.38) of endometrial (corpus uteri) cancer at all ages. There was no evidence of associations with other cancer sites. For overall cancer incidence, men had an 8% increased risk at all ages per SD increase in birth weight for GA while women only had an increased risk under age 50 years (mainly driven by the association with breast cancer). These findings provide evidence of a modest association of birth size and adult cancer risk, resulting from positive associations with a few cancer sites and a possible inverse association with endometrial cancer. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Reproductive biology of the brown smoothhound shark Mustelus henlei, in the northern Gulf of California, México

    J. C. Pérez-Jiménez
    Female brown smoothhound sharks Mustelus henlei were found to reproduce annually. A mature female carried both developing oocytes in the ovary and developing embryos in the uteri concurrently for c. 1 year. A great variability in the size of embryos was recorded each month, and the maximum embryo sizes were found from late January to mid-March. The largest oocytes in mature females were observed in mid-March. Gestation lasted c. 10 months. A linear relationship between maternal total length (LT) and the number of pups per litter (litter size one to 21) was estimated. Birth LT was reached in c. 280 mm. Females and males matured at 570,660 and 550,560 mm LT, respectively. Difference in the litter size among Californian coast (one to 10) and northern Gulf of California (one to 21) populations existed for this smoothhound shark. [source]

    Isolated adenomyotic cyst associated with severe dysmenorrhea

    Masaki Kamio
    Abstract A case of a 23-year-old, nulliparous female with a very rare isolated adenomyotic cyst inducing severe dysmenorrhea was seen. Transvaginal ultrasonographic tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 3 × 3-cm cystic mass within the left anterior wall of the uterine corpus. The cystic space was filled with hyperintense fluid on T1-weighted images, which was surrounded by hypointense tissue beside the right uterine corpus on T2-weighted images. The case was preliminarily diagnosed using MRI as having cavitated rudimentary uterine horn. However, hysterosalpingography excluded the possibility of uterine anomaly. A hemorrhagic adenomyotic cyst measuring 3 cm within the left anterior wall of the uterine corpus was surgically removed. There was no evidence of diffuse adenomyosis uteri. Dysmenorrhea completely disappeared postoperatively. [source]

    Methotrexate in psoriasis: 26 years' experience with low-dose long-term treatment

    U-F. Haustein
    Abstract Objective,To evaluate the efficacy, safety and side-effects of methotrexate (MTX) in psoriasis. Design,A 26-year retrospective study. Setting,Department of Dermatology, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany. Patients,One hundred and fifty-seven patients with extensive plaque psoriasis, erythrodermic, pustular and arthropathic forms, were treated with low-dose methotrexate (15,20 mg maximum weekly dosage [Weinstein schedule]), the majority for long-term periods. The mean cumulative dose was 3394 mg, the mean duration 237 weeks. Results,The effect of MTX treatment was good in 76%, moderate in 18% and poor in 6% of subjects; 61% experienced side-effects, most frequently due to liver function abnormalities, bone marrow suppression, nausea, gastric complaints and hair loss. In 20% of cases the subjects were forced to discontinue therapy; 9% refused therapy due to physical and psychological discomfort, 2% wanted to become pregnant, 16% were lost to follow-up, 6% died from multimorbidity and old age. Three subjects (2%) developed cancer of the lung, breast or cervix uteri, possibly in relation to long-term MTX treatment. Altogether there were no deaths or life-threatening side-effects attributable to MTX treatment, and no cases of progressive liver cirrhosis apart from two extensive skin necroses due to overdosage (misunderstanding, suicidal attempt) that were treated successfully with citrovorum factor. Conclusion,Low-dose MTX (<15,20 mg/week) is an effective therapy for extensive and severe forms of psoriasis if patients are selected carefully and monitored regularly, particularly with respect to liver and bone marrow toxicity. This helps to reduce severe side-effects even during long-term treatment. Drug interactions must be avoided. MTX therapy according to the guidelines is relatively safe and still has a place in the systemic treatment of psoriasis with 40 years of experience and an acceptable safety record. [source]

    Differential expression of transcriptional repressor snail gene at implantation site in mouse uterus

    Xing-Hong Ma
    Abstract The snail superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors is involved in pronounced cell movements during both embryonic development and tumor progression. This study was to examine snail expression in mouse uterus during early pregnancy and its regulation under pseudopregnancy, delayed implantation, steroid hormone treatment, and artificial decidualization by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. There was a low level of snail mRNA signal and immunostaining in mouse uteri on day 1,4 of pregnancy. When embryo implanted on day 5, both snail mRNA signal and immunostaining were strongly detected in the subluminal stroma immediately surrounding the implanting blastocyst, but not detected in the inter-implantation sites. Under delayed implantation, there was no detectable snail expression. After delayed implantation was terminated by estrogen treatment and embryo implanted, there was a strong level of snail mRNA and immunostaining in the subluminal stroma surrounding the implanting blastocyst, which was similar to that on day 5 of pregnancy. Furthermore, there was no detectable snail expression in mouse uterus on day 5 of pseudopregnancy. From day 6,8 of pregnancy, both snail mRNA signal and immunostaining were detected in the decidua. Our data suggest that snail may play an important role during mouse embryo implantation. Mol. Reprod. Dev. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A randomized comparison of post-operative pain, quality of life, and physical performance during the first 6 weeks after abdominal or vaginal surgical correction of descensus uteri

    J.P.W.R. Roovers
    Abstract Aims With respect to urogenital function, vaginal hysterectomy combined with anterior and/or posterior colporraphy has been shown to be superior to abdominal sacrocolpopexy with preservation of the uterus. We performed a randomized trial to compare the effects of both procedures on pain, quality of life and physical performance during the first six weeks after surgery. Methods Eighty-two patients were randomized to have surgery either by vaginal or abdominal approach. All patients were asked to complete the RAND-36 before surgery and 6 weeks after surgery and to keep a diary for the first 6 weeks after surgery. This diary assessed the pain perception and use of pain medication, bother of limitations due to the surgery and performance of daily activities after surgery. These outcomes were compared. Results All patients completed the RAND-36 and 68 patients completed the diary. Patients who had undergone abdominal surgery had a statistically lower score on the health change domain (56 vs 68), bodily pain domain (63 vs 80) and mental health domain (74 vs 81) of the RAND-36, as compared to patients who had undergone vaginal prolapse surgery. During hospital stay, the abdominal group experienced on average more days of pain (4.5 vs 3.0) and impaired mobility (3.7 vs 2.9) as compared to the vaginal group. Patients received more pain medication following abdominal surgery as compared to vaginal surgery. Conclusions The vaginal operation to correct a descensus uteri is associated with less pain, better quality of life and better mobility during the first 6 weeks of the recovery period as compared to the abdominal approach. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Uterine Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Family During the Course of Pregnancy in Pigs

    Y-J Kim
    Contents To stably maintain pregnancy, several genes are expressed in the uterus. In particular, the endometrial expression of genes encoding growth factors appears to play a key role in maternal,foetal communication. The previous studies characterized the endometrial expression kinetics of the genes encoding epidermal growth factor (EGF), its receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-,), amphiregulin (Areg), heparin-binding (Hb) EGF and calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) in pigs during implantation. Here, we further characterized the expression patterns of these molecules during the entire porcine pregnancy. Porcine uteri were collected at pregnancy days (PD) 12, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 110 and subjected to RT-PCR. EGF and EGFR showed similar expression patterns, being highly expressed around implantation and then disappearing. TGF-, and Areg expression levels rose steadily until they peaked at PD30, after which they gradually decreased to PD12 levels. This Areg mRNA expression pattern was confirmed by real-time PCR and similar Areg protein expression patterns were observed. Immunohistochemical analysis of PD60 uteri revealed Areg in the glandular and luminal epithelial cells. Hb EGF was steadily expressed throughout the entire pregnancy, while CaBP-9k was expressed strongly on PD12, and then declined sharply on PD15 before recovering slightly for the remainder of the pregnancy. Thus, the EGF family may play a key role during implantation in pigs. In addition, CaBP-9k may help to maintain uterine quiescence during pregnancy by sequestering cytoplasmic Ca2+. [source]