Uterotubal Junction (uterotubal + junction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Pregnancy rates in mares after a single fixed time hysteroscopic insemination of low numbers of frozen-thawed spermatozoa onto the uterotubal junction

Summary Reasons for performing study: To compensate for the wide variation in the freezability of stallion spermatozoa, it has become common veterinary practice to carry out repeated ultrasonography of the ovaries of oestrous mares in order to be able to inseminate them within 6,12 h of ovulation with a minimum of 300,500 × 106 frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Furthermore, in order to achieve satisfactory fertility, this requirement for relatively high numbers of spermatozoa currently limits our ability to exploit recently available artificial breeding technologies, such as sex-sorted semen, for which only 5,20 × 106 spermatozoa are available for insemination. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of hysteroscopic vs. conventional insemination when low numbers of spermatozoa are used at a single fixed time after administration of an ovulation-inducing agent. Methods: In the present study, pregnancy rates were compared in 86 mares inseminated once only with low numbers of frozen-thawed spermatozoa (3,14 × 106) at 32 h after treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), either conventionally into the body of the uterus or hysteroscopically by depositing a small volume of the inseminate directly onto the uterotubal papilla ipsilateral to the ovary containing the pre-ovulatory follicle. Results: Pregnancy rates were similarly high in mares inseminated conventionally or hysteroscopically with 14 × 106 motile frozen-thawed spermatozoa (67% vs. 64%). However, when the insemination dose was reduced to 3 × 106 spermatozoa, the pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the mares inseminated hysteroscopically onto the uterotubal junction compared to those inseminated into the uterine body (47 vs. 15%, P<0.05). Conclusions: When inseminating mares with <10 × 106 frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa, hysteroscopic uterotubal junction deposition of the inseminate is the preferred method. Potential clinical relevance: Satisfactory pregnancy rates are achievable after insemination of mares with frozen-thawed semen from fertile stallions 32 h after administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (Chorulon)1. Furthermore, these results were obtained when mares were inseminated with 14 × 106 progressively motile frozen-thawed spermatozoa from 2 stallions of proven fertility. [source]

Changes in the oviducal epithelium during the estrous cycle in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

Annetrudi Kress
Abstract The Monodelphis oviduct can be divided into four anatomical segments: preampulla (comprising fimbriae and infundibulum), ampulla, isthmus with crypts and uterotubal junction. Ovaries are enclosed in a periovarial sac, the bursa, and in some specimens tubules of an epoophoron could be identified. In both structures non-ciliated cells develop small translucent vesicles, which accumulate in the cell apices and presumably produce fluid as often seen in the bursa and in the tubules of the epooophoron. These vesicles do not stain with Alcian blue or PAS. The same applies also to the non-ciliated cells of the fimbriae. The oviducal epithelium of ampulla and the surface epithelium of the isthmus consisting of ciliated and non-ciliated, secretory cells undergo considerable changes during the estrous cycle. Proestrus shows low numbers of ciliated cells, some are in the process of neo-ciliogenesis, non-ciliated cells carry solitary cilia and few remnant secretory granules from the previous cycle may be found. At estrus the amount of ciliated cells in ampulla and isthmus has increased, most non-cililated cells lost the solitary cilia, developed longer microvilli and formed numerous secretory granules in their cell apices. At postestrus secretory products, often surrounded by membranes, are extruded into the oviducal lumen and contribute towards egg coat formation. First signs of deciliation processes are apparent. Solitary cilia reappear. At metestrus only few secretory cells are left with some secretory material. The lumen is often filled with shed cilia and cell apices. Proliferation of basal bodies within non-secretory cells indicate the formation of new ciliated cells. The non-ciliated epithelial cells of the isthmic crypts form no secretory granules but accumulate a great number of translucent vesicles, which in contrast to the secretory granules do not stain with Alcian blue or PAS. [source]

Embryo-maternal Communication during the First Days of Embryonic Life

S. Kölle
The mechanisms of embryo-maternal communication during the first days of embryonic life are largely unknown. Using the bovine as a model, the aims of our study were to morphologically characterize the interaction between the pre-implantation embryo and the epithelium of the maternal ampulla, isthmus and uterotubal junction by light and scanning electron microscopy. For this purpose, oviducts were removed from cows revealing a functional corpus luteum on day 3 after insemination. These were compared to oviducts removed on day 3 (metestrus) of the estrous cycle. Three days after insemination, the majority of the epithelial cells in the ampulla were secretory cells distinctly protruding into the oviductal lumen. Contrary the ampulla of cows on day 3 of the cycle predominantly revealed ciliated cells in the oviductal epithelium. As shown by Periodic Acid Schiff reaction (PAS) with and without amylase digestion, the secretory cells of the ampulla synthesized merely glycoproteins during metestrus, but large amounts of glycogen during pregnancy. In the isthmus no morphological differences were seen between pregnant and cyclic cows. The most conspicuous finding during pregnancy was seen in the uterotubal junction: Vital cumulus cells embedded in between epithelial cells had developed short cytoplasmic processes intensely contacting the epithelial uterine cells. The embryos obtained ex vivo were regularly covered with a thick layer of homogenous extracellular matrix. Contrary embryos produced in vitro, both with and without coculture with oviductal cells ,revealed a clearly visible zona pellucida with spongy appearance and numerous pores. Our results imply that already during the first days of life there is intense interaction of the pre-implantation embryo and the maternal genital tract part of which may be mediated by cumulus cells. [source]