Uterine Weight (uterine + weight)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Oestrogenic activity of isobutylparaben in vitro and in vivo

P. D. Darbre
Abstract The alkyl esters of p -hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are used widely as preservatives in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to which the human population is exposed. Recent studies have reported that methylparaben, ethylparaben, n -propylparaben and n -butylparaben all possess oestrogenic activity in several in vitro assays and in animal models in vivo. This study reports on the oestrogenic activity of isobutylparaben in a panel of assays in vitro and in vivo. Isobutylparaben was able to displace [3H]oestradiol from cytosolic oestrogen receptor , of MCF7 human breast cancer cells by 81% at 100 000-fold molar excess. Using a clonal line of MCF7 cells containing a stably transfected oestrogen-responsive ERE-CAT reporter gene, CAT gene expression could be increased by isobutylparaben such that the magnitude of the response was the same at 10,5 M isobutylparaben as with 10,8 M 17,-oestradiol. Isobutylparaben could also increase expression of the endogenous oestrogen-responsive pS2 gene in MCF7 cells and maximal expression at 10,5 M isobutylparaben could be inhibited with the anti-oestrogen ICI 182 780. The proliferation of two oestrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and ZR-75-1 could be increased with isobutylparaben such that at concentrations of 10,5 M the proliferation response was of the same magnitude as with 10,8 M 17,-oestradiol. Evidence for oestrogen receptor mediation of proliferation effects was provided by the inability of isobutylparaben to influence the growth of oestrogen-unresponsive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and by the ability of the anti-oestrogen ICI 182 780 to inhibit the isobutylparaben effects on MCF7 cell growth. The proliferation response to 10,10 M 17,-oestradiol was not antagonized with isobutylparaben at any concentration from 10,9 M to 10,4 M in either MCF7 or ZR-75-1 cells. Finally, subcutaneous administration of isobutylparaben was able to increase the uterine weight in the immature mouse after three daily doses of 1.2 or 12.0 mg per mouse. Previous work using linear-alkyl-chain parabens has shown that oestrogenic activity increases with alkyl chain length from methylparaben to n -butylparaben. The results here show that branching of the alkyl chain to isobutylparaben increases oestrogenic activity beyond that of the equivalent length linear alkyl chain in n -butylparaben. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Long-Term Sensitivity of Uterus and Hypothalamus/Pituitary Axis to 17,-Estradiol Is Higher Than That of Bone in Rats,

Reinhold G Erben MD
Abstract We examined the long-term sensitivity of uterus and bone to low-dose 17,-estradiol in a 4-month experiment in OVX rats and found that a dose of estradiol that fully protected against uterine atrophy did not protect against bone loss. Our results suggest higher estrogen sensitivity of the uterus compared with bone. Introduction: Estrogen is essential for the function of reproductive tissues and for the normal acquisition and maintenance of bone mass in females. This study was designed to examine the long-term sensitivity of the uterus and bone to low-dose estrogen. Materials and Methods: In preliminary experiments, we determined the lowest subcutaneous dose of 17,-estradiol able to fully protect against uterine atrophy in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. This dose was found to be 1.5 ,g/kg, given five times per week. Subsequently, groups of sham-operated (SHAM) or OVX 6-month-old rats (n = 8 each) were subcutaneously injected with vehicle or 1.5 ,g/kg 17,-estradiol five times per week. All animals were killed 4 months after surgery. Serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline were measured as biochemical markers of bone turnover. Bones were analyzed by bone histomorphometry and pQCT. Results and Conclusions: Our study clearly showed that a dose of estradiol that restores physiological estradiol serum levels, fully maintains uterine weight in OVX rats at the SHAM control level, and suppresses serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by 67% relative to OVX vehicle controls does not provide significant protection against OVX-induced bone loss at different cancellous and cortical bone sites. We conclude that the long-term sensitivity of the uterus and the hypothalamus/pituitary axis to 17,-estradiol is higher than that of bone in rats. [source]

Rutin Inhibits Ovariectomy-Induced Osteopenia in Rats

Marie-Nolle Horcajada-Molteni
Abstract Several studies suggest that polyphenols might exert a protective effect against osteopenia. The present experiment was conducted to observe the effects of rutin (quercetin-3- O -glucose rhamnose) on bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Thirty 3-month-old Wistar rats were used. Twenty were OVX while the 10 controls were sham-operated (SH). Among the 20 OVX, for 90 days after surgery 10 were fed the same synthetic diet as the SH or OVX ones, but 0. 25% rutin (OVX + R) was added. At necropsy, the decrease in uterine weight was not different in OVX and OVX + R rats. Ovariectomy also induced a significant decrease in both total and distal metaphyseal femoral mineral density, which was prevented by rutin consumption. Moreover, femoral failure load, which was not different in OVX and SH rats, was even higher in OVX + R rats than in OVX or SH rats. In the same way, on day 90, both urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion (a marker for bone resorption) and calciuria were higher in OVX rats than in OVX + R or SH rats. Simultaneously, plasma osteocalcin (OC) concentration (a marker for osteoblastic activity) was higher in OVX + R rats than in SH rats. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles of plasma samples from OVX + R rats revealed that mean plasma concentration of active metabolites (quercetin and isorhamnetin) from rutin was 9.46 + 1 ,M, whereas it was undetectable in SH and OVX rats. These results indicate that rutin (and/or its metabolites), which appeared devoid of any uterotrophic activity, inhibits ovariectomy-induced trabecular bone loss in rats, both by slowing down resorption and increasing osteoblastic activity. [source]

Evaluation of a soybean product fujiflavone P40 as an antiosteoporotic agent in rats

Saburo Hidaka
Abstract The preventive effects of Fujiflavone P40 (a soybean isoflavone product) against both bone loss and periodontal alteration were evaluated using an ovariectomized rat model. Rats were divided into five groups: sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX given Fujiflavone P40, OVX given 17,-oestradiol, and OVX given the vehicle for 17,-oestradiol, respectively. Fujiflavone P40 contains 46.6% isoflavones which consist of 24.1% daidzin, 16.5% glycitin and 5.9% genistin. Administration of Fujiflavone P40 to OVX rats suppressed the body weight gain until 5 weeks. Fujiflavone P40 also decreased total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols and triglyceride level of OVX rats, significantly. After 7 weeks, Fujiflavone P40 did not recover the coarsened fibre of the periodontal ligament. The ovariectomy decreased the uterine weight by 78%. The administration of 17, -oestradiol recovered the weight loss by 99%, while Fujiflavone P40 restored it by 33%. The ovariectomy decreased the tibial bone mineral density (BMD) by 22%. The administration of 17,-oestradiol to OVX rats recovered the tibial BMD decrease by 100%, while Fujiflavone P40 recovered it by 78%. The results suggest that Fujiflavone P40 may be useful as a preventive agent for osteoporosis. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Estrogenic agonism and antagonism of the soy isoflavone genistein in uterus, bone and lymphopoiesis in mice,

APMIS, Issue 5 2005
The isoflavone genistein (Gen) is a naturally occurring phytoestrogen found in high concentrations in soy. The biological effects of Gen have been extensively studied. The immunomodulating properties of Gen are, however, less well investigated and the results are contradictory. Our aim was to study possible estrogen agonistic and antagonistic properties of Gen in uterus, bone, lymphopoiesis and B-cell function by comparing effects in castrated and intact female mice, respectively. Oophorectomized (OVX) and sham-operated mice were treated with s.c. doses of 17,-estradiol (E2) (0.16 mg/kg), Gen (50 mg/kg), or vehicle (olive oil) as control. Effects on bone mineral density (BMD) were studied using peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, uterine and thymus weights were examined, lymphopoiesis in thymus and bone marrow was analyzed using flow cytometry, and the frequency of immunoglobulin-producing B cells in bone marrow and spleen was studied using an ELISPOT assay. Gen was clearly antagonizing endogenous estrogen in sham-operated female mice as shown by inhibiting the uterine weight and by increasing the frequency of B lymphopoietic cells in bone marrow. The only agonistic effect of Gen was shown by increased BMD in OVX mice. Our results are discussed in the context of estrogen receptor biology. [source]

Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of inhaled tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) vapor in CD rats

R. W. Tyl
Abstract Under Of,ce of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances draft guidelines, CD weanling F0 rats (30 of each gender per group) inhaled tertiary amyl methyl ether vapor at 0, 250, 1500 or 3000 ppm 5 days a week and 6 h a day for 10 weeks, with vaginal cytology evaluated for weeks 8,10. The F0 animals then produced F1 offspring, with exposure 7 days a week from mating through to lactation. During the F1 prebreed exposure period, vaginal patency, preputial separation (PPS) and vaginal cytology were evaluated. The F1 animals were mated, with F2 anogenital distance measured on postnatal day zero. At F2 weaning 30 of each gender per group were selected for postwean retention, with no exposures, through vaginal patency and PPS. Body weights, feed consumption and clinical signs were recorded throughout the study. Adult F0 and F1 systemic toxicity was present at 1500 and 3000 ppm. Minor adult male reproductive toxicity was present at 3000 ppm. There were no adult effects on vaginal cyclicity, estrous cycle length, mating, fertility, pregnancy, gestational length or ovarian and uterine weights. There were no treatment-related gross or histopathologic ,ndings in parental male or female systemic or reproductive organs. The F1 and F2 offspring toxicity was present at 1500 and 3000 ppm. The no-observable-adverse-effect level for adult systemic and offspring toxicity was 250 ppm and 1500 ppm for male reproductive toxicity (females at >3000 ppm). Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Comparison of the use of electrothermal bipolar vessel sealer with harmonic scalpel in total laparoscopic hysterectomy

Fazli Demirturk
Abstract Aim:, The aim of the present study was to compare the use of electrothermal bipolar vessel sealer (EBVS) with harmonic scalpel (HS) during total laparoscopic hysterectomy with respect to operation time, estimated blood loss and related complications. Methods:, A retrospective study was conducted in the university hospital. Forty patients who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were enrolled. Nineteen hysterectomies were performed with HS and in 21 patients the same surgeons used EBVS. Data about the characteristics of the patients, operation time, estimated blood loss, uterine weights, related complications and length of hospital stay were registered and compared. Results:, Mean procedure time and estimated blood loss were significantly less in the EBVS arm (59.57 3.71 vs 90.95 5.73 min, P < 0.001; 87.76 25.48 vs 152.63 60.90 mL; P < 0.001, respectively). The change in hemoglobin and hematocrit values was found to be more significant in the HS group. Conclusion:, EBVS was found to be less time-consuming and caused less bleeding when compared with HS. [source]