Uterine Pathologies (uterine + pathology)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Aspects of the reproductive biology and breeding management of Asian and African elephants Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana

Elephants possess many unique qualities, including some that relate directly to their reproductive biology. Thus, comparative studies on elephants provide valuable information to the growing biological database for extant mammals. Left undisturbed, Asian Elephas maximus and African Loxodonta Africana elephants reproduce well in the wild. It is ironic then that most captive populations face possible,extinction'because of historically poor reproductive performance. Some of the problems with breeding elephants in captivity are logistical but others, like ovarian and uterine pathologies and bull infertility, have management-related aetiology. Through advances in endocrine monitoring and ultrasound imaging techniques, we are beginning to understand some of the complex mechanisms controlling reproductive function in elephants. Several reproductive characteristics appear to be unique to the taxon, such as luteal steroidogenic function, follicular development patterns, pituitary gonadotrophin secretion, a 22 month-long gestation and musth (in ,,). One example is the,double LH surge'occurring 3 weeks apart during the follicular or non-luteal phase of the cycle, with only the second surge inducing ovulation. These qualities have at times both enhanced and hampered efforts to understand and control reproduction. We have learned that techniques developed for domestic or laboratory species are not always directly applicable to elephants. However, the recent success of artificial insemination based on new ultrasound and endocrine methodology offers hope that establishing selfsustaining populations is possible. This paper reviews our current knowledge of elephant reproduction and how it is being used to aid species conservation for maximal reproductive efficiency and enhancement of genetic management. [source]

Comparison of 3-dimensional with 2-dimensional saline infusion sonohysterograms for the evaluation of intrauterine abnormalities

Stephanie Terry MD
Abstract Objective. To compare 3-dimensional saline infusion sonohysterography (3DSIS) with 2-dimensional sonohysterography (2DSIS) using hysteroscopy and histologic diagnosis as the gold standard. Method. A retrospective analysis of all SIS examination performed between July 1, 2005 and April 30, 2007 in our gynecological sonographic unit. 2DSIS or 3DSIS sonographic techniques were used randomly. Management decisions and operative procedures were done by the referring provider. Patients that had diagnostic hysteroscopy and complete histologic evaluation were included. Concordance between the various assessment methods as well as sensitivity and specificity were compared between 2DSIS and 3DSIS. Student's t test and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. Of 804 patients that had SIS, 125 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patient median age was 48 (range 19,82). Also, 77 patients were premenopausal, and 48 patients were postmenopausal. Furthermore, 43 patients had 2DSIS and 82 patients had 3DSIS. 3DSIS was found to correlate with hysteroscopic findings more often than 2DSIS (p < 0.05). A trend for higher specificity of 3DSIS with the different uterine pathologies was seen, but it did not reach statistical significance. No difference in sensitivity of 3DSIS compared with 2DSIS was found for all pathologic diagnoses. Conclusion. 3DSIS correlated better with hysteroscopy than 2DSIS. Specificity for histologic diagnosis appears to be higher with 3DSIS compared with 2DSIS but larger-scale studies are needed to confirm this finding. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 2009 [source]

Transvaginal Hysterosalpingo-Contrast Sonography (HyCoSy) Compared with Chromolaparoscopy

Dr. Somchai Tanawattanacharoen
Abstract Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of HyCoSy with chromolaparoscopy for the diagnosis of tubal occlusion and uterine abnormalities. Methods: Sixty infertile women in whom the cause of infertility was thought to be tubal occlusion or uterine abnormalities and who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria as specified in the study protocol were included. HyCoSy was performed during the first half of the menstrual cycle at least 24 hours prior to chromolaparoscopy. The results from both HyCoSy and chromolaparoscopy were compared in assessing tubal occlusion and uterine pathology. Results: For the evaluation of fallopian tubes, we found corresponding results between HyCoSy and chromolaparoscopy in 80.0%. The agreement between both procedures in assessing the uterine pathology was 80.4%. Twenty-two women experienced adverse events. The most common complaint was pelvic pain. Other events encountered were: nausea (3 women) and vaginal bleeding (2 women). All events were thought to be not related to the study drug. Conclusion: HyCoSy showed good diagnostic performance in the evaluation of the fallopian tubes and uterus in infertile women. The adverse events reported in this study are minor and procedure-related (catheter insertion) rather than the trial substance. [source]

The ATAC adjuvant breast cancer trial in postmenopausal women: baseline endometrial subprotocol data

S. Duffy
Objective The ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) trial is a randomised, double-blind trial comparing ,Arimidex' (anastrozole), alone or in combination with tamoxifen, relative to tamoxifen alone as a five year adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Because tamoxifen is associated with endometrial pathology, the ATAC endometrial subprotocol was initiated to establish the background prevalence of pathology, and to assess prospectively the incidence and nature of intrauterine changes before and following endocrine therapy. Setting International. Population and Study Design Two hundred and eighty-five women entered the subprotocol: the mean age was 60 years (range 44,80 years); 113 women (40%) had taken hormone replacement therapy prior to randomisation, and 238 women were parous (84%). The age at onset of the menopause was 32,58 years, with the majority becoming menopausal between 46 and 55 years of age. Two hundred and seventy-two women had a hysteroscopy before they commenced trial medication. Hysteroscopy was performed successfully in 265 women. In six women, failure of hysteroscopy at baseline led to withdrawal from the study. Three of the women who withdrew had a pipelle biopsy taken. Therefore, the total number of endometrial biopsies at baseline was 268. Main outcome measures To assess the demographic characteristics of women entering the endometrial subprotocol and their hysteroscopic and histological findings before commencing trial medication. Results At hysteroscopy, there was a diagnosis of endometrial polyps in 34 women (13%), fibroids in 16 women (6%) and one case of suspicious endometrium, which was confirmed as a polyp on histology. Only 21 of the 34 polyps seen hysteroscopically were proven histologically (62% accuracy of hysteroscopy). Final histology found the prevalence of endometrial diagnostic categories as follows: 123 inactive endometrium (46%), 20 benign polyps (7%), 17 secretory endometrium (6%), 7 proliferative endometrium (3%), 3 atypical hyperplasia (2 in a polyp), 1 simple hyperplasia (in a polyp) and 1 fibroid. The remaining women had pipelle samples with insufficient tissue obtained, indicating a normal endometrial cavity. Conclusion This is the first study of such size in gynaecologically asymptomatic breast cancer patients. This paper describes the findings in individual patients before any trial treatment was given. In this baseline group, 82% (219/268) of women had a normal endometrial cavity; 18% (49/268) had endometrial activity (proliferative or secretory endometrium in 9%) or an intracavity abnormality (hyperplasia, polyps and a fibroid in 9%). In total, 36% of biopsies had insufficient tissue for diagnosis, which in combination with a normal hysteroscopy was classed as normal. The appearance of a polyp hysteroscopically in this group was not proven histologically in approximately 40% of cases. The development of uterine pathology over time in the ATAC study will subsequently be assessed against the findings of this baseline paper. [source]