Uterine Lumen (uterine + lumen)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The current status of antibiotic use in equine reproduction

M. M. LeBlanc
Summary Antibiotics are infused into the uterine lumen, added to semen extenders and given systemically for infections of the reproductive tract of the mare and stallion. Evidence-based guidelines for determining treatment length and route of administration are limited and use is frequently based on convenience or tradition. Current recommended antibiotic use for the treatment of bacterial and fungal endometritis, placentitis and metritis in the mare and genital infections of the stallion are presented. Antibiotic classes used for reproductive problems are also reviewed. [source]

Estrogen-induced uterine abnormalities in TIMP-1 deficient mice are associated with elevated plasmin activity and reduced expression of the novel uterine plasmin protease inhibitor serpinb7

Xuan Zhang
Abstract Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is a multifunctional protein capable of regulating a variety of biological processes in a wide array of tissue and cell types. We have previously demonstrated that TIMP-1 deficient mice exhibit alterations in normal uterine morphology and physiology. Most notably, absence of TIMP-1 is associated with an altered uterine phenotype characterized by profound branching of the uterine lumen and altered adenogenesis. To begin to assess the mechanism by which TIMP-1 may control these uterine events, we utilized steroid-treated ovariectomized wild-type and TIMP-1 null mice exposed to estrogen for 72 hr. Administration of estrogen to TIMP-1 deficient mice resulted in development of an abnormal uterine histo-architecture characterized by increased endometrial gland density, luminal epithelial cell height, and abnormal lumen structure. To determine the mediators which may contribute to the abnormal uterine morphology in the TIMP-1 deficient mice, cDNA microarray analysis was performed. Analysis revealed that expression of two plasmin inhibitors (serpbinb2 and serbinb7) was significantly reduced in the TIMP-1 null mice. Associated with the reduction in expression of these inhibitors was a significant increase in plasmin activity. Localization of the novel uterine serpinb7 revealed that expression was confined to the luminal and glandular epithelial cells. Further, expression of uterine serpinb7 was decreased by estrogen and showed an inverse relationship with plasmin activity. We conclude from these studies that in addition to controlling MMP activity, TIMP-1 may also control activity of serine proteases through modulation of serine protease inhibitors such as serpinb7. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 76: 160,172, 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Uterine secretion of ISP1 & 2 tryptases is regulated by progesterone and estrogen during pregnancy and the endometrial cycle

Colleen M. O'Sullivan
Abstract We have described two novel implantation serine proteinase (ISP) genes that are expressed during the implantation period. The ISP1 gene may encode the embryo-derived enzyme strypsin, which is necessary for blastocyst hatching in vitro and the initiation of invasion. The ISP2 gene, which encodes a related tryptase, is expressed in endometrial glands and is regulated by progesterone during the peri-implantation period. Based on similarities between ISP2 gene expression and that of a progesterone-regulated lumenal serine proteinase activity associated with lysis of the zona pellucida, we have suggested that the strypsin related protein, ISP2, may encode a zona lysin proteinase. Recently strypsin has also been found within uterine fluid, suggesting a second potential role in hatching. Consistently, we have discovered that ISP1 is also expressed in the uterine secretory gland at the time of hatching. In this study we demonstrate that both ISP1 and ISP2 are secreted together into the uterine lumen at peri-implantation, and that the appearance of ISP protein is regulated positively at the transcriptional level by progesterone and negatively at the posttranscriptional level by estrogen. This negative regulation by estrogen may be overridden in pregnancy as ISP protein expression is restored during oil-induced decidualization. ISP1 and ISP2 proteins are also expressed in proestrous suggesting additional roles in the endometrial cycle. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 69: 252,259, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Origin of the murine implantation serine proteinase subfamily,

Colleen M. O'Sullivan
Abstract The S1 serine protease family is one of the largest gene families known. Within this family there are several subfamilies that have been grouped together as a result of sequence comparisons and substrate identification. The grouping of related genes allows for the speculation of function for newly found members by comparison and for novel subfamilies by contrast. Analysis of the evolutionary patterns of genes indicates whether or not orthologs are likely to be identified in other species as well as potentially indicating that hypothesized orthologs are in fact not. Looking at subtle differences between subfamily members can reveal intricacies about function and expression. Previously, we have described genes encoding two novel serine proteinases, ISP1 and ISP2, which are most closely related to tryptases. The ISP1 gene encodes the embryo-derived enzyme strypsin, which is necessary for blastocyst hatching and invasion in vitro. Additionally both ISP1 and ISP2 are co-expressed in the endometrial gland during the time of hatching, suggesting that they may also both participate in zona lysis from within the uterine lumen. Here, we demonstrate that the ISPs are tandemly linked within the tryptase cluster on 17A3.3. We suggest that remarkable similarities within the 5,-untranslated and first intron regions of ISP1 and ISP2 may explain their intimate co-regulation in uterus. We also suggest that ISP genes have evolved through gene duplication and that the ISP1 gene has also begun to adopt an additional new function in the murine preimplantation embryo. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 69: 126,136, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ultrasonography and Cystic Hyperplasia,Pyometra Complex in the Bitch

E Bigliardi
Contents Cystic endometrial hyperplasia,pyometra complex is the most frequent and important endometrial disorder encountered in bitches. The pathogenesis of the disease is related to the activity of progesterone [Feldman and Nelson, Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction (1996) W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia]. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) is an abnormal response of the bitch's uterus to ovarian hormones [De Bosschere et al. Theriogenology (2001) 55, 1509]. CEH is considered by many authors to be an exaggerated response of the uterus to chronic progestational stimulation during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle, causing an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the endometrial glands and uterine lumen (De Bosschere et al. 2001). The resulting lesions of pyometra are due to the interaction between bacteria and hormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate if transabdominal uterine ultrasonography can be a useful and reliable diagnostic method to confirm Dow's [Veterinary Record (1958) 70, 1102] and De Bosschere's histopathological classification of CEH,pyometra complex. The study was carried out on 45 bitches with pyometra, 10 purebreeds and 35 crossbreeds, 1,15 years old, 20% of which had whelped at least once. None of these animals had received exogenous oestrogen or progesterone treatment. On admission the 45 animals were in the luteal phase of the oestrus cycle. Clinical signs, blood parameters, uterine ultrasonography, bacterial swabs and uterine histopalogical results were recorded. Results suggest that ultrasonographic examination is a useful and reliable tool for the diagnosis of cystic endometrial hyperplasia. [source]

Investigation of Cervical Patency and Uterine Appearance in Domestic Cats by Fluoroscopy and Scintigraphy

K Chatdarong
Contents The cervical patency of six domestic female cats was monitored under sedation by infusion of contrast medium (Omnipaque) into the cranial vagina during early oestrus, mid-oestrus, late oestrus and interoestrus or a radiopharmaceutical (99mTc-HSA) during mid- and interoestrus in a non-ovulatory oestrous cycle. The transport of the contrast medium or the radiopharmaceutical through the cervix and within the uterine horns was observed under fluoroscopy and with the aid of scintigraphy. In three of the queens, transcervical transport of contrast medium was demonstrated in all stages of oestrus, in one queen during mid-oestrus, late oestrus and 1 day after oestrus, and in two queens only during late oestrus. The relations between the cervical patency to the contrast medium and the oestrous behaviour, cornification of the vaginal cells and the serum oestradiol-17, concentration were evaluated, and a relationship was found between the cervical patency and the degree of vaginal cornification. Transcervical transport of the radiopharmaceutical was observed in three queens during mid-oestrus. When the cervix was open, hysterography under a fluoroscope and hysteroscintigraphy were performed. The fluoroscopic and scintigraphic recordings revealed the patterns of the uterine contractions during oestrus in both ascending and descending directions, and the movement of the uterine contents back and forth between the uterine horns. The hysterograms were classified according to the shape of the uterine horns and the appearance of the endometrial lining. Spiral-shaped uterine horns with a smooth inner contour were observed in two queens, and a corkscrew appearance with irregular filling defects in the uterine lumen was shown in two queens that had developed subclinical cystic endometrial hyperplasia. These findings demonstrated that fluids or particles deposited in the cranial vagina of the cat can be transported into the uterus during some stages of the oestrous cycle. The fluoroscopic and scintigraphic techniques developed in this study may be further modified to permit more detailed studies of uterine contractile patterns and sperm transport in the feline female reproductive tract. Hysterography proved useful to diagnose uterine disease. The information on cervical patency is of value also for the development of techniques for artificial insemination in this species, and should be studied also in the ovulatory cycle. [source]

Dysregulation of the Cytokine Network in the Uterus of the Diabetic Rat

Insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes is an auto-immune disorder that produces secondary complications in numerous non-immunological systems. Changes in the synthesis and action pattern of several cytokines have been associated with the development of these alterations. Based on the clinical facts that the pregnant and non-pregnant functions of the reproductive system are also disrupted by diabetes, our laboratory has decided to concentrate its research activities on the hypothesis that cytokines may be implicated in the uteropathy and embryopathy associated with the metabolic disorder. This review article summarizes our major findings concerning the synthesis of TNF-, and IL-1, in the uterus of diabetic rats, and in cultures of rodent uterine cells upon their exposure to high concentrations of glucose. The paper also reviews evidence that both the peri-implanting embryo and the epithelial cell layer lining the uterine lumen are targets for the deleterious influence of excess TNF-,. If confirmed in the uterus of diabetic patients, these observations may explain how cytokines contribute to the dysregulation of crucial reproductive events like menstruation and embryo implantation in humans. [source]

Pseudo-placentational Endometrial Cysts in a Bitch

C. Bartel
Summary Cystic alterations of the canine endometrium compromise reproduction and fertility of the bitch and may lead to life-threatening diseases, such as pyometra. Even without clinical evidence, reduction of the uterine lumen by cysts implicates disturbances during migration, nidation and development of the embryo. Several studies point to the high variability of morphology of uterine endometrial cysts but they lack detailed analyses of alterations. In the present study, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of steroid hormone receptors (oestrogen, progesterone), proliferation activity, inflammation and infection in the cystic affected tissue regions in contrast to the normal endometrium. Oestrogen receptor expression showed a high density of receptors throughout the surface epithelial cells, crypt epithelial cells, glandular epithelial cells and stromal cells of the normal endometrium as well as the cystic affected regions. Proliferation in the cysts was verified in the middle and basal cells of the crypts. Neither in the endometrium nor in the cysts inflammatory processes or evidence of infection could be detected. Furthermore, lectin histochemistry and electron microscopic methods showed that lectin binding patterns and cell morphology of internal epithelial lining and surface epithelium of the cysts can be used to characterize and distinguish different types of cystic alterations. Analogies between epithelial cells of the glandular chambers of the canine placenta and the cystic cellular morphology, steroid hormone receptor distribution as well as lectin binding patterns of the endometrial cysts, as observed in this study, suggest to introduce the term ,pseudo-placentational endometrial cysts'. [source]