Useful Device (useful + device)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Accuracy and reliability of continuous blood glucose monitor in post-surgical patients

Background: The STG-22Ô is the only continuous blood glucose monitoring system currently available. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy and reliability of the STG-22Ô for continuously monitoring blood glucose level in post-surgical patients. Methods: Fifty patients scheduled for routine surgery were studied in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital. After admission to the ICU, the STG-22Ô was connected to the patients. An attending physician obtained blood samples from a radial arterial catheter. Blood glucose level was measured using the ABLÔ800FLEX immediately after blood collection at 0, 4, 8, and 16 h post-admission to the ICU (total of 200 blood glucose values). Results: The correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.96. In the Clarke error grid, 100% of the paired measurements were in the clinically acceptable zone A and B. The Bland and Altman analysis showed that bias±limits of agreement (percent error) were 0.04(0.7)±0.35(6.3) mmol (mg/dl) (7%), ,0.11(,2)±1.22(22) (15%) and ,0.33(,6)±1.28(23) (10%) in hypoglycemia (<70(3.89) mmol (mg/dl), normoglycemia (3.89(70),10(180) mmol (mg/dl), and hyperglycemia (>10(180) mmol (mg/dl), respectively. Conclusions: The STG-22Ô can be used for measuring blood glucose level continuously and measurement results are consistent with intermittent measurement (percentage error within 15%). Therefore, the STG-22Ô is a useful device for monitoring in blood glucose level in the ICU for 16 h. [source]

The ecology of games between public policy and private action: Nonprofit community organizations as bridging and mediating institutions

Stuart C. Mendel
The conception of nonprofit organizations as institutional bridges that mediate within an environment of interrelationships is a useful device for informing strategic thinking by nonprofit professionals and volunteers. The bridge metaphor neatly explains not only the rise in number of nonprofit community organizations, but also the process by which leaders of the private and public sectors have formed partnerships to project the wealth and assets of communities. [source]

Ability of preschool children to use dry powder inhalers as evaluated by In-Check Meter

Abstract Background: Although current guidelines recommend the pressurized metered-dose inhaler with a spacer for preschool children with asthma, dry powder inhalers (DPI) may be a valuable treatment alternative. Methods: To evaluate the ability of preschool children to inhale through DPI, peak inspiratory flow rates (PIFR) of 57 healthy children aged 3,6 years were measured with In-Check Meter after practising with an instructor. Two different calibrated resistances were attached to the Meter to mimic the internal resistance of each inhaler; Diskus and Turbuhaler. Results: The ability of children to generate adequate inspiratory flow increased with age. The percentages of the 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children who were able to inhale reliably through the devices were 30% (3/10), 79.0% (15/19), 100% (16/16), and 100% (12/12), respectively. In these children, 100%, 93.3%, 100%, and 100% achieved an adequate PIFR for the Diskus (30 L/min). In contrast, 66.7%, 66.7%, 62.5%, and 91.7% generated an adequate PIFR for the Turbuhaler (60 L/min). Conclusions: The In-Check Meter is a useful device to assess the ability of preschool children to generate adequate PIFR for each inhaler. Most children aged ,5 years could use DPI. [source]

Modelling approaches to compare sorption and degradation of metsulfuron-methyl in laboratory micro-lysimeter and batch experiments

Maik Heistermann
Abstract Results of laboratory batch studies often differ from those of outdoor lysimeter or field plot experiments,with respect to degradation as well as sorption. Laboratory micro-lysimeters are a useful device for closing the gap between laboratory and field by both including relevant transport processes in undisturbed soil columns and allowing controlled boundary conditions. In this study, sorption and degradation of the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl in a loamy silt soil were investigated by applying inverse modelling techniques to data sets from different experimental approaches under laboratory conditions at a temperature of 10 °C: first, batch-degradation studies and, second, column experiments with undisturbed soil cores (28 cm length × 21 cm diameter). The column experiments included leachate and soil profile analysis at two different run times. A sequential extraction method was applied in both study parts in order to determine different binding states of the test item within the soil. Data were modelled using ModelMaker and Hydrus-1D/2D. Metsulfuron-methyl half-life in the batch-experiments (t1/2 = 66 days) was shown to be about four times higher than in the micro-lysimeter studies (t1/2 about 17 days). Kinetic sorption was found to be a significant process both in batch and column experiments. Applying the one-rate-two-site kinetic sorption model to the sequential extraction data, it was possible to associate the stronger bonded fraction of metsulfuron-methyl with its kinetically sorbed fraction in the model. Although the columns exhibited strong significance of multi-domain flow (soil heterogeneity), the comparison between bromide and metsulfuron-methyl leaching and profile data showed clear evidence for kinetic sorption effects. The use of soil profile data had significant impact on parameter estimates concerning sorption and degradation. The simulated leaching of metsulfuron-methyl as it resulted from parameter estimation was shown to decrease when soil profile data were considered in the parameter estimation procedure. Moreover, it was shown that the significance of kinetic sorption can only be demonstrated by the additional use of soil profile data in parameter estimation. Thus, the exclusive use of efflux data from leaching experiments at any scale can lead to fundamental misunderstandings of the underlying processes. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Black gold to green gold: regional energy policy and the rehabilitation of coal in response to climate change

AREA, Issue 1 2009
Frances Drake
Energy production has come under increasing scrutiny as concerns about energy security and climate change have risen. In the UK changes in government structure and privatisation of the electricity industry have led to the emergence of multi-level governance. This means that decisions on how to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the electricity-generating sector should no longer be solely a national policy decision. Previous studies have sought to explore how renewable energy may develop under multi-level governance, but this paper pays attention to a traditional fossil fuel source, coal, which is still an important means of electricity generation. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel and advocates argue that carbon capture and storage techniques could make coal ,clean', paving the way for a long-term, secure and low emission way to produce energy. This study focuses on the Yorkshire and Humber Region, which has had a long association with coal mining and looks at the implications of this as the region seeks to develop a climate change action plan and an energy strategy within the new regional governance structures. The paper argues that the regional networks developed to address climate change are influenced by existing social power structures and alliances. The region as a territorial structure becomes a useful device in promoting national priorities. [source]

Contact lenses as a drug delivery device for epidermal growth factor in the treatment of ocular wounds

Clyde L Schultz PhD
Background:, This work was conducted to investigate the uptake and release of epidermal growth factor (EGF) from hydrogel contact lenses and to determine whether the released protein would be therapeutically active in a rabbit corneal epithelial defect model of ocular trauma, prior to use in humans. Methods:, The uptake and release of EGF from hydrogel contact lens materials were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Contact lenses composed of vasurfilcon A or lotrafilcon A (containing silicone) were incubated in a source solution containing 0.4 ppm EGF for seven hours. To determine the kinetics of drug uptake into the contact lens matrix, drug concentration in the source solution was measured at zero, one, 60, 240 and 420 minutes. To determine the kinetics of release, loaded contact lenses were immersed in a recipient solution of phosphate-buffered saline. Therapeutic activity in vivo was investigated by placing prepared lenses on the surface of abraded corneas of New Zealand White rabbits, with abraded corneas of contralateral eyes used as controls. Control eyes were treated with contact lenses placed in saline for injection. Wound closure was assessed hourly. Results:, Uptake and release of EGF were demonstrated for vasurfilcon A but not lotrafilcon A contact lens materials. The retention time of EGF released from vasurfilcon A contact lenses was similar to control EGF not exposed to contact lens polymers. The greatest adsorption of EGF into the lens material occurred within approximately 120 minutes, with a flattening of the rate of uptake thereafter. Abraded eyes in rabbits showed a significantly higher overall healing rate for EGF-treated contact lenses compared with control eyes (p < 0.0001). Conclusions:, EGF can be delivered from some but not all hydrogel materials. Lens materials composed of silicone may not be useful for delivering EGF to the eye. EGF-treated contact lenses may be a useful device to facilitate healing of ocular wounds. [source]