Useful Clinical Tool (useful + clinical_tool)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes: When does it matter?

J. Wong
Aims:, Young adults with type 2 diabetes (T2Dm) present the clinician with the problem of when to start therapies for the primary prevention of vascular disease and how to identify those at most vascular risk. We examine whether the metabolic syndrome (MetS) can be a useful clinical tool to stratify vascular risk in this context. Methods:, Data were collected from 5928 subjects with T2Dm, and subjects were categorized as having MetS by World Health Organization criteria (body mass index criteria modified for Asians using >23 kg/m2). The prevalence of macrovascular disease was examined by MetS status and age. Results:, The overall MetS prevalence was 72.3%. MetS was associated with an increased prevalence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (17.2% MetS vs. 11.6% no MetS, p < 0.0001), coronary artery bypass graft (7.6 vs. 4.7%, p < 0.0003), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) (4.7 vs. 3.7%, p = 0.08) and stroke (6 vs. 3.9%, p = 0.002) across all age groups. MetS subjects had an IHD prevalence equivalent to that seen in subjects who were one decade older without MetS. The most significant impact of MetS was for the age group of 40,49 years with much lesser impact seen with progressively increasing age [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1 for IHD in MetS compared with no MetS at age 40,50 years, p < 0.05; falling progressively to OR = 1.5 at age >70 years, p > 0.05]. Similar trends were seen for coronary artery by-pass graft (CABG) and PVD. There was a strong relationship between the number of MetS risk factors and IHD prevalence (r = 0.99, p = 0.0001). Conclusions:, These data suggest that MetS is particularly useful in stratifying vascular risk in younger T2Dm patients and in those with a high number of MetS components. For patients with MetS, especially those with a full house of MetS risk factors, commencing risk-lowering interventions 10 years earlier than their MetS-free counterparts could be considered. [source]

Indentation testing of human cartilage: Sensitivity to articular surface degeneration

Won C. Bae
Objective To determine, for clinical indentation testing of human articular cartilage, the effects of aging and degeneration on indentation stiffness and traditional indices of cartilage degeneration; the relationship between indentation stiffness and indices of degeneration; and the sensitivity and specificity of indentation stiffness to cartilage degeneration. Methods Osteochondral cores from femoral condyles of cadaveric human donors were harvested. Samples were distributed into experimental groups based on donor age (young [20,39 years], middle [40,59 years], and old [,60 years]), and a macroscopic articular surface appearance that was either normal or mildly degenerate, without deep erosion. Samples were analyzed for indentation stiffness, cartilage thickness, India ink staining (quantitated as the reflected light score), and Mankin-Shapiro histopathology score. Results Indentation stiffness, India ink staining, and the histopathology score each varied markedly between normal-sample and degenerate-sample groups but varied relatively little between normal samples obtained from different age groups. A decrease in indentation stiffness (softening) correlated with a decrease in the reflectance score and an increase in the overall histopathology score, especially the surface irregularity component of the histopathology score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that the indentation testing could accurately detect cartilage degeneration as indicated by macroscopic appearance, India ink staining, and histopathology score. Conclusion The indentation stiffness of the normal to mildly degenerate samples tested in this study was sensitive to mild degeneration at the articular surface and was insensitive to changes associated with normal aging or to slight variations in cartilage thickness. This suggests that indentation testing may be a useful clinical tool for the evaluation of early-stage degenerative changes in articular cartilage. [source]

Post-stroke depression: can we predict its development from the acute stroke phase?

B. Fuentes
Objectives,,, To identify possible predictive factors for post-stroke depression (PSD) in the acute phase of stroke. Methods,,, The study design was prospective, observational cohort study of patients with acute cerebral infarction (CI). Neurological and neuropsychological evaluations were conducted within the first 10 days from the onset of stroke and repeated at the 3-month follow-up. DSM-IV criteria were used to define PSD. Results,,, From a total of 85 patients with CI, 59 patients completed the 3-month follow-up and 17 of them (28.8 %) fulfilled PSD criteria at the 3-month follow-up. Melancholy index of the Hamilton Depression Rankin Scale (HDRS) was associated with a risk three times greater than that of PSD at the 3-month follow-up in the univariate analysis (OR 3.07; 95% CI 1.53,6.16; P = 0.002) with no significant influence of stroke severity or the location of brain infarction (right or left side). The receiver operating characteristic curves pointed to a melancholy index ,1.5 as the optimal cut-off level associated with the development of PSD at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusions,,, Melancholy index of the HDRS ,1.5 could be a useful clinical tool to detect patients with acute stroke at high risk of developing PSD. [source]

Serum creatinine ratio: A novel predictor of mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with normal and abnormal renal function,

Annapoorna S. Kini MD
Abstract The occurrence of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with increased mortality after percutaneous revascularization procedures. However, the exact correlation between various levels of creatinine elevation relative to the baseline and subsequent mortality in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is not well established. In addition, the relationship between elevated postprocedural creatinine and ensuing mortality in patients with normal baseline renal function needs to be investigated. Methods: All percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients (n = 12,997) were analyzed for any rise in serum creatinine (SCr): CRI group (BSC , 1.5 mg/dl) (n = 1,853) and normal baseline renal function (NBR BSC < 1.5 mg/dl) group (n = 11,144). Patients in each group were analyzed for any elevation in SCr postprocedure and subdivided based on the SCr ratio [peak SCr/Baseline creatinine (BSC)] of <1.25, 1.25,1.5, and >1.5. The overall incidence of CIN (defined as an increment of 25% over baseline creatinine) was 5.9%: 11.3% in the CRI group versus 5.1% in normal BSC group (P < 0.01). Recursive partitioning and Cox hazard modeling were used to assess significant variables associated with mortality within 1 year. Only serum creatinine ratio (SCrR) > 1.5 correlated with increased mortality in both CRI group as well as normal BSC group. Conclusions: SCrR > 1.5 predicts mortality at 1 year after PCI. The association between SCrR > 1.5 and increased mortality at follow-up is observed in patients with CRI as well as normal baseline renal function. SCrR may thus serve as a useful clinical tool for risk stratification and prognostication of patients after PCI. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]