Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Useful

  • approach useful
  • data useful
  • information useful
  • marker useful
  • method useful
  • only useful
  • tool useful
  • very useful

  • Terms modified by Useful

  • useful addition
  • useful adjunct
  • useful agent
  • useful aid
  • useful alternative
  • useful analytical tool
  • useful animal model
  • useful application
  • useful approach
  • useful aspect
  • useful basis
  • useful benchmark
  • useful benefit
  • useful biomarker
  • useful building block
  • useful characteristic
  • useful clinical marker
  • useful clinical tool
  • useful clue
  • useful complement
  • useful component
  • useful compound
  • useful concept
  • useful contribution
  • useful criterioN
  • useful criterion
  • useful data
  • useful descriptor
  • useful device
  • useful diagnostic
  • useful diagnostic marker
  • useful diagnostic tool
  • useful drug
  • useful estimate
  • useful evidence
  • useful feature
  • useful feedback
  • useful field
  • useful first step
  • useful form
  • useful framework
  • useful function
  • useful guidance
  • useful guide
  • useful guideline
  • useful index
  • useful indication
  • useful indicator
  • useful inflammatory marker
  • useful information
  • useful inhibitor
  • useful insight
  • useful instrument
  • useful intermediate
  • useful intervention
  • useful investigation
  • useful knowledge
  • useful lesson
  • useful life
  • useful marker
  • useful material
  • useful mean
  • useful measure
  • useful method
  • useful methodology
  • useful methods
  • useful metric
  • useful modality
  • useful model
  • useful model organism
  • useful model system
  • useful models
  • useful molecular marker
  • useful only
  • useful option
  • useful parameter
  • useful perspective
  • useful prediction
  • useful predictor
  • useful procedure
  • useful products
  • useful prognostic indicator
  • useful prognostic marker
  • useful property
  • useful protocol
  • useful reagent
  • useful reference
  • useful research
  • useful resource
  • useful result
  • useful role
  • useful screening test
  • useful screening tool
  • useful set
  • useful source
  • useful starting point
  • useful strategy
  • useful substrate
  • useful supplement
  • useful surrogate
  • useful system
  • useful target
  • useful technique
  • useful technology
  • useful test
  • useful therapeutic option
  • useful therapeutic strategy
  • useful therapeutic target
  • useful therapy
  • useful tool
  • useful treatment
  • useful tumor marker
  • useful vision
  • useful way
  • useful website

  • Selected Abstracts


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2002
    Dorothy Manning
    This article considers whether the economic model of crime can be applied to terrorist activity. It concludes that the model does explain both secular and religiously motivated terrorism: policy-makers wishing to reduce terrorist activity should aim at devising policies which increase costs and/or decrease benefits to change terrorist incentives. The ,war' should continue as long as the probable costs to society incurred by terrorist activity are greater than the costs of abatement. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 5 2007
    Thorbjorn J Loch-Wilkinson
    Background: Monitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) has been claimed in some studies to reduce rates of nerve injury during thyroid surgery compared with anatomical dissection and visual identification of the RLN alone, whereas other studies have found no benefit. Continuous monitoring with endotracheal electrodes is expensive whereas discontinuous monitoring by laryngeal palpation with nerve stimulation is a simple and inexpensive technique. This study aimed to assess the value of nerve stimulation with laryngeal palpation as a means of identifying and assessing the function of the RLN and external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) during thyroid surgery. Methods: This was a prospective case series comprising 50 consecutive patients undergoing total thyroidectomy providing 100 RLN and 100 EBSLN for examination. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative vocal cord and voice assessment by an independent ear, nose and throat surgeon, laryngeal examination at extubation and all were asked to complete a postoperative dysphagia score sheet. Dysphagia scores in the study group were compared with a control group (n = 20) undergoing total thyroidectomy without nerve stimulation. Results: One hundred of 100 (100%) RLN were located without the use of the nerve stimulator. A negative twitch response occurred in seven (7%) RLN stimulated (two bilateral, three unilateral). Postoperative testing, however, only showed one true unilateral RLN palsy postoperatively (1%), which recovered in 7 weeks giving six false-positive and one true-positive results. Eighty-six of 100 (86%) EBSLN were located without the nerve stimulator. Thirteen of 100 (13%) EBSLN could not be identified and 1 of 100 (1%) was located with the use of the nerve stimulator. Fourteen per cent of EBSLN showed no cricothyroid twitch on EBSLN stimulation. Postoperative vocal function in these patients was normal. There were no instances of equipment malfunction. Dysphagia scores did not differ significantly between the study and control groups. Conclusion: Use of a nerve stimulator did not aid in anatomical dissection of the RLN and was useful in identifying only one EBSLN. Discontinuous nerve monitoring by stimulation during total thyroidectomy confers no obvious benefit for the experienced surgeon in nerve identification, functional testing or injury prevention. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 11 2003
    Belinda J. Gabbe
    The revised trauma score (RTS) has been embraced by the trauma community worldwide. Although originally developed as a triage tool, the use of the RTS has since been expanded to include the prediction of outcome following traumatic injury. Through a critical review of the literature, evidence for use of the RTS is discussed along with the limitations of this commonly used tool. In summary, the RTS is a well-established predictor of mortality in trauma populations, but there is a lack of definitive evidence supporting its use as a primary triage tool and as a predictor of outcomes other than mortality. Difficulty in collecting the components of the RTS creates issues for data validity and the use of the RTS as a research tool. Although the weighted RTS has been developed to improve the prediction capacity of the RTS, studies reporting its use are few and there is debate regarding the applicability of the published coefficients for broad use. Overall, further studies are warranted to clearly establish the usefulness of the RTS as a triage tool in the field, to further evaluate the weighted version of the RTS, and to determine the ability of the RTS to predict functional outcome and quality of life. In particular, future research is needed to address these issues in Australian trauma populations. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 2 2009
    Casa Montero is a mining complex located outside Madrid (Spain), dated from the Early Neolithic (c. 5400,5000 cal bc). An area of some 4 ha has been investigated and some 4000 shafts recorded, of which 324 have been excavated. The characterization of its raw flint materials and the establishment of its diagnostic features are indispensable in the reconstruction of the distribution of the mine's products beyond the immediate site. This work reports the geological study of the mine's Miocene flint layers and their petrological characterization. Archaeological samples from the mine's shafts were classified according to macroscopic features and petrological characteristics. [source]

    Is Curettage Useful Prior to Performing Mohs or Excisional Surgery?

    How Do You Use It?

    Estimation of Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve Using Transthoracic Doppler Echocardiography and Cold Pressor Test Might Be Useful for Detecting of Patients with Variant Angina

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2010
    Hui-Jeong Hwang M.D.
    Purpose: The cold pressor test (CPT) has been used to detect variant angina, but its sensitivity in predicting vasospasm is low. The aim of this study was to determine whether estimates of the coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in the distal left anterior descending coronary artery (dLAD) using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and CPT are useful tool to predict variant angina. Methods: 65 patients (mean age = 52 ± 10 years; male:female = 41:24) who had normal coronary artery on angiography and underwent acetylcholine provocation test were enrolled and divided into the spasm group (n = 31) and the no spasm group (n = 34). During CPT, the peak (PDV) and mean diastolic flow velocity (MDV) of the dLAD were estimated using TTE with a high-frequency transducer, and electrocardiography, blood pressures, heart rate, and symptoms were monitored every 30 seconds. CPT%PDV and CPT%MDV were defined as the percentage changes in PDV and MDV during CPT, respectively. Results: CPT%PDV was 4.99 ± 23.62% in the spasm group and 52.75 ± 24.78% in the no spasm group (P < 0.001). CPT%MDV was 6.83 ± 23.81% in the spasm group and 50.22 ± 27.83% in the no spasm group (P < 0.001). CPT%PDV<31.1% had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a specificity of 82.4% in predicting variant angina (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.939,0.979, P < 0.001). CPT%MDV<30.55% had a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 76.5% in predicting variant angina (95% CI: 0.884,0.950, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The measurement of changes in the coronary flow velocity of the dLAD using TTE and CPT might be useful for the estimation of endothelial dysfunction in patients with variant angina. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY 2010;27:435-441) [source]

    Out-of-hospital Endotracheal Intubation: Are Observational Data Useful?

    Henry E. Wang MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    New Heterodimetallic Platinum(II) Complexes Potentially Useful as Molecular Switches

    Sonia Pérez
    Abstract Four types of platinum(II) complexes of general formulae [Pt(FcCH=NC6H4OH-2)Cl2(L)] [Fc = (,5 -C5H5)Fe(,5 -C5H4), L = dmso (2) or PhCN (3)], [Pt(FcCH=NC6H4O-2)Cl(dmso)] (4), [Pt{(,5 -C5H3CH=NC6H4O-2)Fe(,5 -C5H5)}(L)] [L = dmso (5) or PPh3 (6)] or [Pt{(,5 -C5H3CH=NC6H4OH-2)Fe(,5 -C5H5)}Cl(L)] [L = dmso (7) or PPh3 (8)] have been prepared. These compounds differ in the mode of binding of the ligand: (N) (in 2 and 3), (N,O), (in 4), [C(sp2, ferrocene),N,O]2, (in 5 and 6) or [C(sp2, ferrocene),N], (in 7 and 8). NMR, UV/Vis and electrochemical studies of 2 and 4,8 reveal that these products can be grouped in three pairs [(2c, 4b), (5, 7) and (6, 8)], and one of the compounds of each pair can be easily converted into its partner by a H+/OH, chemical input. The results obtained revealed that these transformations, that affect the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties, are reversible and robust. A study of the relevancy of the mode of binding of compounds 2 and 4,8 upon their potential utility of the new platinum(II) complexes as molecular switches is reported. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

    All Models are Wrong, How Do We Know Which are Useful?

    GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2007
    Article first published online: 26 JUN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Reformulated BeneFix®: efficacy and safety in previously treated patients with moderately severe to severe haemophilia B

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 3 2007
    Summary. BeneFix®, the only recombinant factor IX (FIX), has been reformulated. The reformulation involves a change in diluent and allows for more concentrated infusions of recombinant FIX. A double-blind, randomized, pharmacokinetic (PK) crossover study demonstrated that reformulated BeneFix was bioequivalent to original BeneFix and follow-up PK evaluation after 6 months of treatment demonstrated the PK stability of reformulated BeneFix after multiple exposures. Favourable efficacy and safety profiles, consistent with those already well-established for original BeneFix, were observed: 81.1% of haemorrhages resolved with only a single infusion; 85.3% of initial treatment response ratings were Excellent or Good; more than half of the subjects using reformulated BeneFix for routine prophylaxis (11 of 17, 64.7%) had no spontaneous haemorrhages during their 6,12 month course of prophylactic treatment, with an overall spontaneous bleeding rate of 0.72 year,1; and for the single surgical procedure (knee washing), treatment was rated Useful. In addition, there was no FIX inhibitor development, allergic-type manifestations, or thrombogenic complications with more than 1100 infusions (nearly 5.2 million IUs) administered in this trial. All efficacy and safety outcomes from this study were achieved with more concentrated recombinant protein infusions than that possible with original BeneFix, and utilization of the 2000 IU per vial dosage strength, newly introduced with the reformulated product, was high (>62%). The reformulation of BeneFix allows smaller delivery volumes and an increased choice of dosage strengths without altering the PK properties (including incremental recovery and half-life) or the established efficacy and safety profile of recombinant FIX. [source]

    Content Validation Is Useful for Many Things, but Validity Isn't One of Them

    Content-oriented validation strategies establish the validity of selection tests as predictors of performance by comparing the content of the tests with the content of the job. These comparisons turn out to have little if any bearing on the predictive validity of selection tests. There is little empirical support for the hypothesis that the match between job content and test content influences validity, and there are often structural factors in selection (e.g., positive correlations among selection tests) that strongly limit the possible influence of test content on validity. Comparisons between test content and job content have important implications for the acceptability of testing, the defensibility of tests in legal proceedings, and the transparency of test development and validation, but these comparisons have little if any bearing on validity. [source]

    How Useful Is the Concept of Global Society?

    Barry Hindess
    First page of article [source]

    Some Paths Toward Making Praxis Scores More Useful

    Howard Wainer
    In this study we describe an analytic method for aiding in the generation of subscales that characterize the deep structure of tests. In addition we also derive a procedure for estimating scores for these scales that are much more statistically stable than subscores computed solely from the items that are contained on that scale. These scores achieve their stability through augmentation with information from other related information on the test. These methods were used to complement each other on a data set obtained from a Praxis administration. We found that the deep structure of the test yielded ten subscales and that, because the test was essentially unidimensional, ten subscores could be computed, all with very high reliability. This result was contrasted with the calculation of six traditional subscales based on surface features of the items. These subscales also yielded augmented subscores of high reliability. [source]

    Development of New Microencapsulation Techniques Useful for the Preparation of PLGA Microspheres

    Hongkee Sah
    Abstract Summary: Intensive efforts were made to develop an efficient, novel microencapsulation system useful to encapsulate a model drug, risperidone, to PLGA microspheres. Methyl dichloroacetate was used as a dispersed solvent for the first time, since it possessed excellent solvency power on PLGA and readily underwent ammonolysis. A dispersed phase composed of methyl dichloroacetate, risperidone, and PLGA was emulsified in an aqueous phase to form an O/W emulsion. Adding ammonia solution into the emulsion rapidly converted methyl dichloroacetate into water-soluble dichloroacetamide and methanol. As a result, emulsion droplets were immediately transformed into hardened microspheres. The new microencapsulation system allowed us to make PLGA microspheres with a drug payload of >40 wt.-% and attain almost complete encapsulation efficiencies. In summary, preparing an O/W emulsion and subjecting the emulsion to ammonolysis led to development of an efficient, novel microencapsulation system. It was anticipated that the new system could make it possible to load other bioactive materials into microspheres made of various types of hydrophobic polymers. SEM micrographs of the external and internal morphology of PLGA/risperidone microspheres. [source]

    To Be More Useful: Embracing Interdisciplinary Scholarship and Dialogue

    Clifton F. Conrad
    A learning community that involves all the stakeholders,policymakers, faculty, administrators, and academic leaders,is an avenue for moving beyond the research-practice gap. [source]

    Are Implantable Loop Recorders Useful in Detecting Arrhythmias in Children with Unexplained Syncope?

    Introduction: Syncope and presyncope are symptoms that occur infrequently in children, are unpredictable, and represent a diagnostic challenge to the physician. Conventional diagnostic investigations are often unable to establish a diagnosis, making it difficult to determine patient risk and direct appropriate therapy. The implantable loop recorder (ILR) is a medical device that was created for prolonged monitoring of heart rate and rhythm and has been used in a limited number of pediatric studies in which the cause of the syncope is unknown. Methods: This is a retrospective review of the clinical, surgical, and follow-up data of patients who had ILR devices implanted after conventional testing failed to identify a cause for their symptoms. Results: The diagnostic yield of the ILR device in unmasking the cause for symptoms in our patient cohort was 64%. In our study, manually activated events accounted for 71% of all documented episodes and 68% of the cases involving hemodynamically important arrhythmias or transient rhythm changes. The ILR device can be safely implanted and explanted in children without significant morbidity, in most cases. None of our patients experienced any long-term adverse events associated with placement of the device and all were alive at last follow-up. Conclusions: The use of the ILR device is a useful tool to help unmask arrhythmias as a cause of unexplained syncope in children. Patient selection for who should and should not have an ILR device implanted will continue to influence its diagnostic utility and generate controversy among stakeholders. [source]

    Psychometric Properties of Commonly Used Low Back Disability Questionnaires: Are They Useful for Older Adults with Low Back Pain?

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 1 2009
    Gregory E. Hicks PT
    ABSTRACT Objectives., To evaluate the psychometric properties of two commonly used low back pain (LBP) disability questionnaires in a sample solely comprising community-dwelling older adults. Design., Single-group repeated measures design. Setting., Four continuing care retirement communities in Maryland and in Virginia. Participants., Convenience sample of 107 community-dwelling men and women (71.9%) aged 62 years or older with current LBP. Outcome Measures., All participants completed modified Oswestry Disability (mOSW) and Quebec Back Pain Disability (QUE) questionnaires, as well as the Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form 36 questionnaire at baseline. At follow-up, 56 participants completed the mOSW and the QUE for reliability assessment. Results., Test,retest reliability of the mOSW and QUE were excellent with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86, 0.95) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.90, 0.97), respectively. Participants with high pain severity and high levels of functional limitation had higher scores on the mOSW (P < 0.0001) and QUE (P < 0.001) scales than other participants, which represents good construct validity for both scales. The threshold for minimum detectable change is 10.66 points for the mOSW and 11.04 points for the QUE. Both questionnaires had sufficient scale width to accurately measure changes in patient status. Conclusions., It appears that both questionnaires have excellent test,retest reliability and good construct validity when used to evaluate LBP-related disability for older adults with varying degrees of LBP. Neither questionnaire appears to have superior psychometric properties; therefore, both the Oswestry and Quebec can be recommended for use among geriatric patients with LBP. [source]

    How Useful Is the Genuine Savings Rate as a Sustainability Indicator for Regions within Countries?

    Australia, Queensland Compared
    This article shows how macroeconomic indicators of sustainable development can be applied to the Queensland economy. While recognising the complex and contentious theoretical and practical issues in deriving the Genuine Savings Rate (GSR) to serve as such an indicator, we use the World Bank's methodology, which includes only mineral depletion, deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions as environmental terms, to estimate GSRs for Queensland for the period 1989 to 1999, and compare these to World Bank estimates of Australia's GSR for the same period. We find that Queensland has a higher rate of natural resource depletion and a lower GSR than the whole of Australia. We also examine how well the World Bank GSR performs as a ,headline' measure of overall sustainability, review criticisms of the GSR, and compare its implicit policy implications with those of net state savings, and of the GSR plus a suite of other indicators. [source]

    How Useful is PET/CT Imaging in the Management of Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disease After Liver Transplantation?

    L. McCormack
    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a serious and potentially life-threatening complication after solid organ transplantation. Here, we report our first experience with the use of PET/CT (positron emission tomography combined with computed tomogram) for the management of patients with PTLD after liver transplantation. Four patients with histologically proven PTLD were analyzed. Conventional work-up included physical examination and head-to-pelvis CT. PET/CT was used in one patient for initial staging and in all patients for follow-up. PET/CT positive findings underwent biopsy. Information provided by PET/CT resulted in a change of medical management in three of the four patients. Conventional work-up missed residual disease after surgery in one and failed to detect a tumor relapse in another patient. However, one patient disclosed a false positive PET/CT finding in the lungs. In conclusion, PET/CT may be a useful tool for staging and therapy monitoring of PTLD after liver transplantation. [source]

    Identification of Urinary Biomarkers Useful for Distinguishing a Difference in Mechanism of Toxicity in Rat Model of Cholestasis

    Kenji Ishihara
    To inhibit biliary secretion of bile, cyclosporine A was administered to male Sprague,Dawley rats. Obstruction of bile flow was induced by administration of 4,4,-methylene dianiline, ,-naphthylisothiocyanate or bile duct ligation. Clinical pathological and histopathological examinations were performed to confirm cholestatic injury and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data for urine samples were analysed to determine similarities and differences in profiles of metabolites using the Spotfire®. In cyclosporine A-treated groups, serum total bilirubin and bile acid were significantly increased but no remarkable hepatic histopathological-changes were observed. In 4,4,-methylene dianiline-, ,-naphthylisothiocyanate- and bile duct ligation-treated groups, serum alkaline phosphatase, ,-glutamyltranspeptidase and total bilirubin levels increased significantly, and hepatic histopathological-changes were observed. On urinary 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis, area intensities derived from 0.66 to 1.90 ppm were decreased by cyclosporine A, whereas they were increased by other treatments. These metabolites were identified using the NMR suite® as bile acids, branched-chain amino acids, n-butyrate, propionate, methyl malonate and valerate. These metabolites were further investigated by K-means clustering analysis. The cluster of these metabolites is considered to be altered by cholestasis. We conclude that bile acids, valine and methyl malonate have a possibility to be urinary cholestatic biomarkers, which distinguish a difference in mechanism of toxicity. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomics thus appears to be useful for determining the mechanisms of toxicity and can be front-loaded in drug safety evaluation and biomarker discovery. [source]

    Shit Happens (to be Useful)!

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 4 2009
    Use of Elephant Dung as Habitat by Amphibians
    ABSTRACT Although elephants are commonly cited as an example of ecosystem engineering, cases involving Asian elephants are missing in the literature. In a dry environment of southeastern Sri Lanka, I examined 290 elephant dung piles and found a total of six frogs from three different species in 1.7 percent (N=5) of the dung piles. This suggests a facilitative role of elephants by providing habitat for amphibians. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: The Vilsmeier Reagent: A Useful and Versatile Reagent for the Synthesis of 2-Azetidinones.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 32 2009
    Aliasghar Jarrahpour
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: 1,4-Dichloro-1,4-diazoniabicyclo [2,2,2] Octane Bis Chloride, a Useful and Reusable Electrophilic Chlorinating Agent.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 9 2008
    Mahmood Tajbakhsh
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Anionic, in situ Generation of Formaldehyde: A Very Useful and Versatile Tool in Synthesis.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 31 2007
    Geoffrey Deguest
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Novel and Efficient Catalytic Route for the Syntheses of Tetrahydrofurans Useful in the Preparation of Neonicotinoid Insecticides.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 35 2005
    Srinagesh Kumar Potluri
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Rapid Methylation of Terminal Acetylenes by the Stille Coupling of Methyl Iodide with Alkynyltributylstannanes: A General Protocol Potentially Useful for the Synthesis of Short-Lived 11CH3 -Labeled PET Tracers with a 1-Propynyl Group.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 20 2004
    Takamitsu Hosoya
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    1-Bis(methoxy)-4-bis(methylthio)-3-buten-2-one: Useful Three Carbon Synthon for Synthesis of Five and Six Membered Heterocycles with Masked (or Unmasked) Aldehyde Functionality.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 32 2003
    Pranab K. Mahata
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Congenic Rats For Hypertension: How Useful Are They For The Hunting Of Hypertension Genes?

    Toru Nabika
    SUMMARY 1. Linkage studies have revealed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for blood pressure in the rat genome using genetic hypertensive rat models. To identify the genes responsible for hypertension, the construction of congenic rats is essential. 2. To date, several congenic strains have been obtained from spontaneously hypertensive or Dahl salt-sensitive rats. The results of these studies should be interpreted according to whether the rats carry the whole QTL region or not. 3. After establishing congenic strains, three strategies are possible: (i) an orthodox positional cloning in which, using subcongenic strains, the QTL region is cut down to smaller fragments suitable for physical mapping; (ii) a positional candidate strategy in which candidate genes in the QTL regions are studied; or (iii) physiological studies in which intermediate phenotypes directly associated with the hypertension gene are explored. Several other experimental strategies are also available using congenic strains as new animal models for hypertension. 4. To make the most of advances in DNA technology, the precise evaluation of the phenotypic difference between congenic strains carrying different QTL or between a congenic and parental strain is critical. [source]

    Would Different Routine Precordial Electrode Positions Be More Useful?

    Answer: Not Likely
    Abstract There are reasons to wonder if the current precordial electrode positions are the best ones to study the electrical forces of the heart. Theoretically, more horizontal electrode positions and several superior and inferior electrode positions that are perpendicular to the horizontally placed electrode positions should make a superior lead system. A study was designed to determine if that was true. The result of the study indicated that such a system did not solve all of the problems that were posed by the current system. Although the new system was easier to use, the findings did not justify a change from the presently used system of precordial electrode placement. Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Manabu Tauchi
    When one tries to use the Web as a dictionary or encyclopedia, entering some single term into a search engine, the highly ranked pages in the result can include irrelevant or useless sites. The problem is that single-term queries, if taken literally, underspecify the type of page the user wants. For such problems automatic query expansion, also known as pseudo-feedback, is often effective. In this method the top n documents returned by an initial retrieval are used to provide terms for a second retrieval. This paper contributes, first, new normalization techniques for query expansion, and second, a new way of computing the similarity between an expanded query and a document, the "local relevance density" metric, which complements the standard vector product metric. Both of these techniques are shown to be useful for single-term queries, in Japanese, in experiments done over the World Wide Web in early 2001. [source]